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Amritsar

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Amritsar
Metropolis
The Harmandir Sahib of Amritsar
The Harmandir Sahib of Amritsar
Nickname(s): 
Amritsar is located in Punjab
Amritsar
Amritsar
Amritsar is located in India
Amritsar
Amritsar
Coordinates: 31°38′N 74°52′E / 31.64°N 74.86°E / 31.64; 74.86Coordinates: 31°38′N 74°52′E / 31.64°N 74.86°E / 31.64; 74.86
CountryIndia India
StatePunjab
DistrictAmritsar
Founded byGuru Ram Das
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • BodyMunicipal Corporation Amritsar
 • Commissioner of PoliceSh. S Srivastava
 • Deputy commissionerKamaldeep Singh sangha
Area
 • Metropolis170 km2 (70 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Metropolis1,132,761
 • Density6,700/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[1]1,183,705
Demonym(s)Amritsari (Ambarsariya)
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN143-001
Telephone code91 183 XXX XXXX
Vehicle registrationPB01(Commercial), PB-02, PB-89
Websitewww.amritsarcorp.com

Amritsar (About this soundpronunciation ;Punjabi pronunciation: [əmːɾɪtsəɾ]), historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.

According to the 2011 census, the population of Amritsar was 1,132,761. It is one of ten Municipal Corporations in the state and Karamjit Singh Rintu is the current mayor of the city.[3] The city is situated 217 km (135 mi) northwest of state capital Chandigarh and 455 km (283 miles) northwest of New Delhi, the national capital. It is near Pakistan, with the Wagah Border being only 28 km (17.4 mi) away.

Amritsar has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India.[4]

History

The Bhagwan Valmiki Tirath Sthal situated at Amritsar is believed to be the Ashram site of Maharishi Valmiki, the writer of Ramayana.[5][6] As per the Ramayana, Sita gave birth to Lava and Kusha, sons of lord Rama at Ramtirth ashram. Large number of people visit Ramtirth Temple at annual fair. Nearby cities to Amritsar, Lahore and Kasur were said to be founded by Lava and Kusha, respectively. During Ashvamedha Yagna by Lord Rama, Lava and Kush captured the ritual horse and tied Lord Hanuman to a tree near to today's Durgiana Temple. During Navratra festivities it is considered to be auspicious by Hindu population of the city to visit that temple.[7][better source needed]

Founding of Amritsar City

Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh guru is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition.[8][9] Two versions of stories exist regarding the land where Ram Das settled. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung.[10][11]

According to the Sikh historical records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man made pool as its central point.[10][12][13] After his coronation in 1574, and the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Amar Das,[14] Ram Das founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur". He started by completing the pool, and building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited merchants and artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him.[10] The town expanded during the time of Arjan financed by donations and constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, and the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, and installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604.[9]

The construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text likely composed in 1741, and the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus.[15]

Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib near the Golden Temple.

Jallianwala Bagh massacre

The Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919, months after the massacre
Bullet marks on the walls of the park premises

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, involving the killings of hundreds of Indian civilians on the orders of a senior British military officer, Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, took place on 13 April 1919 in the heart of Amritsar, the holiest city of the Sikhs, on a day sacred to them as the birth anniversary of the Khalsa (Vaisakhi day).

In the Punjab, during World War I (1914–18), there was considerable unrest particularly among the Sikhs, first on account of the demolition of a boundary wall of Gurdwara Rakab Ganj at New Delhi and later because of the activities and trials of the Ghadarites, almost all of whom were Sikhs. In India as a whole, too, there had been a spurt in political activity mainly owing to the emergence of two leaders: Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948) who after a period of struggle against the British in South Africa, had returned to India in January 1915, and Annie Besant (1847–1933), head of the Theosophical Society of India, who on 11 April 1916 established the Home Rule League with autonomy for India as its goal. In December 1916, the Indian National Congress, at its annual session held at Lucknow, passed a resolution asking the king to issue a proclamation announcing that it is the "aim and intention of British policy to confer self-government on India at an early date".[16]

