Amorphophallus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Amorphophallus
Titan-arum1web.jpg
Titan arum (Amorphophallus ) is the Amorphophallus with the largest inflorescence
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Alismatales
Family: Araceae
Subfamily: Aroideae
Tribe: Thomsonieae
Genus: Amorphophallus
Blume ex Decne.
Type species
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius
Species

See text

Synonyms[1]
  • Thomsonia Wall.
  • Pythion Mart.
  • Candarum Schott
  • Pythonium Schott
  • Kunda Raf.
  • Brachyspatha Schott
  • Conophallus Schott
  • Plesmonium Schott
  • Corynophallus Schott
  • Allopythion Schott
  • Hansalia Schott
  • Hydrosme Schott
  • Rhaphiophallus Schott
  • Synantherias Schott
  • Dunalia Montrouz.
  • Proteinophallus Hook.f.
  • Tapeinophallus Baill.
  • Pseudodracontium N.E.Br.

Amorphophallus (from Ancient Greek amorphos, "without form, misshapen" + phallos, "penis", referring to the shape of the prominent spadix) is a large genus of some 200 tropical and subtropical tuberous herbaceous plants from the Arum family (Araceae), native to Asia, Africa, Australia and various oceanic islands.[1][2] A few species are edible as "famine foods" after careful preparation to remove irritating chemicals.[3] The genus includes the Titan arum (A. titanum) of Indonesia, which has the largest inflorescence of any plant in the genus, and is also known as the 'corpse flower' for the pungent odour it produces during its flowering period, which can take up through seven years of growth before it occurs.[4]

History[edit]

The oldest systematic record of the plants was in 1692, when Van Rheede tot Drakenstein published descriptions of two plants. The name "Amorphophallus" was first mentioned in 1834 by the Dutch botanist Blume.[5] Between 1876 and 1911, Engler merged a number of other genera into Amorphophallus, with a final monograph published in 1911.[5]often referred to as purple aki.

Distribution[edit]

These are typical lowland plants, growing in the tropical and subtropical zones of the paleotropics, from West Africa through the Pacific Islands. None of them are found in the Americas, although a remarkably similar but not closely related genus, Dracontium, has evolved there. Most species are endemic. They grow preferentially on disturbed grounds, such as secondary forests.[6]

Description[edit]

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, the elephant foot yam, a species cultivated in the tropical Indo-Pacific for their edible corms
Amorphophallus fruit

These small to massive plants grow from a subterranean tuber. Amorphophallus tubers vary greatly from species to species, from the quite uniformly globose tuber of A. konjac to the elongated tubers of A. longituberosus and A. macrorhizus to the bizarre clustered rootstock of A. coaetaneus. From the top of this tuber a single leaf, which can be several meters across in larger species, is produced atop a trunk-like petiole followed, on maturity, by a single inflorescence. This leaf consists of a vertical leaf stalk and a horizontal blade, which may consist of a number of small leaflets. The leaf lasts one growing season. The peduncle (the primary flower stalk) can be long or short.

As is typical of the Arum family, these species develop an inflorescence consisting of an elongate or ovate spathe (a sheathing bract) which usually envelops the spadix (a flower spike with a fleshy axis). The spathe can have different colors, but mostly brownish-purple or whitish-green. On the inside, they contain ridges or warts, functioning as insect traps.

The plants are monoecious. The spadix has tiny flowers: female flowers, no more than a pistil, at the bottom, then male flowers, each with one stamen, and then a blank sterile area. This last part, called 'the appendix', consists of sterile flowers, called staminodes, and can be especially large. The flowers do not have corollas.

Mature female flowers are usually receptive for only 1 day. In many species, the inflorescence emits a scent of decaying flesh in order to attract insects, though a number of species give off a pleasant odor. Through a number of ingenious insect traps, pollinating insects that entered a spathe when female flowers were receptive remain inside the spathe for about 1 day while male flowers mature and release pollen. Pollen falls on these insects, and they carry pollen as they exit the spathe and can pollinate female flowers in another spathe. Amorphophallus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species including Palpifer sexnotatus and Palpifer sordida.

Pollinated flowers usually each develop into a globose berry, a fruit. The berries are red, orange-red, white, white and yellow, or blue, depending on the species.

