Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

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"Schiphol" redirects here. For the railway station, see Schiphol Airport railway station.
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Luchthaven Schiphol
Schiphol logo.svg
Amsterdam Schiphol Airport entrance.jpg
IATA: AMSICAO: EHAM
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner Schiphol Group
Operator Schiphol Group
Serves Amsterdam, Netherlands
Location Haarlemmermeer
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL −11 ft / −3 m
Coordinates 52°18′29″N 004°45′51″E / 52.30806°N 4.76417°E / 52.30806; 4.76417Coordinates: 52°18′29″N 004°45′51″E / 52.30806°N 4.76417°E / 52.30806; 4.76417
Website schiphol.com
Map
AMS is located in Amsterdam
AMS
AMS
Location within Greater Amsterdam
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
18R/36L 'Polderbaan' 3,800 12,467 Asphalt
06/24 'Kaagbaan' 3,500 11,483 Asphalt
09/27 'Buitenveldertbaan' 3,453 11,329 Asphalt
18L/36R 'Aalsmeerbaan' 3,400 11,155 Asphalt
18C/36C 'Zwanenburgbaan' 3,300 10,827 Asphalt
04/22 'Oostbaan' 2,014 6,608 Asphalt
Statistics (2015)
Passengers Increase58,284,864
Freight (tonnes) Decrease1,620,970
Aircraft movementsf Increase450,679
Economic & social impact $27.3 billion[2]

Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (Dutch: Luchthaven Schiphol, Dutch pronunciation: [ˈlʏxtˌɦaːvə(n) ˌsxɪpˈɦɔl]) (IATA: AMSICAO: EHAM) is the main international airport of the Netherlands, located 9 kilometres (5.6 mi)[5] southwest of Amsterdam, in the municipality of Haarlemmermeer, province of North Holland. It is the fifth busiest airport in Europe in terms of passengers. The airport is built as a single-terminal concept: one large terminal split into three large departure halls.

Schiphol is the hub for KLM and its regional affiliate KLM Cityhopper as well as for Corendon Dutch Airlines, Martinair Cargo, Transavia and TUI Airlines Netherlands. The airport also serves as a European hub for Delta Air Lines and Jet Airways and as a base for EasyJet and Vueling.

Schiphol opened on 16 September 1916 as a military airbase. The end of the First World War also saw the beginning of civilian use of Schiphol Airport and the airport eventually lost its military role completely. By 1940, Schiphol had four asphalt runways at 45-degree angles. The airport was captured by the German military that same year and renamed Fliegerhorst Schiphol. The airport was destroyed through bombing but at the end of the war the airfield was restored quickly. In 1949, it was decided that Schiphol was to become the primary airport of the Netherlands. The airport's official English name, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, reflects the original Dutch word order (Luchthaven Schiphol).

Description[edit]

Schiphol Airport is an important European airport, ranking as Europe's fifth busiest and the world's fourteenth busiest by total passenger traffic in 2015 (14th in 2014 and 2013 and 16th in 2012). It also ranks as the world's fifth busiest by international passenger traffic and the world's sixteenth busiest for cargo tonnage. 52.569 million passengers passed through the airport in 2013, a 3% increase compared with 2012.[4] Schiphol's main competitors in terms of passenger traffic and cargo throughput are London Heathrow Airport, Frankfurt Airport, Paris–Charles de Gaulle Airport and Madrid–Barajas Airport.

In 2010, 65.9% of passengers using the airport flew to and from Europe, 11.7% to and from North America and 8.8% to and from Asia; cargo volume was mainly between Schiphol and Asia (45%) and North America (17%).[6]

In 2010, 106 carriers provided a total of 301 destinations on a regular basis. Passenger destinations were offered by 91 airlines. Direct (non-stop) destinations grew by 9 to a total of 274. Regular destinations serviced exclusively by full freighters (non-passenger) grew by eight to a total of twenty-seven.[7]

The airport is built as one large terminal (a single-terminal concept), split into three large departure halls, which connect again once airside. The most recent of these was completed in 1994 and expanded in 2007 with a new section, called Terminal 4, although it is not considered a separate building. Plans for further terminal expansion exist, including the construction of a separate new terminal between the Zwanenburgbaan and Polderbaan runways that would end the one-terminal concept.

Because of intense traffic and high landing fees, some low-cost carriers decided to move their flights to smaller airports, such as Rotterdam The Hague Airport and Eindhoven Airport. Many low-cost carriers, such as EasyJet, however, continue to operate from Schiphol, using the low-cost H-pier. There have been talks about using the Lelystad Airport for low-cost carriers.[8]

Schiphol is equipped with eighteen double jetway gates in preparation for airlines introducing the Airbus A380. Emirates was the first airline to fly the A380 to Schiphol in August 2012, deploying the aircraft on its double daily Dubai–Amsterdam service.[9] During the summer, China Southern Airlines also uses the A380 on its Beijing–Amsterdam route.

History[edit]

A Ford being used to power a winch for towing gliders at Schiphol in 1933.

