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Ammonium bituminosulfonate or ammonium bituminosulphonate (synonyms of ichthammol, CAS#8029-68-3 brand name: Ichthyol) is a product of natural origin obtained in the first step by dry distillation of sulfur-rich oil shale (bituminous schists). By sulfonation of the resulting oil (or purified fractions thereof) and subsequent neutralization with ammonia Ichthammol results as viscous, water-soluble substance with characteristic bitumen-like odor. It is used in medicine as a remedy for treating some skin diseases, including eczema and psoriasis. It is commonly used in 10% or 20% concentrate ointment form as a salve. It is sometimes called "black ointment" or "drawing salve". Its dermatological action was promoted by German physician Paul Gerson Unna.
Chemically, it is a sulfonated shale oil that is incompatible with acids, alkali carbonates or hydrates and alkaloidal salts. It is a thick reddish brown liquid, possessing a bituminous odor and taste. It is soluble in water and miscible with glycerin, but is nearly insoluble in strong alcohol or concentrated ether. It contains a large percentage of organically combined sulfur.
Differentiation from Chinese Materials
Materials made in China (Pinyin transcription: yushizhi and yushizhi ruangao) and offered outside China as Ichthammol or Ammonium Bituminosulfonate are not in line with the definition given for this substance in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) or European Pharmacopoeia (Ph.Eur). Also, there is no conformity with the definition as connected to CAS# 8029-68-3. The Chinese material is derived from vegetable oils (e.g. soybean oil) instead of bituminous schists as required. As a result, its chemical basis is totally different from the one of Ichthammol USP/Ph.Eur./CAS# 8029-68-3. The characteristic bitumen-like odor (originating from the bituminous source material) is missing with Chinese material and thereby the original qualities according to common standards can be identified without doubt.
Pharmacologically, Ichthammol has anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, and fungicidal properties. It is used to treat eczema, psoriasis, Acne rosacea and acne, and it decreases microorganisms in the area surrounding a skin condition. It is commonly used in 10% or 20% concentrate ointment, applied topically.
In otology, a mixture of glycerol and ichthammol (G & I) is used for the topical treatment of ear infections. It is effective against Gram-positive organisms. The anti-inflammatory action is explained by its influence on the formation, secretion, and effect of inflammation mediators.
Ichthammol is recommended by dermatologists and available in pharmacies for compounding medications. Different sources of information exist for exemplary formulations (creams, shake lotions, suppositories, etc.). According to the "list of preferred Specials" by the British Association of Dermatologists (BAD) Ichthammol can be used in Dermatology prescribing to treat acutely inflamed atopic eczema, among others.
The European Medicines Agency published a summary report on ichthyol-substances (synonym: bituminosulfonates) during the course of the European Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) procedure in veterinary medicine. The Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use (CVMP) decided that due to good tolerance and safety, there is no need to establish an MRL for ichthyol-substances. As a result, ichthyol-substances can be applied topically in all mammalian food-producing species without restriction.
- Paul Gerson Unna: About Ichthyol. In: Monatshefte für praktische Dermatologie, Band XXV, 1897 (in German).
- E. Baumann, C. Schotten: Über das Ichthyol. In: Monatshefte für praktische Dermatologie, Band II, S. 257, 1883 (in German).
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- Chinese Medical Encyclopedia as given under www.wiki8.com/yushizhi_24599 with reference to People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia, 2010 edition.
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- Altmeyer P., Therapielexikon Dermatologie und Allerlogie, Springer, Berlin, 2nd edition, 2005, p. 1024; p. 1040; p. 1051
- Langley, C.A. and Belcher, D., Pharmaceutical Compounding and Dispensing, Pharmaceutical Press, London, UK, 2nd edition, 2012, p. 143
- Staubach P, Metz, M (October 2013). "Magistral formulations and pruritus therapy – What is established, what is confirmed, what is new?". Journal of the German Society of Dermatology (JDDG) 11 (8): 1049–55. doi:10.1111/ddg.12230.
- DA Buckley DA, Root T and Bath S, Specials Recommended by the British Association of Dermatologists for Skin Disease, Clinical Standards Unit of the British Association of Dermatologists, London, UK, 2014, p. 9 (www.bad.org.uk/specials accessed October 2nd, 2015)
- "Veterinary MRL: Report on ICHTHYOL-substances" (PDF). European Medicines Agency. September 2004. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2006-07-18.
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- Diezel W, Schewe T, Rohde E, Rosenbach T, Czarnetzki BM (December 1992). "[Ammonium bituminosulfonate (Ichthyol). Anti-inflammatory effect and inhibition of the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme]". Hautarzt (in German) 43 (12): 772–4. PMID 1361926.
- Nilssen E, Wormald PJ, Oliver S (April 1996). "Glycerol and Ichthammol: medicinal solution or mythical potion?". J. Laryngol. Otol. 110 (4): 319–21. doi:10.1017/s0022215100133547.