Notable species[edit]

The species Amorphophallus titanum, 'corpse flower' or titan arum, has the world's largest unbranched inflorescence, with a height of up to 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) and a width of 1.5 metres (4.9 ft).[citation needed].After an over 1.2 metres (3.9 ft)-tall flower opened at Chicago Botanical Gardens on September 29, 2015, thousands lined up to see and smell it. The floriculturalist described it as smelling "like roadkill, a barnyard, a dirty diaper, very strong, a little bit of mothball smell too". Native to the Indonesian rainforest, it takes about 10 years to blossom. Dubbed "Alice", its bloom was broadcast via live webcam. It is one of two plants at the Botanical Garden, which kept open until 2 am on September 30 to accommodate visitors.[7]

A runner-up is Amorphophallus gigas, which is taller, but has a somewhat smaller inforescence.[citation needed]

Amorphophallus konjac tubers are used to make konnyaku (コンニャク), a Japanese thickening agent and edible jelly containing glucomannan.[citation needed]

Some species are called voodoo-lily, as are some species of Typhonium (also in the Araceae).[8][9]

Taxonomy and Systematics[edit]

The genus was divided into 4 subgenera based on phylogenetic analysis in 2017,[10] with a number of SE Asian genera currently unplaced:

Subgenus Amorphophallus[edit]