Schiphol's name is derived from a former fortification named Fort Schiphol, which was part of the Stelling van Amsterdam defence works.[10] Before 1852, the Haarlemmermeer polder in which the airport lies was a large lake with some shallow areas. There are multiple stories of how the place got its name. The most popular story is that in the shallow waters sudden violent storms could claim many ships. This was the main reason for reclaiming it. In English, Schiphol translates to "Ship Grave", a reference to many ships supposedly lost in the lake. When the lake was reclaimed, however, no ship wrecks were found. Another possible origin of the name is the word 'scheepshaal'. A scheepshaal is a ditch or little canal in which ships would be towed from one lake to another. A third explanation would be that the name derived from the words "scip hol". This is a low-lying area of land (hol) from where wood would be obtained to build ships.[11]

Schiphol opened on 16 September 1916 as a military airbase, with a few barracks and a field serving as platform and runways. When civil aircraft started to use the field (17 December 1920), it was often called Schiphol-les-bains. The Fokker aircraft manufacturer started a factory near Schiphol airport in 1919.[12] The end of the First World War also saw the beginning of civilian use of Schiphol Airport and the airport eventually lost its military role completely.

By 1940, Schiphol had four asphalt runways at 45-degree angles, all 1,020 metres (3,350 ft) or less. One was extended to become today's runway 04/22; two others crossed that runway at 52°18′43″N 4°48′00″E / 52.312°N 4.800°E / 52.312; 4.800. The airport was captured by the German military that same year and renamed Fliegerhorst Schiphol. A large amount of anti-aircraft defences were installed in the vicinity of the airport and fake decoy airfields were constructed in the vicinity near Bennebroek, Vijfhuizen and Vogelenzang in an attempt to confuse allied bombers. A railway connection was also constructed. Despite these defences, the airfield was still bombed intensively, and an exceptionally heavy attack on 13 December 1943 caused so much damage that it rendered the airfield unusable as an active base. After that, it served only as an emergency landing field, until the Germans themselves destroyed the remainders of the airfield at the start of Operation Market Garden. At the end of the war, the airfield was restored quickly, with the first aircraft, a Douglas DC-3, landing again on 8 July 1945.[13]

The air traffic control tower at Schiphol in 1960
The apron in 1965

A new terminal building was completed in 1949 and it was decided that Schiphol was to become the primary airport of the Netherlands. Expansion came at the cost of a small town called Rijk, which was demolished to make room for the growing airport. The name of this town is remembered in the name of the present Schiphol-Rijk industrial estate. In 1967, Dutch designer Benno Wissing created signage for Schiphol Airport well known for its clear writing and thorough color-coding; to avoid confusion, he prohibited any other signage in the shades of yellow and green used.[14] This was part of the new terminal building that replaced the older facilities once located on what is now the east side of the airport. The A-Pier of the airport was modified in 1970 to allow Boeing 747 aircraft to make use of the boarding gates.

The construction of a new Air Traffic Control tower was completed in 1991 as the existing tower could no longer oversee all of the airport. New wayfinding signage was designed that year as well by Paul Mijksenaar.[15] A sixth runway was completed at quite some distance west of the rest of airport in 2003 and was nicknamed the Polderbaan, with the connecting taxiway crossing the A5 motorway. The distance of this runway means that taxi times to and from this runway can take between 10 and 20 minutes. It also required the construction of an additional Air Traffic Control tower as the primary tower is too far away to oversee this part of the airfield.[16]

On 25 February 2005, a diamond robbery occurred at Schiphol's cargo terminal. The robbers used a stolen KLM van to gain airside access. The estimated value of the stones was around 75 million euros, making it one of the largest diamond robberies ever.[17] Later that year, a fire broke out at the airport's detention centre, killing 11 people and injuring 15. The complex was holding 350 people at the time of the incident. Results from the investigation almost one year later showed that fire safety precautions were not in force. A national outrage resulted in the resignation of Justice Minister Donner (CDA) and Mayor Hartog of Haarlemmermeer. Spatial Planning Minister Dekker (VVD) resigned as well, because she bore responsibility for the construction, safety, and maintenance of state-owned buildings.

Infrastructure[edit]

Map showing the six runways of Schiphol
Air Traffic Control Towers at Schiphol
KLM Cargo Boeing 747-400ERF on the Taxiway Bridge crossing the Highway A4 E19
Schiphol Airport Library

Terminal[edit]

Schiphol uses a one-terminal concept, where all facilities are located under a single roof, radiating from the central plaza. The terminal, though, is divided into three sections or halls designated 1, 2 and 3. To all of these halls, piers or concourses are connected. However, it is possible, on both sides of security or border inspection, to walk from between piers, even those connected to different halls. The exception to this is the low-cost pier M: once airside (past security), passengers cannot access any other areas. Border control separates Schengen from non-Schengen areas. Schiphol Airport has approximately 165 boarding gates.

Schiphol has large shopping areas as a source of revenue and as an additional attraction for passengers. Schiphol Plaza is the shopping centre before customs, hence it is used by air travelers and non-traveling visitors.

Departure Hall 1[edit]

Departure Hall 1 consists of Piers B and C, both of which are dedicated Schengen areas. Pier B has 14 gates and Pier C has 21 gates.

Departure Hall 2[edit]

Departure Hall 2 consists of Piers D and E.

Pier D is the largest pier and has two levels. The lower floor houses non-Schengen flights and the upper floor is used for Schengen flights. By using stairs, the same jetways are used to access the aircraft. Schengen gates are numbered beginning with D-59; non-Schengen gates are numbered from D-1 to D-57.

Pier E is a dedicated non-Schengen area and has 14 gates. It is typically home to SkyTeam hub airlines Delta Air Lines and KLM, along with other members, such as China Airlines and China Southern Airlines. Other Middle Eastern and Asian airlines such as EVA Air, Etihad Airways, Iran Air and Air Astana also typically operate out of Pier E.

