Amprenavir

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Amprenavir
Amprenavir structure.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Agenerase
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a699051
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
Oral (capsules)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 90%
Metabolism Hepatic
Biological half-life 7.1–10.6 hours
Excretion <3% renal
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
NIAID ChemDB
Chemical and physical data
Formula C25H35N3O6S
Molar mass 505.628 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
  (verify)

Amprenavir (original brand name Agenerase, GlaxoSmithKline) is a protease inhibitor used to treat HIV infection. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration on April 15, 1999, for twice-a-day dosing instead of needing to be taken every eight hours. The convenient dosing came at a price, as the dose required is 1,200 mg, delivered in 8 (eight) very large 150 mg gel capsules or 24 (twenty-four) 50 mg gel capsules twice daily.[1]

Production of amprenavir was discontinued by the manufacturer on December 31, 2004; a prodrug version (fosamprenavir), is available.

Background[edit]

Research aimed at development of renin inhibitors as potential antihypertensive agents had led to the discovery of compounds that blocked the action of this peptide cleaving enzyme. The amino acid sequence cleaved by renin was found to be fortuitously the same as that required to produce the HIV peptide coat. Structure–activity studies on renin inhibitors proved to be of great value for developing HIV protease inhibitors. Incorporation of an amino alcohol moiety proved crucial to inhibitory activity for many of these agents. This unit is closely related to the one found in the statine, an unusual amino acid that forms part of the pepstatin, a fermentation product that inhibits protease enzymes.

HIV-1 protease dimer with amprenavir (sticks) bound in the active site. PDB entry 3nu3[2]

See also[edit]

  • Fosamprenavir, a prodrug of amprenavir with improved pharmacokinetic parameters and dosing regimen

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Agenerase (amprenavir) Capsules. Full Prescribing Information. Section Dosage and Administration" (PDF). US Food and Drug Administration. GlaxoSmithKline and Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  2. ^ Shen, C. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Kovalevsky, A. Y.; Harrison, R. W.; Weber, I. T. (2010). "Amprenavir complexes with HIV-1 protease and its drug-resistant mutants altering hydrophobic clusters". FEBS Journal. 277 (18): 3699–3714. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2010.07771.x. PMC 2975871Freely accessible. PMID 20695887. 

External links[edit]