Image Name Year Distribution
Amorphophallus adamsensis Magtoto, Mones, Ballada, Austria, R.M.Dizon, Alangui, Regina 2013 Philippines
Amorphophallus angulatus Hett. & A.Vogel 1994 Borneo (Sarawak)
Amorphophallus ardii[11] Yuzammi & Hett. 2020 Sulawesi.
Amorphophallus asper (Engl.) Engl. & Gehrm. 1911 Sumatera
Amorphophallus bangkokensis Gagnep. 1941 Thailand
Amorphophallus beccarii Engl. 1880 Sumatera
Amorphophallus borneensis (Engl.) Engl. & Gehrm. 1911 Borneo
Amorphophallus boyceanus Hett. 2001 Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia
Amorphophallus brachyphyllus Hett. 2001 Borneo (Kuching)
Amorphophallus bufo Ridl. 1909 Malaysia
Amorphophallus calcicolus Tamayo MN, Magtoto LM, Sumalinog MS, Reyes TD, Austria CM 2021 Philippines
Amorphophallus caudatus Bustamante et al. 2020 Philippines
Amorphophallus cidarioides J.R.Callado, Medecilo & Hett. 2020 Philippines
Dragon stalk yam Amorphophallus commutatus by Dr Raju Kasambe DSCN3919 (1) 04.jpg Amorphophallus commutatus (Schott) Engl. 1879 Western India
Amorphophallus costatus Hett. 1994 Borneo (Sarawak, Kalimantan).
Amorphophallus declinatus Hett. 1994 Philippines
20211023 Hortus Botanicus - Amorphophallus decus-silvae v1.jpg Amorphophallus decus-silvae Backer & Alderw. : West-Java giant amorphophallus 1920 Java
Amorphophallus discophorusBacker & Alderw. 1920 Java
Amorphophallus eburneus Bogner 1989 Borneo (Sarawak)
Amorphophallus elegansRidl. 1922 Peninsular Malaysia
Amorphophallus flammeus Calaramo, Batuyong, Bulawin & Alejandro 2022 Philippines
Amorphophallus fontarumii N F. Bulawin, M P. Medecilo-Guiang, Grecebio J. D. Alejandro 2022 Philippines (Luzon)
Amorphophallus galbraF.M.Bailey 1893 New Guinea to N. Australia.
Bunga Amorphophallus Gigas.jpg Amorphophallus gigas Teijsm. & Binn.: Sumatra giant amorphophallus 1862 Sumatra
Amorphophallus hewittii 107071650.jpg Amorphophallus hewittiiAlderw. 1920 Borneo
Amorphophallus hirsutusTeijsm. & Binn. 1862 Nicobar Islands, W. Sumatra
Amorphophallus hottae Bogner & Hett. 1992 Borneo (Sabah, Sarawak).
Amorphophallus infundibuliformis Hett., A.Dearden & A.Vogel 1994 Borneo
Amorphophallus julaihii Ipor, Tawan & P.C.Boyce 2004 Borneo (Sarawak).
Amorphophallus juliae P.C.Boyce & Hett. 2010 Borneo (Sarawak)
Amorphophallus koratensis Gagnep. 1941 Cambodia, Laos, Thailand
Amorphophallus lambii Mayo & Widjaja 1982 Borneo
Amorphophallus linguiformis Hett. 1994 Borneo (Kalimantan).
Amorphophallus longispathaceus Engl. & Gehrm. 1911 Philippines (Mindanao)
Amorphophallus longistylus Kurz ex Hook.f. 1893 Andaman Islands.
Amorphophallus luzoniensis Merr. 1915 Philippines (Luzon)
Amorphophallus manta Hett. & Ittenbach 1994 Sumatra to Peninsula Malaysia.
Amorphophallus merrilliiK.Krause 1912 Philippines
Amorphophallus minimus R.Bustam., C.Claudel & M.N.Tamay 2021 Philippines
Amorphophallus myosuroides Hett. & A.Galloway 2006 Laos
Amorphophallus niahensis P.C.Boyce & Hett. 2010 Borneo (Sarawak)
Amorphophallus obscurus Hett. & Sizemore 2001 Thailand
Amorphophallus ongsakulii Hett. & A.Galloway 2006 Laos
Amorphophallus opertus Hett. 1994 Vietnam
Amorphophallus Paeoniifolius e.jpg Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson: Whitespot giant arum, elephant yam 1977 Andaman Island, Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Java, Laos, Lesser Sundas Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Northern Territory, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
Amorphophallus palawanensis Bogner & Hett. 1992 Philippines
Amorphophallus pendulus Bogner & Mayo: Brunei amorphophallus 1986 Borneo (Brunei, Sarawak)
Amorphophallus plicatus Bok & H.J.Lam 1936 Sulawesi.
Amorphophallus polyanthus Hett. & Sizemore 2001 Thailand
Amorphophallus paeonifolius0.jpg Amorphophallus prainii Hook.f. 1893 Laos, Malaya, Sumatera, Thailand
Amorphophallus pulchellus Hett. & Schuit. 2013 Laos
Amorphophallus pusillus Hett. & Serebryanyi 1994 Vietnam
Amorphophallus ranchanensis Ipor, A.Simon & Meekiong 2007 Borneo (Sarawak)
Amorphophallus rayongii Hett. & Medecilo 2020 Philippines
Amorphophallus rostratus Hett. 1994 Vietnam
Amorphophallus rugosus Hett. & A.Lamb 1994 Borneo (Sabah)
Amorphophallus sagittarius Steenis 1953 Java
Amorphophallus salmoneus Hett. 1994 Philippines
Amorphophallus scaber Serebryanyi & Hett. 1994 Philippines
Amorphophallus serrulatus Hett. & A.Galloway 2006 Thailand
Amorphophallus spectabilis (Miq.) Engl. 1879 Java
Amorphophallus sumawongii (Bogner) Bogner & Mayo 1985 Thailand
Amorphophallus terrestris Hett. & Claudel 2012 Thailand
Amorphophallus tinekeae Hett. & A.Vogel 2001 Borneo
Redo Setiawan-Amorphopallus titanum.jpg Amorphophallus titanum (Becc.) Becc. ex Arcang: Titan arum, krubi (largest flower structure on earth) 1879 Sumatra
Amorphophallus urceolatus Hett., A.Galloway & Medecilo 2020 Philippines
Amorphophallus variabilis Blume 1873 Jawa to Lesser Sunda Islands, Philippines
Amorphophallus venustus Hett., A.Hay & Mood 2001 Borneo
Amorphophallus verticillatus Hett. 1994 Vietnam
Amorphophallus yaoi Hett., A.Galloway & Medecilo 2020 Philippines

Subgenus Scutrandrium[edit]

