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Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases AREG, AR, AREGB, CRDGF, SDGF, amphiregulin
External IDs MGI: 88068 HomoloGene: 1252 GeneCards: AREG
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 4: 74.45 – 74.46 Mb Chr 5: 91.14 – 91.15 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
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Amphiregulin, also known as AREG, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AREG gene.[3][4][5]


The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family.[3]

It is an autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for astrocytes, Schwann cells, fibroblasts. It is related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). This protein interacts with the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to promote the growth of normal epithelial cells.

Biological role[edit]

Estradiol and progesterone mostly induce amphiregulin expression to mediate ductal development of the mammary glands.[6][7][8][9][10] Amphiregulin has been found to be essential for mammary ductal development, as evidenced by absence of ductal growth in amphiregulin knockout mice.[9] This is similar to the phenotypes of EGFR and ERα knockout mice, which also show absence of ductal growth.[9]

Clinical signficance[edit]

Mutations in this encoded protein are associated with a psoriasis-like skin phenotype.[3]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ a b c "Entrez Gene: AREG amphiregulin (schwannoma-derived growth factor)". 
  4. ^ Shoyab M, Plowman GD, McDonald VL, Bradley JG, Todaro GJ (February 1989). "Structure and function of human amphiregulin: a member of the epidermal growth factor family". Science. 243 (4894 Pt 1): 1074–6. doi:10.1126/science.2466334. PMID 2466334. 
  5. ^ Plowman GD, Green JM, McDonald VL, Neubauer MG, Disteche CM, Todaro GJ, Shoyab M (May 1990). "The amphiregulin gene encodes a novel epidermal growth factor-related protein with tumor-inhibitory activity". Mol. Cell. Biol. 10 (5): 1969–81. PMC 360543Freely accessible. PMID 2325643. 
  6. ^ Aupperlee MD, Leipprandt JR, Bennett JM, Schwartz RC, Haslam SZ (2013). "Amphiregulin mediates progesterone-induced mammary ductal development during puberty". Breast Cancer Res. 15 (3): R44. doi:10.1186/bcr3431. PMC 3738150Freely accessible. PMID 23705924. 
  7. ^ LaMarca HL, Rosen JM (2007). "Estrogen regulation of mammary gland development and breast cancer: amphiregulin takes center stage". Breast Cancer Res. 9 (4): 304. doi:10.1186/bcr1740. PMC 2206713Freely accessible. PMID 17659070. 
  8. ^ Kariagina A, Xie J, Leipprandt JR, Haslam SZ (2010). "Amphiregulin mediates estrogen, progesterone, and EGFR signaling in the normal rat mammary gland and in hormone-dependent rat mammary cancers". Horm Cancer. 1 (5): 229–44. doi:10.1007/s12672-010-0048-0. PMC 3000471Freely accessible. PMID 21258428. 
  9. ^ a b c McBryan J, Howlin J, Napoletano S, Martin F (2008). "Amphiregulin: role in mammary gland development and breast cancer". J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 13 (2): 159–69. doi:10.1007/s10911-008-9075-7. PMID 18398673. 
  10. ^ Sternlicht MD, Sunnarborg SW (2008). "The ADAM17-amphiregulin-EGFR axis in mammary development and cancer". J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 13 (2): 181–94. doi:10.1007/s10911-008-9084-6. PMC 2723838Freely accessible. PMID 18470483. 

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]