Departure Hall 3[edit]

Departure Hall 3 consists of piers F, G, H and M. Pier F has 8 gates and is typically dominated by SkyTeam members such as primary airline KLM, Kenya Airways, China Airlines and China Southern Airlines, and other members. Pier G has 13 gates and is, except for pier E, the only terminal that handles daily Airbus A380 service, by Emirates and China Southern Airlines. Piers H and M have 7 gates each and are home to low-cost airlines. Piers F, G and H are non-Schengen areas. Pier M is a dedicated Schengen area.

General aviation terminal[edit]

A new general aviation terminal was opened in 2011 on the east side of the airport, operated as the KLM Jet Center. The new terminal building has a floorspace of 6,000 m2 (65,000 sq ft); 1,000 m2 (11,000 sq ft) for the actual terminal and lounges, 4,000 m2 (43,000 sq ft) for office space and 1,000 m2 (11,000 sq ft) for parking.[18]

Other facilities[edit]

The Rijksmuseum operates an annex at the airport, offering a small overview of both classical and contemporary art.[19] Admission to the exhibits is free. The airport museum is closed until the end of 2016, due to refurbishment.

In summer 2010, Schiphol Airport Library opened alongside the museum, providing passengers access to a collection of 1,200 books (translated into 29 languages) by Dutch authors on subjects relating to the country's history and culture. The 89.9 m2 (968 sq ft) library offers e-books and music by Dutch artists and composers that can be downloaded free of charge to a laptop or mobile device.[20] The Schiphol Airport Library closed in September 2014 for refurbishment until the end of 2016.

For aviation enthusiasts, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol has a large rooftop viewing area, called the Panoramaterras. It is not accessible to connecting passengers unless they first exit the airport. Enthusiasts and the public can enter, free of charge, from the airport's landside. Since June 2011, it is the location for a KLM Cityhopper Fokker 100, modified to be a viewing exhibit.[21] Besides the Panoramaterras, Schiphol has other spotting sites, especially along the newest Polderbaan runway and at the McDonald's restaurant at the north side of the airport.

Schiphol has its own mortuary, where the dead can be handled and kept before departure or after arrival. Since October 2006, people can also hold a wedding ceremony at Schiphol.[22]

Schiphol also has a new state-of-the-art cube-shaped Hilton hotel with 433 rooms, rounded corners and diamond-shaped windows. The spacious atrium has a 41-metre-high (135 ft) ceiling made of glass and is in the heart of the building. A covered walkway connect the hotels directly to the terminal. The hotel was completed in 2015.[23]

Future expansions[edit]

In 2012, Schiphol Group announced an expansion of Schiphol, featuring a new pier,[24] an expansion of the terminal, and a new parking garage.[25] Pier A will be part of Departure Hall 1, which already has Pier B (14 gates) and Pier C (21 gates). The new Pier A will have 11 gates for flexible use. It can handle either 3 wide-body aircraft and 5 narrow-body aircraft, or 11 narrow-body aircraft.[26] The first activities are expected to start in 2017 and to be completed in 2019. The expansions will cost about 500 million euros.

The new Pier A will be built next to Pier B, in an area now used as a freight platform for planes. Pier A will mainly be used for flights within Europe. To handle the extra passengers that come with this new pier, Schiphol will eventually expand the terminal and build new facilities for check-ins and arrivals. From the new building, direct access will be made to the platforms of the underground railway station. When the new terminal is finished in 2023, Schiphol will be able to handle over 70 million passengers.[27]

Tower[edit]

EasyJet A319 departing runway 36L, which has a dedicated tower for Polderbaan operations only.

The Schiphol air traffic control tower, with a height of 101 m (331 ft), was the tallest in the world when constructed in 1991. Schiphol is geographically one of the world's lowest major commercial airports. The entire airport is below sea level; the lowest point sits at 3.4 m (11 ft) below sea level (or 1.4 m (4.5 ft) below the Dutch Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP)); the runways are around 3 m (9.8 ft) below NAP.[28][29]

Runways[edit]

Schiphol has six runways, one of which is used mainly by general aviation.[5]

Number Runway direction/code Length
(in metres and feet)
Runway common name Source of the name Surface Notes
1 18R/36L 3,800 m
12,467 ft
Polderbaan Decided via contest. 'Polder' is the Dutch word for land reclaimed from a body of water. Schiphol Airport is situated in a polder. Asphalt Newest runway, opened 2003. Own control tower.
Located to reduce the noise impact on the surrounding population. Takeoffs only northbound and landings only southbound. The nearest end is located 5 km (3.1 mi) from the terminal building, and aircraft have a lengthy 15-minute taxi to and from the Terminal.
2 06/24 3,500 m
11,483 ft
Kaagbaan Named after the Kagerplassen, a cluster of lakes which lies beyond the end of the runway Asphalt The Kaagbaan offered a location for spotters until the spotting location was closed in January 2008.[30]
3 09/27 3,453 m
11,329 ft
Buitenveldertbaan Named after Buitenveldert, a part of Amsterdam Asphalt El Al Flight 1862 was trying to make an emergency landing on this runway when it crashed into a block of flats in the Bijlmermeer.[31]
4 18L/36R 3,400 m
11,155 ft
Aalsmeerbaan Named after Aalsmeer Asphalt
5 18C/36C 3,300 m
10,826 ft
Zwanenburgbaan Named after the village Zwanenburg Asphalt El Al Flight 1862 took off from this runway before crashing into flats in the Bijlmermeer when the plane was trying to return to the airport.[31]
6 04/22 2,014 m
6,608 ft
Oostbaan Most Eastern (Oost) of all runways Asphalt In October 2010 a B-737 of Corendon Airlines overshot this short runway and ended up with its nosegear in the mud.[32]

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

Note: The concourses listed are not definite since very few airlines have dedicated piers or gates; the piers listed below are based on typical operations.