Image Name Year Distribution
Amorphophallus albispathus Hett. 1994 Thailand
Amorphophallus albus P.Y.Liu & J.F.Chen 1984 China (Sichuan, Yunnan).
Amorphophallus annulifer Hett. 1994 Java
Amorphophallus asterostigmatus Bogner & Hett. 1992 Thailand
Amorphophallus bognerianus Sivad. & Jaleel 2009 India (Arunachal Pradesh)
Amorphophallus carneus Ridl. 1904 Malayasia, Thailand
Amorphophallus chlorospathus Kurz ex Hook.f. 1893 India, Myanmar
田陽魔芋 Amorphophallus corrugatus -香港公園 Hong Kong Park- (9255188506).jpg Amorphophallus corrugatus N.E.Br. 1912 China (SE. Yunnan, Guangxi), Myanmar, Thailand
Amorphophallus coudercii (Bogner) Bogner 1985 Cambodia.
Amorphophallus curvistylis Hett. 1994 Thailand
Amorphophallus echinatus Bogner & Mayo 1985 Thailand.
Amorphophallus excentricus GotBot 2015 001.jpg Amorphophallus excentricus Hett. 1994 Thailand, Malaysia (Pulau Langkawi)
Amorphophallus fallax (Serebryanyi) Hett. & Claudel 2012 Vietnam
Amorphophallus flotoi (S.Y.Hu) Govaerts 2018 Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
Amorphophallus fuscus Hett. 2006 Thailand.
Amorphophallus haematospadix Hook.f. 1893 Thailand, Malaysia (Pulau Langkawi)
Amorphophallus hohenackeri (Schott) Engl. & Gehrm. 1911 India
Amorphophallus kachinensis Engl. & Gehrm. 1911 China (Yunnan), Laos, Myanmar, Thailand
Araceae Amorphophallus konjac.jpg Amorphophallus konjac K.Koch: Devil's tongue, elephant foot, elephant-yam, leopard palm, snake palm, umbrella arum, voodoo lily 1858 China (Yunnan)
Amorphophallus khammouanensis A.Galloway 2015 Laos.
Amorphophallus krausei Engl. 1911 China (Yunnan), Laos, Myanmar, Thailand
Amorphophallus kuznetsovii (Serebryanyi) Hett. & Claudel 2012 Vietnam
Amorphophallus lacourii Linden & André 1878 Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
Amorphophallus lanceolatus (Serebryanyi) Hett. & Claudel 2012 Vietnam
Amorphophallus longituberosus (Engl.) Engl. & Gehrm. 1911 Bangladesh, Malaya, Thailand
Amorphophallus macrophyllus (Gagnep. ex Serebryanyi) Hett. & Claudel 2012 Thailand, Vietnam
Amorphophallus maxwellii Hett. 1994 Thailand
Amorphophallus nicolsonianus Sivadasan 1986 India (Kerala).
Amorphophallus napalensis (Wall.) Bogner & Mayo 1985 Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and India
Amorphophallus ravenii V.D.Nguyen & Hett. 2018 Laos
Amorphophallus rhizomatosus Hett. 1994 Laos, Vietnam
Amorphophallus saraburensis Gagnep. 1941 Thailand.
Amorphophallus schmidtiae Hett. & A.Galloway 2006 Laos
Amorphophallus scutatus Hett. & T.C.Chapm. 2001 Thailand.
Amorphophallus smithsonianus Sivadasan 1989 India
Amorphophallus tenuispadix Hett. 1994 Thailand

Subgenus Metandrium[edit]