On 10 April 1919, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, two popular proponents of the Satyagraha movement led by Gandhi, were called to the deputy commissioner's residence, arrested and sent off by car to Dharamsetla, a hill town, now in Himachal Pradesh. This led to a general strike in Amritsar. Excited groups of citizens soon merged into a crowd of about 50,000 marching on to protest to the deputy commissioner against the arrest of the two leaders. The crowd, however, was stopped and fired upon near the railway foot-bridge. According to the official version, the number of those killed was 12 and of those wounded between 20 and 30. Evidence before an inquiry of the Indian National Congress put the number of the dead between 20 and 30.

Three days later, on 13 April, the traditional festival of Baisakhi, thousands of Sikhs, Muslims and Hindus gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 16:30, Dyer arrived with a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers. Without warning the crowd to disperse, Dyer blocked the main exits and ordered his troops to begin shooting toward the densest sections of the crowd. Firing continued for approximately ten minutes. A British inquiry into the massacre placed the death toll at 379. The Indian National Congress determined that approximately 1,000 people were killed.

Operation Blue Star

Operation Blue Star (1 – 6 June 1984) was an Indian military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India[17] to curb and remove Sikh militants from the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The operation was carried out by Indian army troops with tanks and armoured vehicles.[18] Militarily successful, the operation aroused immense controversy, and the government's justification for the timing and style of the attack are hotly debated.[19] Operation Blue Star was included in the Top 10 Political Disgraces by India Today magazine.[20]

Official reports put the number of deaths among the Indian army at 83, with 493 civilians and Sikh militants killed.[21][22] In addition, the CBI is considered responsible for seizing historical artefacts and manuscripts in the Sikh Reference Library before burning it down.[23] [24] Four months after the operation, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards in what is viewed as an act of vengeance. Following her assassination, more than 3,000 Sikhs were killed in anti-Sikh pogroms.[25]

Geography and climate

Amritsar is located at 31°38′N 74°52′E / 31.63°N 74.87°E / 31.63; 74.87[26] with an average elevation of 234 metres (768 ft).

Amritsar has a semiarid climate, typical of Northwestern India and experiences four seasons primarily: winter season (December to March) with temperature ranges from 0 °C (32 °F) to about 15 °C (59 °F), summer season (April to June) where temperatures can reach 42 °C (108 °F), monsoon season (July to September) and post-monsoon season (October to November). Annual rainfall is about 681 millimetres (26.8 in).[27] The lowest recorded temperature is −3.6 °C (25.5 °F), was recorded on 9 December 1996 and the highest temperature, 48.1 °C (118.6 °F), was recorded on 22 May 2013.[28][29]