Airlines Destinations Concourse
Adria Airways Ljubljana, Łódź B
Aegean Airlines Athens
Seasonal: Heraklion, Rhodes
B
Aer Lingus Cork, Dublin D
Aeroflot Moscow–Sheremetyevo D, G
Aeroméxico Mexico City E, F
Air Arabia Maroc Casablanca, Nador, Tangier D, G
Air Astana Atyrau D
Air Cairo Cairo
Charter: Luxor
G
Air Canada Toronto–Pearson E, G
Air Europa Madrid C
Air France Marseille, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Strasbourg C
Air France
operated by HOP!
Clermont–Ferrand, Nantes, Rennes, Strasbourg C
Air Malta Malta B
Air Serbia Belgrade D
Air Transat Seasonal: Calgary, Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver E, G
airBaltic Riga, Tallinn, Vilnius B
Alitalia Milan–Linate, Rome–Fiumicino B
American Airlines Philadelphia
Seasonal: Dallas/Fort Worth (begins 6 May 2017)[33]
D, E, G
Arkia Seasonal: Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion G
AtlasGlobal Istanbul–Atatürk G
Austrian Airlines Vienna B
Belavia Minsk D
British Airways London–Gatwick, London–Heathrow D
British Airways
operated by BA CityFlyer
London–City D
Bulgaria Air Sofia
Charter: Burgas
D
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong G
China Airlines Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi (ends 2 December 2016),[34] Taipei–Taoyuan F
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai–Pudong F
China Southern Airlines Beijing–Capital, Guangzhou F
CityJet London–City C
Corendon Airlines Alanya/Gazipaşa, Ankara, Antalya, Bodrum, Dalaman, İzmir, Kayseri, Konya D, G
Corendon Dutch Airlines Antalya, Bodrum, Elazığ, Ercan, Gran Canaria, Hurghada, Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen, Nador, Tetouan
Seasonal: Aqaba, Banjul, Burgas, Eilat–Ovda, Fuerteventura, Girona, Heraklion, Lanzarote, Málaga, Marrakesh, Marsa Alam, Ohrid, Palma de Mallorca, Plovdiv
D, G
Croatia Airlines Zagreb
Seasonal: Dubrovnik, Pula
D
Czech Airlines Prague C
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–JFK, Newark, Portland (OR), Salt Lake City, Seattle/Tacoma D, E, G
easyJet Belfast–International, Berlin–Schönefeld, Bordeaux, Bristol, Budapest (begins 6 February 2017),[35] Catania, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Hamburg, Lisbon, Liverpool, London–Gatwick, London–Luton, London–Southend, London–Stansted, Lyon, Málaga, Manchester, Marseille, Milan–Linate, Milan–Malpensa, Naples, Nice, Olbia, Palma de Mallorca, Prague, Rome–Fiumicino, Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion, Toulouse, Venice, Vienna, Zürich (begins 31 October 2016)[36]
Seasonal: Corfu, Dubrovnik, Grenoble, Ibiza, Palermo, Rhodes, Salzburg, Split, Tenerife–South
H, M
easyJet Switzerland Basel/Mulhouse, Geneva M
EgyptAir Cairo G
El Al Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion G
Emirates Dubai–International G
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi E
Eurowings
operated by Germanwings
Hamburg, Stuttgart B
EVA Air Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Taipei–Taoyuan E, G
Finnair Helsinki B
Flybe Birmingham, Doncaster/Sheffield, Dundee, Exeter, London–City, Manchester, Nottingham/East Midlands, Southampton D, H
Garuda Indonesia Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta^1 D, G
Georgian Airways Tbilisi D
Iberia Express Madrid B
Icelandair Reykjavík–Keflavík C
Iran Air Tehran–Imam Khomeini E
Israir Airlines Seasonal: Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion G
Jet Airways Delhi, Mumbai, Toronto–Pearson D, E
Jet2.com Leeds/Bradford H
Jetairfly Nador, Tangier C, D, E, G
Kenya Airways Nairobi–Jomo Kenyatta F
KLM Aberdeen, Alicante, Athens, Barcelona, Bergen, Berlin–Tegel, Bilbao, Billund, Birmingham, Bordeaux, Brussels, Bucharest, Budapest, Copenhagen, Edinburgh, Geneva, Glasgow, Gothenburg–Landvetter, Hamburg, Helsinki, Istanbul–Atatürk, Kiev–Boryspil, Lisbon, London–Heathrow, Lyon, Madrid, Manchester, Milan–Linate, Montpellier, Moscow–Sheremetyevo, Munich, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nice, Nuremberg, Oslo, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Prague, Rome–Fiumicino, Saint Petersburg, Stavanger, Stockholm–Arlanda, Stuttgart, Toulouse, Valencia, Venice, Vienna, Warsaw–Chopin, Zagreb, Zürich
Seasonal: Ibiza
B, C, D
KLM Abu Dhabi, Accra, Almaty, Aruba, Astana, Atlanta, Bahrain, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Beijing–Capital, Bogotá, Bonaire, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Cairo (suspended from 6 January 2017),[37] Calgary, Cali, Cape Town, Chengdu, Chicago–O'Hare, Curaçao, Dammam, Dar es Salaam, Delhi, Denpasar/Bali, Doha, Dubai–International, Edmonton, Entebbe, Guayaquil, Hangzhou, Havana, Hong Kong, Houston–Intercontinental, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Johannesburg–O.R. Tambo, Kigali, Kilimanjaro, Kuala Lumpur–International, Kuwait, Lagos, Lima, Los Angeles, Luanda, Manila, Mexico City, Montréal–Trudeau, Muscat, Nairobi–Jomo Kenyatta, New York–JFK, Osaka–Kansai, Panama City, Paramaribo, Quito, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, San Francisco, Santiago de Chile, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Singapore, Sint Maarten, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tehran–Imam Khomeini (resumes 30 October 2016),[38] Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion, Tokyo–Narita, Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver, Washington–Dulles, Windhoek-Hosea Kutako (begins 30 October 2016),[39] Xiamen