Image Name Year Distribution
Amorphophallus aberrans Hett. 1994 Thailand
Amorphophallus amygdaloides
Amorphophallus angustispathus
Amorphophallus atrorubens
Amorphophallus atroviridis-flower.jpg Amorphophallus atroviridis central Thailand
Amorphophallus bonaccordensis
Amorphophallus brevispathus
Amorphophallus bulbifer 136199819.jpg Amorphophallus bulbifer
Amorphophallus carnosus
Amorphophallus cicatricifer
Amorphophallus cirrifer
Amorphophallus coaetaneus
Amorphophallus croatii
Amorphophallus cruddasianus
Amorphophallus dunnii (SuperFantastic) 002.jpg Amorphophallus dunnii
Amorphophallus dzui
Amorphophallus elatus
Amorphophallus gallowayi
Amorphophallus glossophyllus
Amorphophallus harmandii
Amorphophallus hayi
Amorphophallus henryi
(Taiwan amorphophallus)
Amorphophallus hirtus var kiusianus1.jpg Amorphophallus hirtus
Amorphophallus interruptus
Amorphophallus josefbogneri
Amorphophallus kiusianus
Amorphophallus konkanensis Hett., S.R.Yadav & K.S.Patil
Amorphophallus lanuginosus Hett.
Amorphophallus laoticus Hett.
Amorphophallus linearis Gagnep.
Amorphophallus longicomus Hett. & Serebryanyi
Amorphophallus longiconnectivus Bogner
Amorphophallus lunatus Hett. & Sizemore
Amorphophallus macrorhizus Craib
Amorphophallus margaritifer
Amorphophallus muelleri
Amorphophallus mysorensis
Amorphophallus napiger
Amorphophallus natolii
Amorphophallus ochroleucus
Amorphophallus oncophyllus
Amorphophallus operculatus
Amorphophallus parvulus
Amorphophallus pilosus
Amorphophallus prolificus
Amorphophallus putii
Amorphophallus pygmaeus
Amorphophallus reflexus
Amorphophallus saururus
Amorphophallus sinuatus
Amorphophallus sizemorae
Amorphophallus Sylvaticus 01.JPG Amorphophallus sylvaticus
Amorphophallus symonianus
Amorphophallus synandrifer
Amorphophallus tenuistylis
Amorphophallus thaiensis (S.Y.Hu) Hett. 2012 northern Thailand
Amorphophallus tonkinensis Engl. & Gehrm. 1911 Yunan, northern Vitnam
Amorphophallus tuberculatus
Amorphophallus vogelianus
Amorphophallus xiei
Amorphophallus yuloensis
Amorphophallus yunnanensis - Lyman Plant House, Smith College - DSC02079.jpg Amorphophallus yunnanensis Engl.
(Kerri's giant arum)
1911 China, Laos, northern Thailand and Vietnam

Subgenus Afrophallus[edit]

Image Name Year Distribution
Amorphophallus abyssinicus 125365639.jpg Amorphophallus abyssinicus (A.Rich.) N.E.Br. 1901 southern Ethiopia
Amorphophallus andranogidroensis Hett. & Mangelsdorff 2006 Madagascar
Amorphophallus angolensis (Welw. ex Schott) N.E.Br. 1901 Angola, Cabinda, Gabon, Sudan, Zaïre
Amorphophallus ankarana Hett., Ittenbach & Bogner 1999 Madagascar
Amorphophallus antsingyensis Bogner, Hett. & Ittenbach 1999 Madagascar
Amorphophallus aphyllus (Hook.) Hutch. 1936 Burkina, Central African Repu, Chad, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo
Amorphophallus barthlottii Ittenb. & Lobin, 1997 (Araceae) (24076088639).jpg Amorphophallus barthlottii Ittenb. & Lobin 1997 Ivory Coast, Liberia
Amorphophallus baumannii (Engl.) N.E.Br. 1901 Benin, Burkina, Central African Repu, Chad, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo
Amorphophallus bequaertii De Wild. 1922 Zaïre
Amorphophallus calabaricus N.E.Br. 1901 Benin, Cameroon, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda, Zaïre
Amorphophallus canaliculatus Ittenb., Hett. & Lobin 1997 Gabon
Amorphophallus consimilis Blume 1837 Gambia, Senegal
Amorphophallus dracontioides autour du complexe Pendjari.jpg Amorphophallus dracontioides (Engl.) N.E.Br. 1901 Benin, Burkina, Central African Repu, Gambia, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Niger, Nigeria, Togo
Amorphophallus eichleri (Engl.) Hook.f. 1889 Zaïre
Amorphophallus elliottii Hook.f. 1894 Sierra Leone
Amorphophallus erythrorrhachis Hett., O. Pronk & R. Kaufmann 2014 Madagascar
Amorphophallus gallaensis (Engl.) N.E.Br. 1901 Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia
Amorphophallus gomboczianus Pic.Serm. 1950 Ethiopia
Amorphophallus goetzei (Engl.) N.E.Br. 1901 Mozambique, Tanzania, Zaïre
Amorphophallus gracilior Hutch. 1939 Benin, Nigeria
Amorphophallus hetterscheidii Ittenb. & Lobin 1997 Central African Republic, Gabon, Zaïre
Amorphophallus hildebrandtii (Engl.) Engl. & Gehrm. 1911 Madagascar
Amorphophallus impressus Ittenb. 1997 Malawi, Tanzania
Amorphophallus johnsonii N.E.Br. 1901 Benin, Burkina, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali
Amorphophallus lewallei Malaisse & Bamps 1993 Burundi
Amorphophallus mangelsdorffii Bogner 2003 Madagascar.
Amorphophallus margretae Ittenb. 1997 Zaïre
Amorphophallus maximus - giant spadix (6592579715).jpg Amorphophallus maximus (Engl.) N.E.Br. 1901 Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe
Amorphophallus mildbraedii K.Krause 1924 Cameroon
Amorphophallus mossambicensis.JPG Amorphophallus mossambicensis (Schott ex Garcke) N.E.Br. 1901 Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe
Amorphophallus mullendersii Malaisse & Bamps 1993 Angola, Zaïre
Amorphophallus perrieri Hett. & Wahlert 2014 Madagascar.
Amorphophallus preussii (Engl.) N.E.Br. 1901 Cameroon
Amorphophallus richardsiae Ittenb. 1997 Zambia
Amorphophallus staudtii(Engl.) N.E.Br. 1901 Cameroon, Congo
Amorphophallus stuhlmannii (Engl.) Engl. & Gehrm. 1911 Kenya, Tanzania, Zaïre
Amorphophallus taurostigma Ittenb., Hett. & Bogner 1999 Madagascar
Amorphophallus teuszii (Engl.) Mottet 1892 Angola, Zaïre
Amorphophallus zenkeri (Engl.) N.E.Br. 1901 Cameroon, Gulf of Guinea Is., Nigeria

