3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||114.125 g/mol|
|Melting point||131 °C (268 °F; 404 K)|
|Boiling point||160 °C (320 °F; 433 K) (decomposes)|
|Solubility||soluble in glycerol, glycol, formamide
insoluble in methanol, ether, n-octanol
|Safety data sheet||ICSC 1555|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|2000 mg/kg (oral, rat)
3100 mg/kg (oral, mouse)
3900 mg/kg (oral, rat)
5760 mg/kg (oral, mouse)
|US health exposure limits (NIOSH):|
|TWA 15 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)|
|TWA 10 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Ammonium sulfamate (British spelling Ammonium sulphamate) is a white crystalline solid, readily soluble in water. It is commonly used as a broad spectrum herbicide, with additional uses as a compost accelerator, flame retardant and in industrial processes.
Manufacture and distribution
Ammonium sulfamate is distributed under the following tradenames, which are principally herbicidal product names: Amicide, Amidosulfate, Ammate, Amcide, Ammate X-NI, AMS, Fyran 206k, Ikurin, Sulfamate, AMS and Root-Out.
Ammonium sulfamate has been successfully used in several major UK projects by organisations like the British Trust for Conservation Volunteers, English Heritage, the National Trust, and various railway, canal and waterways authorities.
Several years ago the Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA) (known as Garden Organic), published an article on ammonium sulfamate after a successful set of herbicide trials. Though not approved for use by organic growers it does provide an option when alternatives have failed.
The following problem weeds / plants can be controlled: Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica var japonica), Marestail / Horsetail (Equisetum), Ground-elder (Aegopodium podagraria), Rhododendron ponticum, Brambles, Brushwood, Ivy (Hedera species), Senecio/Ragwort, Honey fungus (Armillaria), and felled tree stumps and most other tough woody specimens.
Ammonium sulfamate is used as a compost accelerator. It is especially effective in breaking down the tougher and woodier weeds put onto the compost heap.
Ammonium sulfamate (like other ammonium salts, e.g. Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, Ammonium sulfate) is a useful flame retardant. These salt based flame retardants offer advantages over other metal/mineral-based flame retardants in that they are water processable. Their relatively low decomposition temperature makes them suitable for flame retarding cellulose based materials (paper/wood). Ammonium sulfamate (like Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate) is sometimes used in conjunction with Magnesium sulfate or Ammonium sulfate (in ratios of approximately 2:1) for enhanced flame retardant properties.
Ammonium sulfamate is considered to be slightly toxic to humans and animals, making it appropriate for amateur home garden, professional and forestry uses. It is generally accepted to be safe for use on plots of land that will be used for growing fruit and vegetables intended for consumption.
In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set a permissible exposure limit at 15 mg/m3 over an eight-hour time-weighted average, while the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommends exposures no greater than 10 mg/m3 over an eight-hour time-weighted average. These occupational exposure limits are protective values, given the IDLH concentration is set at 1500 mg/m3.
It is also considered to be environmentally friendly due to its degradation to non-harmful residues.
European Union licensing
The pesticides review by the European Union led to herbicides containing ammonium sulfamate becoming unlicensed, and therefore effectively banned, from 2008. This situation arose as the Irish Rapporteur refused to review the data supplied unless it contained details of animal testing on dogs. As there was already substantial animal data within the package supplied the data pack holder felt further tests without substantiation would cause unnecessary animal suffering. Its licence was not withdrawn on grounds of safety or efficacy.
Its availability and use as a compost accelerator is unaffected by the EU's pesticide legislation.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. Retrieved 2007-07-20. Chemical properties from Sigma-Adrich
- "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0030". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- "Ammonium sulfamate". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Bidlack, Verne C.; Fasig, Edgar W. (1951) , "10", Paint and Varnish Production Manual, John Wiley & Sons, p. 275
- "Pesticide Information Profiles : Ammonium sulfamate". EXTOXNET Extension Toxicology Network. files maintained and archived at Oregon State University. June 1996. Retrieved Mar 21, 2010.
- "Ammonium sulfamate". NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. April 4, 2011. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
- "Ammonium sulfamate". Documentation for Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentrations (IDLHs). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. May 1994. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
- "Amateur products withdrawn from the market containing ammonium sulphamate". Health and Safety Executive. Retrieved Mar 21, 2010.[dead link]