Amoebophyra

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Amoebophyra
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukarya
(unranked): SAR
(unranked): Alveolata
Phylum: Dinoflagellata
Class: Dinophyceae
Order: Coccidiniales
Family: Amoebophyraceae
Genus: Amoebophyra
Koeppen

Amoebophyra (or Amoebophrya) is a genus of dinoflagellate.[1] Amoebophyrais a syndian parasite[2] that infects free-living dinoflagellates that are attributed to a single species by using several host-specific parasites.[3] It acts as "biological control agents for red tides and in defining species of Amoebophrya." Researchers have found a correlation between a large amount of host specify and the impact host parasites may have on other organisms. Due to the host specificity found in each strain of Amoebophrya's physical makeup, further studies need to be tested to determine if the Amoebophrya can act as a control against harmful algal blooms.

Amoebophyra Strains[edit]

Different strains of Amoebophyra have been seen to infect different host species. Though research regarding the specificity of Amoebophyra is currently underway, the current hypothesis supported is that they range from non-host-specific to extremely host specific.[4] Over twenty dinoflagellate species have been reported to be infected by some strain of Amoebophyra.[5] It has proven to be difficult to determine whether or not a strain truly is host specific. Host specificity is confirmed not only through the strain's ability to infect various hosts, but their reproductive ability afterwards. If the Amoebophyra strain infects various hosts but is unable to successfully create following generations, then it would be considered host specific.[6] Amoebophyra is mostly known for its correlation with harmful algal blooms (HABs). Abundance of certain strains have been linked to the decline of some HABs in marine life, while others have been found to cause it.

Infection Process[edit]

During its lifespan, Amoebophyra alternates between a free-swimming stage called the dinospore, and a multinuclear growth phase within the host called the trophont stage. A dinospore will attach to the host (biology) cell’s outer surface, then enter the cytosol. Most infections proceed within the nucleus, though some stay within the cytoplasm.[7] Within ten minutes, the parasite makes it to the host’s nuclear envelope and significantly increases in size during the next twenty-four hours.[8] Hosts infected by certain strains of Amoebophyra such as Amoebophyra ceratii cannot reproduce before the parasite completes its life cycle and kills the host.[9] It will continue to increase in size through nuclear divisions without the need for cytokinesis, resulting in a beehive appearance within the host. Afterwards, Amoebophyra grows to become mobile like a worm, but soon separates into dinospores. These new dinospores then have a short amount of time to find new hosts since their survival time in water is meager. Of course, the success and efficiency of the infection can be greatly affected by the nutrient environment.[10] The environment can greatly affect the success of Amoebophyra, as a nutrient environment can influence its reproductive ability as well as their offsprings’ infectivity.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Salomon, P. S.; Janson, S.; Granéli, E. (2003). "Multiple species of the dinophagous dinoflagellate genus Amoebophrya infect the same host species". Environmental Microbiology. 5 (11): 1046–1052. doi:10.1046/j.1462-2920.2003.00511.x. PMID 14641584. 
  2. ^ Miller, John J.; Delwiche, Charles F.; Coats, D. Wayne (September 2012). "Ultrastructure of Amoebophrya sp. and its Changes during the Course of Infection". Protist. 163 (5): 720–745. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2011.11.007. 
  3. ^ Sunjun, Kim (2006-12-23). "Patterns in host range for two strains of Amoebophrya (Dinophyta) infecting thecate dinoflagellates: Amoebophyra spp. ex Alexandrium affine and ex Gonyaulax polygramma". Biosis. 42 (6): 1170–1173. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00277.x. 
  4. ^ Sunju, Kim; Park, Myung Gil; Kim, Keun-Yong; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Yih, Wonho; Park, Jong Soo; Coats, D. Wayne (Jan 2008). "Genetic Diversity of Parasitic Dinoflagellates in the Genus Amoebophrya and Its Relationship to Parasite Biology and Biogeography". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 55 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2007.00295.x. 
  5. ^ Yih, W; Coats, DW (September 2000). "Infection of Gymnodinium sanguineum by the Dinoflagellate Amoebophrya sp.: Effect of Nutrient Environment on Parasite Generation Time, Reproduction, and Infectivity". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 47 (5): 504–510. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2000.tb00082.x. 
  6. ^ Sunju, Kim; Park, Myung Gil; Kim, Keun-Yong; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Yih, Wonho; Park, Jong Soo; Coats, D. Wayne (Jan 2008). "Genetic Diversity of Parasitic Dinoflagellates in the Genus Amoebophrya and Its Relationship to Parasite Biology and Biogeography". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 55 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2007.00295.x. 
  7. ^ Velo-Suárez, Lourdes; Brosnahan, Michael L.; Anderson, Donald M.; McGillicuddy, Jr., Dennis J. (Dec 2013). "A Quantitative Assessment of the Role of the Parasite Amoebophrya in the Termination of Alexandrium fundyense Blooms within a Small Coastal Embayment". PLoS ONE. 8 (12). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081150. 
  8. ^ Sunju, Kim; Park, Myung Gil; Kim, Keun-Yong; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Yih, Wonho; Park, Jong Soo; Coats, D. Wayne (Jan 2008). "Genetic Diversity of Parasitic Dinoflagellates in the Genus Amoebophrya and Its Relationship to Parasite Biology and Biogeography". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 55 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2007.00295.x. 
  9. ^ Yih, Wonho; Coats, D. Wayne (2000). "Infection of Gymnodinium sanguineum by the Dinoflagellate Amoebophrya sp.: Effect of Nutrient Environment on Parasite Generation Time, Reproduction, and Infectivity". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 45 (5): 504–510. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2000.tb00082.x. 
  10. ^ Yih, W; Coats, DW (September 2000). "Infection of Gymnodinium sanguineum by the Dinoflagellate Amoebophrya sp.: Effect of Nutrient Environment on Parasite Generation Time, Reproduction, and Infectivity". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 47 (5): 504–510. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2000.tb00082.x. 
  11. ^ Yih, Wonho; Coats, D. Wayne (2000). "Infection of Gymnodinium sanguineum by the Dinoflagellate Amoebophrya sp.: Effect of Nutrient Environment on Parasite Generation Time, Reproduction, and Infectivity". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 45 (5): 504–510. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2000.tb00082.x.