Seasonal: Colombo (resumes 31 October 2016),[40] Miami (resumes 30 October 2016),[40] Salt Lake City
D, E, F
KLM
operated by KLM Cityhopper
Aalborg, Aberdeen, Ålesund, Basel/Mulhouse, Belfast–City, Berlin–Tegel, Bilbao, Billund, Bologna, Bordeaux, Bremen, Bristol, Brussels, Cardiff, Copenhagen, Dresden, Dublin (begins 30 October 2016),[41] Durham Tees Valley, Düsseldorf, Edinburgh, Florence, Frankfurt, Geneva, Genoa, Gothenburg–Landvetter, Hamburg, Hanover, Helsinki, Humberside, Inverness, Kraków, Kristiansand, Leeds/Bradford, Linköping, London–Heathrow, Luxembourg, Lyon, Manchester, Montpellier, Munich, Nice, Norwich, Nuremberg, Prague, Sandefjord, Southampton, Stuttgart, Toulouse, Trondheim, Turin, Venice, Vienna, Zagreb, Zürich B, C, D
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon F
LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw–Chopin C
Lufthansa Frankfurt B
Lufthansa Regional
operated by Lufthansa CityLine
Frankfurt, Munich B
Malmö Aviation Seasonal: Umeå B
Meridiana Seasonal: Cagliari B
Nordica Tallinn B
Norwegian Air Shuttle Copenhagen, Oslo, Stockholm–Arlanda D, M
Onur Air Istanbul–Atatürk G
Pegasus Airlines Antalya, Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen D, G
Qatar Airways Doha D, G
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca, Nador, Tangier
Seasonal: Al Hoceima, Oujda
D, G
Royal Jordanian Amman–Queen Alia D, G
Ryanair Dublin H
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen, Oslo, Stockholm–Arlanda C
Singapore Airlines Singapore G
SkyWork Airlines Bern B
Sun D'Or
operated by El Al
Seasonal: Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion G
SunExpress İzmir
Seasonal: Antalya, Kayseri, Konya
G
SunExpress Deutschland Seasonal: Al Hoceima (begins 3 November 2016)[42]
Seasonal Charter: Nador
D, G
Surinam Airways Paramaribo G
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich B, C, D
TACV Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Praia, Sao Vicente D, G
TAP Portugal Lisbon B
TAP Portugal
operated by Portugália
Porto B
TAROM Bucharest D
Thomas Cook Airlines Seasonal Charter: Gran Canaria, Palma de Mallorca, Tenerife–South TBA
Transavia Agadir, Alicante, Athens, Barcelona, Bari, Bergerac, Casablanca, Catania, Faro, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Gran Canaria, Ibiza, Innsbruck, La Palma, Lanzarote, Larnaca, Lisbon, Málaga, Marrakech, Munich (begins 17 January 2017),[43] Naples, Nice, Palma de Mallorca, Paris–Orly, Pisa, Porto, Seville, Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion, Tenerife–South, Thessaloniki, Turin, Valencia, Venice, Zürich (begins 21 February 2017)[44]
Seasonal: Ajaccio, Antalya, Bodrum, Chambéry, Chania, Chios, Corfu, Dalaman, Dubai–International, Dubrovnik, Girona, Heraklion, İzmir, Kalamata, Kefalonia, Kos, Malta, Menorca, Mykonos, Olbia, Palermo, Paphos, Preveza, Rhodes, Sal, Salzburg, Samos, Santorini, Verona, Volos, Zakynthos
B, C, D, E
Transavia France Paris–Orly C
TUI Airlines Netherlands Charter: Alicante, Antalya, Aruba, Banjul, Boa Vista, Bodrum, Bonaire, Burgas, Cancún, Curaçao, Dalaman, Dubai–International, Faro, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Gran Canaria, Heraklion, Holguín, Hurghada, Lanzarote, Málaga, Minorca, Miami, Montego bay, Orlando/Sanford, Palma de Mallorca, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Rhodes, Sal, Sharm el-Sheikh, Sint Maarten, Tenerife–South, Varadero, Zanzibar
Seasonal charter: Catania (begins 21 April 2017),Corfu, Dakar, Girona, Ibiza, İzmir, Karpathos, Kefalonia, Kittilä, Kos, La Palma, Marsa Alam, Mauritius, Ohrid, Pico, Ponta Delgada, Porto Santo (begins 13 May 2017),[45] Pula, Samos, Sitia, Terceira, Tivat, Toronto–Pearson, Varna (begins 25 May 2017),[46] Zakynthos
C, D, E, G
TUI Airlines Netherlands
operated by Jetairfly
Charter: Brussels, Miami, Orlando/Sanford C, D, E, G
Tunisair Tunis D, G
Turkish Airlines Ankara, Istanbul–Atatürk, Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen G
Ukraine International Airlines Kiev–Boryspil D
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental, Newark, Washington–Dulles D, E, G
Vueling Alicante, Barcelona, Bilbao, Gran Canaria, Lisbon, London–Luton, Málaga, Milan–Malpensa, Porto, Rome–Fiumicino
Seasonal: Ibiza, Naples, Palma de Mallorca, Santiago de Compostela, Seville, Valencia
B
WOW air Reykjavík–Keflavík M
XiamenAir Xiamen F
Zagrosjet Erbil D

