|Clavulanic acid||Beta-lactamase inhibitor|
|Trade names||Augmentin, Clavamox, Tyclav, other|
|ATC code||J01CR02 (WHO)|
|(what is this?)|
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or co-amoxiclav is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. It is a combination antibiotic consisting of amoxicillin trihydrate, a β-lactam antibiotic, and potassium clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This combination results in an antibiotic with an increased spectrum of action and restored efficacy against amoxicillin-resistant bacteria that produce β-lactamase.
It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medications needed in a basic health system. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was developed at Beecham Pharmaceuticals and marketed under the trade name Augmentin. It is available as a generic and marketed under a variety of trade names worldwide.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is widely used to treat or prevent many infections caused by susceptible bacteria, such as:
- urinary tract infections
- respiratory tract infections
- skin and soft tissue infections
- sinus infections
- cat scratches
- infections caused by the bacterial flora of the mouth, such as:
Possible side effects include diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, thrush, and skin rash. These do not usually require medical attention. As with all antimicrobial agents, antibiotic-associated diarrhea due to Clostridium difficile infection—sometimes leading to pseudomembranous colitis—may occur during or after treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
Rarely, cholestatic jaundice (also referred to as cholestatic hepatitis, a form of liver toxicity) has been associated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The reaction may occur up to several weeks after treatment has stopped, and usually takes weeks to resolve. It is more frequent in men, older people, and those who have taken long courses of treatment; the estimated overall incidence is one in 100,000 exposures. In the United Kingdom, co-amoxiclav carries a warning from the Committee on Safety of Medicines to this effect.
A patent was granted in 1985.
Augmentin is the original name used by its inventor.
Suspensions of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid are available for use in children. They must be refrigerated to maintain effectiveness.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is used in numerous animals for a variety of conditions.
Cats: urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is banned from use in domestic-food animals (cattle, swine, etc.) in both the US and Europe; in the UK, Synulox can be used in domestic-food animals as long as a specified withdrawal period is observed.
Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in veterinary medicine. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is reported to be effective against clinical Klebsiella infections, but is not efficacious against Pseudomonas infections.
- Gillies, M; Ranakusuma, A; Hoffmann, T; Thorning, S; McGuire, T; Glasziou, P; Del Mar, C (17 November 2014). "Common harms from amoxicillin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials for any indication.". Canadian Medical Association Journal 187: E21–31. doi:10.1503/cmaj.140848. PMID 25404399.
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- British National Formulary (57 ed.). March 2009.
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- US 4441609
- "Augmentin -- Prescribing Information" (PDF). December 2006.
- Davies BE, Boon R, Horton R, Reubi FC, Descoeudres CE (October 1988). "Pharmacokinetics of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid in haemodialysis patients following intravenous administration of Augmentin". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 26 (4): 385–90. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1988.tb03395.x. PMC 1386558. PMID 3190988.
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- "Kennel Cough - Symptoms and Treatment". Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- Federation of Veterinarians in Europe Position Paper: "Antibiotic Resistance & Prudent Use of Antibiotics in Veterinary Medicine"