Amtrak Cascades

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Amtrak Cascades
AmtrakCascadesLogo.svg
Amtrak Cascades 2006.jpg
The Cascades at Seattle's Carkeek Park in 2006
Overview
Service type Inter-city rail
Status Active
Locale Pacific Northwest
First service May 1, 1971
Current operator(s) Amtrak
Ridership 2,038 daily
792,481 total (FY16)
Website www.amtrakcascades.com
Route
Start Vancouver, BC
Stops 18
End Eugene, OR
Distance travelled 467 miles (752 km)
Train number(s) northbound (even): 500, 502, 504, 506, 508, 510, 516
southbound (odd): 501, 503, 505, 507, 509, 513, 517
On-board services
Class(es) Business class, Coach class
Catering facilities Bistro car
Observation facilities Lounge car
Baggage facilities Checked baggage available at select stations
Technical
Rolling stock EMD F59PHI diesel locomotives
Talgo articulated tilting train sets
Non-Powered Control Units (former EMD F40PH locomotives)
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Operating speed 79 mph (127 km/h) (top)
Track owner(s) Union Pacific and BNSF

The Amtrak Cascades is a passenger train route in the Pacific Northwest, operated by Amtrak in partnership with the U.S. states of Washington and Oregon and the Canadian province of British Columbia. It is named after the Cascade mountain range that the route parallels.

The corridor runs 157 miles (253 km) from Vancouver, British Columbia south to Seattle, Washington, continuing 310 miles (500 km) south via Portland, Oregon to Eugene, Oregon. No train travels the entire length of the 467-mile (752 km) corridor from Vancouver, British Columbia to Eugene, Oregon.

As of February 2016, two daily trains operate between Vancouver, BC and Seattle or Portland, four daily trains operate between Seattle and Portland, and two trains operate between Eugene and Seattle or Portland.[1] In December 2017 four new daily trains will be added to create two new round trips between Seattle and Portland.[2] For trains that do not travel directly to Vancouver, BC or Eugene, connections are available on Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach services.[1] Additionally, Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach services offer connections to other destinations in British Columbia, Idaho, Oregon and Washington not on the rail corridor.

As of fiscal year 2016, Cascades is Amtrak's eighth-busiest route with a total annual ridership of 792,481.[3][4] In fiscal year 2015, farebox recovery ratio for the train was 59%.[5]

History[edit]

The Mount Rainier in 1974. Note the dome car and coaches still bearing pre-Burlington Northern liveries.
Departure board at Seattle's King Street Station in 1981, listing the Mount Rainier, the Pacific International, and other since-discontinued trains

The passenger train service on the Cascades corridor was originally operated as a joint partnership by the Northern Pacific, Great Northern, and Union Pacific.[6]

Amtrak took over intercity passenger rail operations from the private railroads on May 1, 1971. Initial service on the Seattle–Portland portion of the corridor consisted of three round trips, with no service north to Vancouver, BC or south to Eugene. The trains were unnamed until November 1971, when the two corridor trains were named the Mount Rainier and Puget Sound and the long-distance train (with service south to Southern California) became the Coast Starlight.[7]

Passenger rail service to Vancouver, BC was restarted on July 17, 1972 with the inauguration of the Seattle–Vancouver Pacific International, which operated with a dome car (unusual for short runs).[8][9] The train was Amtrak's first international service.[9]

The next major change to service in the corridor came on June 7, 1977 when Amtrak introduced the long-distance Pioneer between Seattle, Portland and Salt Lake City, Utah. To maintain the same level of service between Seattle and Portland, the Puget Sound was eliminated, and the schedule of the Mount Rainier was shifted.[10]:59

The corridor expanded south of Portland to Eugene on August 3, 1980 with the addition of the Willamette Valley, which operated with two daily round trips, financially subsidized by the State of Oregon.

The Pacific International and Willamette Valley struggled to attract riders and were discontinued in September 1981 and December 1981, respectively.[7][11]

This left three trains on the Seattle–Portland Seattle corridor: the Coast Starlight, Pioneer and Mount Rainier, the same level of service as the day Amtrak began operation a decade prior. The situation would remain unchanged for the next 13 years.

Expansion in the 1990s and 2000s[edit]

The Northwest Talgo at Portland in August 1994
Amtrak Cascades consist in Portland, Oregon with NPCU at the head of the train.

In 1994, Amtrak began a six-month trial run of modern Talgo equipment over the Seattle–Portland corridor. Amtrak named this service Northwest Talgo, and announced that it would institute a second, conventional train on the corridor (supplementing the Mount Rainier) once the trial concluded. Regular service began on April 1, 1994.