Climate data for Amritsar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.0
(84.2)
31.1
(88)
35.7
(96.3)
41.9
(107.4)
48.1
(118.6)
46.2
(115.2)
42.0
(107.6)
37.2
(99)
36.5
(97.7)
34.6
(94.3)
29.3
(84.7)
23.2
(73.8)
48.1
(118.6)
Average high °C (°F) 19.3
(66.7)
22.2
(72)
27.4
(81.3)
34.0
(93.2)
38.7
(101.7)
40.1
(104.2)
35.4
(95.7)
34.3
(93.7)
34.5
(94.1)
32.4
(90.3)
26.9
(80.4)
21.3
(70.3)
30.5
(86.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 11.6
(52.9)
13.9
(57)
18.7
(65.7)
25.1
(77.2)
29.9
(85.8)
32.1
(89.8)
30.2
(86.4)
29.7
(85.5)
28.3
(82.9)
23.8
(74.8)
17.9
(64.2)
12.9
(55.2)
22.8
(73)
Average low °C (°F) 3.9
(39)
6.5
(43.7)
11.3
(52.3)
16.6
(61.9)
21.1
(70)
25.1
(77.2)
25.7
(78.3)
25.3
(77.5)
23.0
(73.4)
16.3
(61.3)
9.0
(48.2)
4.6
(40.3)
15.7
(60.3)
Record low °C (°F) −3.5
(25.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
2.6
(36.7)
5.7
(42.3)
7.7
(45.9)
13.8
(56.8)
14.0
(57.2)
15.0
(59)
10.5
(50.9)
4.6
(40.3)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.7
(27.1)
−3.5
(25.7)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 24
(0.94)
33
(1.3)
48
(1.89)
29
(1.14)
25
(0.98)
62
(2.44)
231
(9.09)
187
(7.36)
79
(3.11)
18
(0.71)
6
(0.24)
18
(0.71)
760
(29.91)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 2.4 2.0 2.6 1.5 1.3 3.1 8.2 8.1 3.6 1.2 0.6 1.2 35.8
Average relative humidity (%) 74 70 64 47 38 48 72 77 69 67 73 76 65
Mean monthly sunshine hours 181.7 192.7 219.4 265.0 294.7 269.0 215.5 227.7 240.8 253.2 220.1 182.2 2,762
Source: [28][30]

Administrative towns

Demographics

As of the 2011 census, Amritsar municipality had a population of 1,132,761[2] and the urban agglomeration had a population of 1,183,705.[1] The municipality had a sex ratio of 879 females per 1,000 males and 9.7% of the population were under six years old.[2] Effective literacy was 85.27%; male literacy was 88.09% and female literacy was 82.09%.[2] The scheduled caste population is 28.8%[31]

Religion

Left: Causeway to the Harminder Sahib with people, behind the pool is Ath Sath Tirath; Right: Entrance view of the Harminder Sahib, the holiest shrine in Sikhism.
Lakshmi Narayan Mandir popularly known as Durgiana temple is a popular place of worship among city's residents.

According to 2011 Census of India, Hinduism and Sikhism were the main religions of the Amritsar city at 49.4% and 48%. Sikhs form a majority of close to 70% in the Amritsar District on a whole.

Amritsar is the holiest city in Sikhism and millions of people visit it each year for pilgrimage.

In Amritsar city, Christianity was followed by 1.23% and Islam by 0.51%. Around 0.74% of the population of the city stated 'No Particular Religion' or another religion.[32]

Tourism

Amritsar is attractive destination for tourists,[33][34] especially those part of Golden Triangle.[35] Major destinations are:

Transport

Air

Amritsar hosts Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport. The airport is connected to other parts of India and other countries with direct international flights to cities.

Rail

Amritsar railway station is the main terminus station. The Samjhauta Express runs from Delhi through Amritsar to Lahore in Pakistan.

Road

Amritsar Inter State Bus Stand

Amritsar is located on the historic Grand Trunk Road (G.T Road), also known as NH 1 now renumbered as National Highway 3. Additionally, NH 54 (Old NH15), NH 354 and NH 503A connect Amritsar to other parts of state and rest of India.

Rs 450,000,000 is being spent to expand the Amritsar-Jalandhar stretch of G.T. Road to four lanes. In 2010, elevated road with four lanes connected to the National highway for better access to the Golden Temple has been started.[50]

Amritsar BRTS

The government of Punjab pledged Rs. 580 crore (100 million dollars) for the Amritsar BRTS for the city.[51]