^1 Some of Garuda Indonesia's flights from Jakarta to Amsterdam stop in Singapore, but all flights from Amsterdam to Jakarta are nonstop.

Cargo[edit]

Airlines Destinations
Air China Cargo Shanghai–Pudong, Tianjin
AirBridgeCargo Airlines Anchorage, Chengdu, Chicago–O'Hare, Khabarovsk, Los Angeles, Moscow–Domodedovo, Moscow–Sheremetyevo, Novosibirsk, Shanghai–Pudong, Zhengzhou
Cargolux Luxembourg
Cathay Pacific Cargo Chennai, Dubai–Al Maktoum, Frankfurt, Hong Kong
Centurion Air Cargo Caracas, Houston–Intercontinental, Miami
China Airlines Cargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Dubai–Al Maktoum, Prague, Taipei–Taoyuan
China Cargo Airlines Shanghai–Pudong, Tianjin, Zhengzhou
China Southern Airlines Cargo Chongqing, Guangzhou, Shanghai–Pudong, Vienna
Coyne Airways Tbilisi
DHL Aviation East Midlands, London–Heathrow
Emirates SkyCargo Columbus-Rickenbacker, Dubai–Al Maktoum, Houston–Intercontinental
Etihad Cargo
operated by Atlas Air
Abu Dhabi, Barbados, Bogotá, Nairobi–Jomo Kenyatta, San Juan
FedEx Express Oslo, Paris–Charles de Gaulle
Iran Air Cargo Tehran Imam-Khomeini
Kalitta Air Bahrain
Korean Air Cargo Seoul–Incheon
LANCO Bogotá, Miami
LATAM Cargo Chile Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Cabo Frio, Campinas–Viracopos, Curitiba, Santiago de Chile
Lufthansa Cargo Aguadilla, Bogotá, Frankfurt
Martinair[47] Aguadilla, Bogotá, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Campinas–Viracopos, Caracas, Cairo, Dar es Salaam, Entebbe, Guatemala City, Harare, Johannesburg–O. R. Tambo, Kigali, Lima, London–Stansted, Lusaka, Miami, Nairobi–Jomo Kenyatta, Quito, Santiago de Chile
MASkargo Baku, Kuala Lumpur–International, Singapore[48]
MNG Airlines Istanbul–Atatürk, Munich, Tripoli–Mitiga
Nippon Cargo Airlines Tokyo–Narita
Qatar Airways Cargo Chicago–O'Hare, Doha
Saudia Cargo Dammam, Jeddah, Johannesburg–O. R. Tambo, Nairobi–Jomo Kenyatta
Silk Way Airlines Baku
Singapore Airlines Cargo Bangalore, Chennai, Chicago–O'Hare, Copenhagen, Johannesburg–O. R. Tambo, London–Heathrow, Mumbai, Sharjah, Singapore
Thai Airways Cargo Bangkok–Suvarbhumi, Chennai
Turkish Airlines Cargo Istanbul–Atatürk, London–Stansted
Uzbekistan Airways Navoi
Yangtze River Express Munich, Shanghai–Pudong, Tianjin, Zhengzhou

Other users[edit]

Other regular users of Schiphol are the Dutch Coast Guard whose aircraft are operated by the Royal Netherlands Air Force, the Dienst Luchtvaart Politie and the Dutch Dakota Association.

Statistics[edit]