Looking toward the future, Amtrak did an exhibition trip from Vancouver through to Eugene. Amtrak introduced the replacement Mount Adams on October 30.[12][13] At the same time, the state of Oregon and Amtrak agreed to extend the Mount Rainier to Eugene through June 1995, with Oregon paying two-thirds of the $1.5 million subsidy.[14]

Vancouver service returned on May 26, 1995, when the Mount Baker International began running between Vancouver and Seattle. The state of Washington leased Talgo equipment similar to the demonstrator from 1994.[15][16] Amtrak renamed the Mount Rainier the Cascadia in October 1995; the new name reflected the joint Oregon-Washington operations of the train.[17]

A third Seattle-Portland corridor train began in 1998, replacing the discontinued long-distance Pioneer. By spring 1998, all three Seattle–Portland/Eugene trains were using leased Talgo equipment, while the Vancouver train used conventional equipment. Amtrak introduced a temporary Pacific Northwest brand for all four trains, dropping individual names, in preparation for the introduction of new Talgo equipment built in the United States and owned by the state of Washington.

Amtrak announced the new Amtrak Cascades brand in the Fall 1998 timetable; the new equipment began operation in December.[18][19] Amtrak extended a second train to Eugene in late 2000.

From the mid 1990s to the May 12th, 2008, Amtrak System timetable, full service dining was available on trains going north out of Seattle's King Street Station to Vancouver, BC. The southern trains to Portland Oregon briefly had full dining services until the May 16th, 1999 System Timetable.

In 2004, the Rail Plus program began, allowing cross-ticketing between Sound Transit's Sounder commuter rail and Amtrak between Seattle and Everett on some Cascades trains.[20]

The corridor has continued to grow in recent years, with another Portland-Seattle train arriving in 2006, and the long-awaited through service between Vancouver and Portland, eliminating the need to transfer in Seattle, beginning on August 19, 2009[21] as a pilot project to determine whether a train permanently operating on the route would be feasible. With the Canadian federal government requesting Amtrak to pay for border control costs for the second daily train, the train was scheduled to be discontinued on October 31, 2010. However, Washington State and Canadian officials held discussions in an attempt to continue the service,[22] which resulted in the Canadian government permanently waiving the fee.[23]

Two additional round trips between Seattle and Portland will be added on December 18, 2017.[24] A new early morning departure from each city will be matched by an evening return, to enable same-day business travel between the two cities.[25]

Rolling stock[edit]

A Talgo Series 8 trainset departs Portland Union Station with the engineer controlling the train from the cab located inside the cab car.

Service on the Cascades route is provided using seven articulated trainsets manufactured by Talgo, a Spanish company. These cars are designed to passively tilt into curves, allowing the train to pass through them at higher speeds than a conventional train. The tilting technology reduces travel time between Seattle and Portland by 25 minutes.[26] Current track and safety requirements limit the train's speed to 79 miles per hour (127 km/h), although the trainsets are designed for a maximum design speed of 124 miles per hour (200 km/h).[26]

Inside a Talgo Series VI bistro car with a map of the Pacific Northwest (where the route travels) on the ceiling.

A typical trainset consists of 12 or 13 cars; one baggage car; two "business class" coaches; one lounge car; one cafe car (also known as the Bistro car); six or seven "coach class" coaches; and one power car (which houses a head-end power generator and other equipment).[27] Trainsets are typically paired with an EMD F59PHI locomotive painted in a matching paint scheme. Additionally trainsets without a cab car are paired with a Non-Powered Control Unit (NPCU), an older locomotive with no engine, that is also painted in a matching paint scheme and is used as a cab car.[28]:140

A Talgo Series VI power car separated from a coach car. Note the shared-wheel arrangement.

The fleet consists of five Talgo Series VI trainsets built in 1998 and two Talgo Series 8 trainsets built in 2013. The service offered by the different trainset types is similar, but there are some minor differences between the two models. The most notable difference is the older Series VI trainsets have 7-foot tall tail fins at both ends of the train that serve as an aesthetic transition from the low-profile trainsets and the larger locomotives.[26] The Series 8 trainsets do not have the tail fins, but instead have a cab built into the power car allowing push-pull operation without a separate control unit. There are also minor differences in the interior appointments.

The Cascades service started in Fall 1998 with four Series VI trainsets, two were owned by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) and two were owned by Amtrak. Each trainset was built with 12 cars and a six-car spare set, including a baggage car, service car, lounge car, café car and two "coach class" coaches, was also built.

In 1998, Amtrak also purchased an additional Series VI trainset as a demonstrator for potential service between Los Angeles and Las Vegas. This trainset was built with two additional "coach class" coaches, for a total of 14 cars. The demonstration route was not funded and WSDOT purchased the trainset in 2004 to expand service.[27] The purchase also allowed Amtrak and WSDOT to redistribute the "coach class" coaches. By using the two additional coaches from this new trainset and placing the two coaches from the spare set into regular service, the agencies were able to create four 13-car trains and one 12-car train.