Educational institutions

Notable People

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012.
  3. ^ List of Municipal Corporations in Punjab
  4. ^ "Introduction". HRIDAY official website.
  5. ^ India, Press Trust of (2016-11-22). "Valmiki Tirath Sthal temple-cum-panorama to be opened on Dec 1". Business Standard India. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  6. ^ nimmi. "Ram Tirth Temple, Indian Ram Tirth Temple, Ram Tirth Temple in India".
  7. ^ "Mamas turn sons into monkeys –LANGOOR WALA MELA IN AMRITSAR..." 1 October 2008.
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference McLeod1990p28 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference ShackleMandair2013xv was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference eosramdas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
  12. ^ Pardeep Singh Arshi (1989). The Golden Temple: history, art, and architecture. Harman. pp. 5–7. ISBN 978-81-85151-25-0.
  13. ^ Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
  14. ^ Cite error: The named reference Mandair2013p38 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ W.H. McLeod (1990). Textual Sources for the Study of Sikhism. University of Chicago Press. pp. 28–29. ISBN 978-0-226-56085-4.
  16. ^ Proceedings of the Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress, 1916, cited by Pasricha, Ashu (2008). The Political Thought of Annie Besant (Encyclopaedia of Eminent Thinkers, Vol. 25). Concept Publishing. p. 84. ISBN 8180695859.
  17. ^ "Operation Bluestar, 20 Years On". Rediff.com. 6 June 1984. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  18. ^ Ahmad, Ishtiaq (1996). State, Nation, and Ethnicity in the Contemporary South Asia. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 130. ISBN 1-85567-578-1.
  19. ^ Praagh, David Van (2003). The Greater game: India's Race With Destiny and China. India: McGill-Queen's University Press (MQUP). ISBN 0-7735-1639-5.
  20. ^ Gunjeet K. Sra (19 December 2008). "10 Political Disgraces". Indiatoday.digitaltoday.in. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
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  23. ^ Kaur, Jaskaran; Crossette, Barbara (2006). Twenty years of impunity: the November 1984 pogroms of Sikhs in India (PDF) (2nd ed.). Portland, OR: Ensaaf. p. 16. ISBN 0-9787073-0-3.
  24. ^ Westerlund, David (1996). Questioning The Secular State: The Worldwide Resurgence of Religion in Politics. C. Hurst & Co. p. 1276. ISBN 1-85065-241-4.
  25. ^ Singh, Pritam (2008). Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy. Routledge. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-415-45666-1. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
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  29. ^ "Resumen synop".
  30. ^ "Amritsar Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  31. ^ "State-wise, District-wise List of Blocks with >40% but less than 50% SC population". Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  32. ^ ORGI. "Census of India :Religion PCA".
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  35. ^ Bagga, Neeraj (11 July 2018). "Amritsar, the emerging fourth angle of Golden Triangle". The Tribune Chandigarh.
  36. ^ "The Real Marigold Hotel: What a month in India taught me about the country's poverty, history and serenity". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2018-07-31.
  37. ^ "'Amritsar's Heritage Street in a shambles' - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-07-31.
  38. ^ "Amritsar: War memorial's Kargil gallery to be thrown open on July 15". hindustan times. 2018-06-14. Retrieved 2018-07-31.
  39. ^ "PUNJAB TO TRANSFORM 30 PLACES AS TOURIST ATTRACTION CENTERS". The Pioneer. 12 June 2018.
  40. ^ "Sadda Pind: Free entry ticket for meritorious students". The Tribune. 1 June 2018.
  41. ^ "Heritage project: Know real Punjab at 'Sadda Pind'". hindustan times. 2016-10-23. Retrieved 2018-07-31.
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  43. ^ Dangwal, Sandhya (2017-04-02). "18th century Gobindgarh Fort thrown open to public after completion of its restoration work". India.com. Retrieved 2018-07-31.
  44. ^ Bagga, Neeraj (16 July 2018). "ASI lifts photography ban, tourists cheer". The Tribune.
  45. ^ "Crowd heads for Wagah border on long Independence Day weekend - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-07-31.
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  49. ^ "Amarinder Singh opens second phase of Jang-e-Azadi memorial at Kartarpur - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-07-31.
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  51. ^ "Amritsar BRTS".
  52. ^ "South/Southeast Asia Library – UC Berkeley Library".
  53. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-12.

External links