easyJet Airbus A319 in Amsterdam
KLM Boeing 777-200ER in Amsterdam
Busiest European Routes from Amsterdam Airport (2015)
Rank Airport Passengers 2015 Change % Carriers
1  UK, London (Heathrow), United Kingdom 1,587,992 Increase6.8 British Airways, KLM, KLM Cityhopper
2  Spain, Barcelona, Spain 1,202,517 Decrease-1.3 KLM, Transavia, Vueling
3  France, Paris (Charles de Gaulle), France 1,150,297 Decrease-0.8 Air France, KLM
4  Italy, Rome (Fiumicino), Italy 1,139,727 Increase10.8 Alitalia, easyJet, KLM, Vueling
5  UK, London (Gatwick), United Kingdom 1,041,133 Increase18.9 British Airways, easyJet, Garuda Indonesia
6  Spain, Madrid, Spain 925,200 Increase10.1 Air Europa, KLM, Iberia Express
7  Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark 913,084 Increase2.8 KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Scandinavian Airlines
8  UK, Manchester, United Kingdom 858,149 Increase17.1 easyJet, FlyBe, KLM, KLM Cityhopper
9  Germany, Frankfurt, Germany 799,450 Increase6.1 KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Lufthansa, Lufthansa CityLine
10  Germany, Munich, Germany 789,482 Increase7.9 KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Lufthansa, Lufthansa CityLine
11  Turkey, Istanbul (Atatürk), Turkey 777,526 Increase23.7 AtlasGlobal, Corendon, KLM, Onur Air, Turkish Airlines
12   Switzerland, Zürich, Switzerland 761,115 Increase5.6 KLM, KLM Cityhopper, Swiss International Air Lines
13  Sweden, Stockholm (Arlanda), Sweden 735,084 Increase6.3 KLM, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Scandinavian Airlines
14  Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal 669,419 Increase0.2 easyJet, KLM, TAP Portugal, Transavia
15   Switzerland, Geneva, Switzerland 649,621 Increase1.6 easyJet Switzerland, KLM, KLM Cityhopper
16  Norway, Oslo (Gardermoen), Norway 641,066 Increase4.3 KLM, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Scandinavian Airlines
17  Italy, Milan (Linate), Italy 624,820 Increase14.1 Alitalia, easyJet, KLM
18  UK, Edinburgh, United Kingdom 619,604 Increase3.2 easyJet, KLM, KLM Cityhopper
19  Ireland, Dublin, Ireland 608,252 Increase18.4 Aer Lingus, Ryanair
20  Turkey, Antalya, Turkey 588,583 Decrease−18.4 Corendon Airlines, Corendon Dutch Airlines, SunExpress, Transavia, TUI Airlines Netherlands
Source: http://trafficreview2015.schipholmagazines.nl/assets/traffic-review-2015.pdf
Busiest Intercontinental Routes from Amsterdam Airport (2015)
Rank Airport Passengers 2015 Change % Carriers
1  UAE, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 816,578 Increase19.7 Emirates, KLM, Transavia, TUI Airlines Netherlands
2  USA, Atlanta, United States 777,557 Increase4.0 Delta, KLM
3  USA, New York (JFK), United States 661,932 Decrease-0.6 Delta, KLM
4  USA, Detroit, United States 598,460 Decrease−4.0 Delta
5  USA, Minneapolis/Saint Paul, United States 471,644 Increase3.1 Delta
6  Curacao, Curaçao, Curaçao 459,426 Increase7.8 KLM, TUI Airlines Netherlands
7  Thailand, Bangkok (Suvarnabhumi), Thailand 447,582 Increase0,8 China Airlines, EVA Air, KLM
8  Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya 430,321 Increase0,8 Kenya Airways, KLM
9  Canada, Toronto, Canada 418,507 Increase13.9 Air Canada, Air Transat, KLM, TUI Airlines Netherlands
10  Hong_Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong 406,468 Increase11.2 Cathay Pacific, KLM
11  Israel, Tel Aviv, Israel 390,914 Increase12.2 Arkia Israel Airlines, easyJet, El Al, Israir, KLM, Transavia
12  UAE, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 379,852 Increase19.8 Etihad Airways, KLM
13  Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 346,155 Increase2.2 KLM, Singapore Airlines
14  China, Beijing (Capital), China 315,145 Increase1.1 China Southern, KLM
15  USA, Houston, United States 311,191 Decrease-7.9 KLM, United Airlines
16  China, Shanghai (Pudong), China 294,716 Increase1.6 China Eastern, KLM
17  USA, Los Angeles, United States 281,929 Increase7.8 KLM
18  Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 274,767 Decrease-3.8 KLM
19  USA, Washington (Dulles), United States 262,498 Increase0.2 KLM, United Airlines
20  Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname 262,059 Increase4.1 KLM, Surinam Airways
Source: http://trafficreview2015.schipholmagazines.nl/assets/traffic-review-2015.pdf
Countries with most air traffic movements from Amsterdam Airport (2015)
Rank Country movements 2015 Change %
1  UK 87,199 Increase3.9
2  Germany 44,983 Decrease-1.4
3  Spain 29,165 Increase6.5
4  France 28,234 Increase6.7
5  Italy 27,606 Increase11.8
6  US 22,647 Increase4.6
7  Norway 19,043 Decrease-0.2
8   Switzerland 17,167 Increase2.3
9  Turkey 15,938 Decrease-1.3
10  Denmark 13,301 Increase1.8
Source: http://trafficreview2015.schipholmagazines.nl/assets/traffic-review-2015.pdf
Countries with passenger movements from/to Amsterdam Airport (2015)
Rank Country Passengers 2015 Change %
1  UK 8,964,262 Increase9.0
2  US 4,992,872 Increase3.4
3  Spain 4,447,349 Increase7.1
4  Germany 3,932,938 Increase8.9
5  Italy 3,529,587 Increase13.3
6  France 2,894,698 Increase11.3
7  Turkey 2,368,430 Decrease-3.5
8   Switzerland 1,796,623 Increase6.7
9  Norway 1,737,096 Increase3.2
10  Denmark 1,418,665 Increase4.9
Source: http://trafficreview2015.schipholmagazines.nl/assets/traffic-review-2015.pdf

Other facilities[edit]

The Convair Building, which houses KLM Cityhopper and KLM offices, and the original Schiphol control tower

The TransPort Building on the Schiphol Airport property houses the head offices of Martinair and Transavia.[49] Construction of the building, which has 10,800 m2 (116,000 sq ft) of rentable space, began on 17 March 2009. Schiphol Group and the architect firm Paul de Ruiter designed the building, while De Vries and Verburg, a firm of Stolwijk, constructed the building.[50]

The World Trade Center Schiphol Airport houses the head office of SkyTeam,[51][52] the Netherlands office of China Southern Airlines,[53] and the Netherlands offices of Iran Air.[54] The head office of Schiphol Group, the airport's operator, is located on the airport property.[55] The Convair Building, with its development beginning after a parcel was earmarked for its development in 1999, houses KLM offices,[56] including KLM Recruitment Services and the head office of KLM Cityhopper.[57][58] The original control tower of Schiphol Airport, which the airport authorities had moved slightly from its original location, now houses a restaurant.[56] The area Schiphol-Rijk includes the head offices of TUI Airlines Netherlands and Amsterdam Airlines.[59][60]

