Amos Adams Lawrence
|Amos Adams Lawrence|
July 31, 1814|
|Died||August 22, 1886(aged 72)|
|Alma mater||Harvard College|
Sarah Elizabeth Appleton|
(his death 1886)
Samuel Lawrence (grandfather)|
Luther Lawrence (uncle)
Abbott Lawrence (uncle)
Amos Adams Lawrence (July 31, 1814 – August 22, 1886), the son of philanthropist Amos Lawrence, was a key figure in the United States abolition movement in the years leading up to the Civil War. He was instrumental in the establishment of the University of Kansas and Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin.
His paternal grandfather was Samuel Lawrence, who fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill during the American Revolutionary War and helped found Groton Academy. His uncles included Luther Lawrence, who served as Mayor of Lowell, Massachusetts from 1838 to 1839, William Lawrence, and Abbott Lawrence, a U.S. Representative who served as United States Minister to Britain from 1849 to 1852.
Following his graduation from Harvard, he entered business for himself as a commission merchant and eventually became owner of Ipswich Mills, the largest producer of knit goods in the country, located in Ipswich, Massachusetts.
In 1858 and 1860, he was the Whig candidate for governor of Massachusetts. In 1862, he raised a battalion of cavalry which became the 2nd Massachusetts Cavalry, of which Charles Russell Lowell was colonel.
Lawrence was radicalized by living through the Anthony Burns affair in the spring of 1854: "[W]e went to bed one night old fashioned, conservative, Compromise Union Whigs & waked up stark mad Abolitionists." Lawrence became a key figure in the United States abolition movement in the years leading up to the Civil War, during which he contributed large amounts of capital to the Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company and John Brown's abolitionism, played a major role in the crucial border state of Kansas (see Kansas-Nebraska Act), and also contributed to funds for the colonization of free Negroes in Liberia.
He contributed personally for the Sharps rifles, which, packed as "books" and "primers", were shipped to Kansas and afterwards came into the hands of Brown. During the contest in Kansas, Lawrence wrote frequently to President Franklin Pierce (his mother's nephew) on behalf of the free-state settlers. When John Brown was arrested, he appealed to the governor of Virginia to secure for him a lawful trial. He repeatedly urged the necessity of offering no armed resistance to the federal government, and he deplored Brown's fanaticism.
Lawrence financed the founding of the University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas, a community that was named after him. In 1847, he founded a college that evolved into Lawrence University on 5,000 acres (20 km2) of land that he had purchased in 1844 in the Fox River Valley, Some of the land he purchased became Appleton, Wisconsin, named for his father-in-law. Lawrence also contributed large sums of money to Harvard and the Episcopal Theological School (now Episcopal Divinity School), in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Lawrence Academy, and the Groton School.
Lawrence, a member of St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Boston, met and married Sarah Elizabeth Appleton (1822–1891) at the church. Sarah, a daughter of U.S. Representative William Appleton and Mary Ann (née Cutler) Appleton, was a relative of Samuel Appleton, a trustee of Massachusetts General Hospital and president of the Young Men's Benevolent Society. Together, Amos and Sarah were the parents of:
- Amory Appleton Lawrence (1848–1912)
- William Lawrence (1850–1941), who became the Bishop of Massachusetts.
- Susan Mason Lawrence (1852–1923)
- Harriet Lawrence Hemenway (1858-1960), who became a co-founder of the Massachusetts Audubon Society.
Amos Adams Lawrence is credited with founding an Episcopalian church in Boston, Massachusetts, which prompted many Boston Brahmins to convert from Unitarianism. His son, William Lawrence, took an even more avid interest in the Episcopalian church, and became the long-time bishop of Massachusetts.
Through his son William he was the grandfather of William Appleton Lawrence (1889–1968), who was elected third Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Western Massachusetts, and Frederic Cunningham Lawrence (1899–1989), who was elected suffragan bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts.
- Lawrence, William Richards (ed.). 1855. Extracts from the Diary and Correspondence of the Late Amos Lawrence. Boston: Gould & Lincoln, p. 15.
- "Amos Lawrence Dead". Lawrence Daily Journal. August 24, 1886. p. 1. Retrieved December 26, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Lee, Laura (ed.). 2001. The Name's Familiar II. Gretna: Pelican, p. 208.
- Hunt, A.N., Freeman (1858). Lives of American Merchants, Vol. II. New York: Derby & Jackson. pp. 223–386. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
- Butler, Caleb (1848). History of the Town of Groton: Including Pepperell and Shirley, from the First Grant of Groton Plantation in 1655. Press of T.R. Marvin. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
- "LAWRENCE, Abbott - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lawrence, Amos Adams". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 305.
- James M. McPherson. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. New York: Bantam Books, 1989, p. 120.
- Foster, E. Everton (1916). Lamb's Textile Industries of the United States: Embracing Biographical Sketches of Prominent Men and a Historical Resume of the Progress of Textile Manufacture from the Earliest Records to the Present Time. James H. Lamb. p. 275. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
- "Dr. Lawrence Dies; Bishop Emeritus". The New York Times. November 7, 1941. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
- "William Lawrence, Retired Bishop, 79". The New York Times. January 6, 1969. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
- Lawrence Townie history
- History of Cottage Farm, Brookline
- Lawrence, William (1888). Life of Amos A. Lawrence, with Extracts from his Diary and Correspondence. Boston.
- Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1892). "Lawrence, Amos". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
- Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Lawrence, Amos Adams". Encyclopedia Americana.