Subgenus unplaced[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ Sedayu, A., C. M. Eurlings, Gravendeel, B., & Hetterscheid, W. (2010). Morphological character evolution of Amorphophallus (Araceae) based on a combined phylogenetic analysis of trnL, rbcL and LEAFY second intron sequences. Botanical Studies, 51, 473–490.
  3. ^ "Robert L. Freedman, The famine foods database". Archived from the original on 2009-12-21. Retrieved 2009-11-06.
  4. ^ "Titan arum". Eden Project. 2018-02-04. Retrieved 2020-12-30.
  5. ^ a b Hetterscheid, W., & Ittenbach, S. (1990). Everything you always wanted to know about Amorphophallus but were afraid to stick your nose into! Aroideana, 19, 17-20.
  6. ^ Design, UBC Web. "Bulbs, White, House, Nursery". Amorphophallus Conjak | White House Nursery. Retrieved 2021-12-08.
  7. ^ "Thousands line up to see huge stinky flower" (video). Reuters Editors' Picks. Reuters. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015. Chicago's floral celebrity is over four feet tall, incredibly rare, and smells like death
  8. ^ "Voodoo Lily, Amorphophallus konjac". Master Gardener Program. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
  9. ^ "Pacific Bulb Society | Sauromatum". pacificbulbsociety.org. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
  10. ^ Claudel, Cyrille; Buerki, Sven; Chatrou, Lars W.; Antonelli, Alexandre; Alvarez, Nadir; Hetterscheid, Wilbert (2017-05-01). "Large-scale phylogenetic analysis of Amorphophallus (Araceae) derived from nuclear and plastid sequences reveals new subgeneric delineation". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Oxford University Press (OUP). 184 (1): 32–45. doi:10.1093/botlinnean/box013. ISSN 0024-4074.
  11. ^ Yuzammi, Yuzammi (October 2020). "A new species of Amorphophallus (Araceae—Thomsoniaea) from Sulawesi, Indonesia" (461): 295–300. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.461.4.6. S2CID 225167041. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Hetterscheid, W.L.A. 1994. Preliminary taxonomy and morphology of Amorphophallus Blume ex Decaisne (Araceae). In: M.M. Serebreyanyi (ed.), Proc. Moscow Aroid Conference 1992: 35-48. Moscow.
  • Hetterscheid, W.L.A. & G.J.C.M. v. Vliet, 1996. Amorphophallus, giant from the forest. CITES/C&M, 2(4): 86-96.

External links[edit]