At one time KLM had its head office on the grounds of Schiphol Airport.[61] Its current head office in Amstelveen had a scheduled completion at the end of 1970.[62] Previously Martinair had its head office in the Schiphol Center (Dutch: Schiphol Centrum) at Schiphol Airport.[63][64] Formerly, the head office of Transavia was in the Building Triport III at Schiphol Airport.[65][66][67] NLM Cityhopper and later KLM Cityhopper previously had their head offices in Schiphol Airport building 70.[68][68]

Nippon Cargo Airlines has its Europe regional headquarters at Schiphol.[69] The National Aerospace Museum Aviodome–Schiphol was previously located at Schiphol.[70] In 2003 the museum moved to Lelystad Airport and was renamed the "Aviodrome."[71]

Ground transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

The construction of the tunnel and railway station in 1992

The Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS), the national Dutch train operator, has a major passenger railway station directly underneath the passenger terminal complex that offers transportation into Amsterdam, Utrecht, The Hague, Rotterdam and many other cities.[72] There are intercity connections to Lelystad, Amsterdam Centraal, Utrecht Centraal, both The Hague Centraal and The Hague HS, Rotterdam Centraal, Eindhoven, 's-Hertogenbosch, Leeuwarden, Groningen, Enschede, Arnhem, Nijmegen and Heerlen. Schiphol is also a stop for the Thalys international high-speed train, connecting the airport directly to Antwerp, Brussels, Lille and Paris Gare du Nord, as well as to Bourg St Maurice (winter) and Marseille (summer).

Bus[edit]

Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is also easily accessible by bus, as many services call or terminate at the bus station located outside in front of the terminal building.[73]

Destination Service(s) Remarks
Aalsmeer 198
Alphen aan den Rijn 370
Amstelveen 186, 187, 199, 300, night bus N30
Amsterdam, Leidseplein/Innercity 197, night bus N97 Airport Express Bus Leidseplein is the closest destination to Amsterdam's city centre
that is served by bus from Schiphol.
Amsterdam, Osdorp 69, 194
Amsterdam, Slotervaart 69
Amsterdam, Amsterdam–Zuid and Buitenveldert 310
Haarlem 300, night bus N30
Hoofddorp 300, 310, night bus N30
Keukenhof Gardens 858 (seasonal)
Lisse 361
Leimuiden 370
Ouderkerk aan de Amstel 300, night bus N30
Noordwijk 361
Sassenheim 361
Vijfhuizen 300, night bus N30
Zoetermeer 365

The Taiwanese EVA Air provides private bus services from Schiphol to Belgium for its Belgium-based customers. The service, which departs from and arrives at bus stop C11, goes to Sint-Gillis, Brussels (near the Brussels-South (Midi) railway station) and Berchem, Antwerp (near Antwerp-Berchem bus station). The service is co-operated with Reizen Lauwers NV.[74]

Car[edit]

Schiphol Airport can easily be reached by car via the A4 and A9 motorways.

Incidents and accidents[edit]

The crash site of El Al Flight 1862 in 1992
The crash site of Turkish Airlines Flight 1951 on 25 February 2009
  • On 14 November 1946, a Douglas C-47 operated by KLM from London approached Schiphol during bad weather conditions. The first two attempts to land failed. During the third attempt, the pilot realized that the airplane was not lined up properly with the runway. The aircraft made a sharp left turn at low speed, causing the left wing to hit the ground. The airplane crashed and caught fire, killing all 26 people on board.
  • On 4 October 1992, El Al Flight 1862, a Boeing 747-200F cargo jet en route to Tel Aviv, lost both right-wing engines (#3 and #4) just after taking off from Schiphol and crashed into an apartment building in the Bijlmer neighbourhood of Amsterdam while attempting to return to the airport. A total of 43 people were killed, including the plane's crew of three and a non-revenue passenger. Several others were injured.
  • On 4 April 1994, Flight KL433 to Cardiff, a Saab 340 operated by KLM Cityhopper, returned to Schiphol after setting the number two engine to flight idle because the crew mistakenly believed that the engine suffered from low oil pressure because of a faulty warning light. On final approach at a height of 90 ft (27 m), the captain decided to go-around and gave full throttle on only the number one engine leaving the other in flight idle. The airplane rolled to the right, pitched up, stalled and hit the ground at 80 degrees bank. Of the twenty-four people on board, three were killed including the captain. Nine others were seriously injured.
  • On 25 February 2009, Turkish Airlines Flight 1951, a Boeing 737-800 from Istanbul crashed on approach, just 1 km (0.6 mi) short of the airport's Polderbaan runway. The plane carried 128 passengers and 7 crew on board. 9 people were killed and a further 86 were injured, including six with serious injuries. Four of the dead were employees of Boeing, involved in an advanced radar deal with Turkey. An initial report from the Dutch Safety Board revealed that the left radio altimeter had failed to provide the correct height above the ground and suddenly reported −8 ft (−2.4 m). As a result of this the autothrottle system closed the thrust levers to idle, as it is programmed to reduce thrust when below 27 ft (8.2 m) radio altitude. This eventually resulted in a dropping airspeed that was not acted upon until it was too late to recover, and the aircraft stalled and crashed in a field.

Canon of Amsterdam[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

  • Heuvel, Coen van den. Schiphol, een Wereldluchthaven in Beeld, Holkema & Warendorf, 1992, 978-9-0269-6271-4

External links[edit]