In 2013, the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) purchased the two Series 8 trainsets to enable further expansion of services.[29] Each trainset was equipped with 13 cars.

The Cascades equipment is painted in a special paint scheme consisting of colors the agency calls evergreen (dark green), cappuccino (brown), and cream.[26][30] The trainsets are named after mountain peaks in the Pacific Northwest (many in the Cascade Range). The four original Series VI trainsets were named after Mount Baker, Mount Hood, Mount Olympus, and Mount Rainier. The Series VI trainset built to operate between Las Vegas and Los Angeles was renamed the Mount Adams when it was purchased by the state of Washington. The two Series 8 trainsets are named Mount Bachelor and Mount Jefferson.

Future locomotives[edit]

In early 2014, the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT), awarded a contract to Siemens USA to manufacture 8 new Siemens Charger locomotives for the Cascades. The order was part of a larger joint purchase between Illinois, California, Michigan, and Missouri. These locomotives were delivered to WSDOT in Summer 2017 and are expected to go into service in late 2017.[31] The additional locomotives will enable two additional runs to be added as part of the Point Defiance Bypass project and will replace the six EMD F59PHI locomotives leased from Amtrak.

Funding[edit]

Funding for the route is provided separately by the states of Oregon and Washington, with Union Station in Portland serving as the dividing point between the two. As of July 1, 2006, Washington state has funded four daily round trips between Seattle and Portland. Washington also funds two daily round trips between Seattle and Vancouver, BC. Oregon funds two daily round trips between Eugene and Portland. The seven trainsets are organized into semi-regular operating cycles, but no particular train always has one route.

Local partnerships[edit]

As a result of Cascades service being jointly funded by the Washington and Oregon departments of transportation, public transit agencies and local municipalities can offer a variety of discounts, including companion ticket coupons.

  • FlexPass and University of Washington UPass holders receive a 15% discount (discount code varies) on all regular Cascades travel. Employers participating in these programs may also receive a limited number of free companion ticket coupons for distribution to employees.[32]
  • The Sound Transit RailPlus program allows riders to use weekday Cascades trains between Everett and Seattle with the Sounder commuter rail fare structure.[33]

The Cascades service also benefits from Sound Transit's track upgrades for Sounder service, notably the upcoming Point Defiance Bypass project.

Proposed changes[edit]

According to its long-range plan, the WSDOT Rail Office plans eventual service of 13 daily round trips between Seattle and Portland and 4–6 round trips between Seattle and Bellingham, with four of those extending to Vancouver, BC.[34] Amtrak Cascades travels along the entirety of the proposed Pacific Northwest High Speed Rail Corridor; the incremental improvements are designed to result in eventual higher-speed service. According to WSDOT, the "hundreds of curves" in the current route and "the cost of acquiring land and constructing a brand new route" make upgrades so cost-prohibitive that at most speeds of 110 mph (177 km/h) can be achieved.[35]

The eventual high-speed rail service according to the long-range plan should result in the following travel times:

  • Seattle to Portland – 3:30 (2006); 3:20 (2017, assuming completion of Point Defiance bypass);[35] 2:30 (planned)
  • Seattle to Vancouver BC – 3:55 (2006); 2:45 (planned)
  • Vancouver BC to Portland – 7:55 (2009); 5:25 (planned)

In order to increase train speeds and frequency to meet these goals, a number of incremental track improvement projects must be completed. Gates and signals must be improved, some grade crossings must be separated, track must be replaced or upgraded and station capacities must be increased.

In order to extend the second daily Seattle to Bellingham round trip to Vancouver, BNSF was required to make track improvements in Canada, to which the government of British Columbia was asked to contribute financially. On March 1, 2007, an agreement between the province, Amtrak, and BNSF was reached, allowing a second daily train to and from Vancouver.[36] The project involved building an 11,000-foot (3.35 km) siding in Delta, BC at a cost of US$7 million; construction started in 2007 and has been completed.

In December 2008, WSDOT published a mid-range plan detailing projects needed to achieve the midpoint level of service proposed in the long-range plan.[37]

In 2013, travel times between Seattle and Portland remained the same as they had been in 1966, with the fastest trains making the journey in 3 hours 30 minutes.[38][39] WSDOT received more than $800 million in high-speed rail stimulus funds for projects discussed in the mid-range plan, since the corridor is one of the approved high-speed corridors eligible for money from ARRA.[40] The deadline for spending the stimulus funds is September 2017.

In 2009, Oregon applied for a $2.1 billion Federal grant to redevelop the unused Oregon Electric Railway tracks, parallel to the Cascades' route between Eugene and Portland.[41] But it did not receive the grant. Instead, analysis of alternative routes to enable more passenger trains and higher speeds proceeded. In 2015, the current route, with numerous upgrades, was chosen by the Project Team as the Recommended Preferred Alternative.[42]

The schedule was for the Leadership Council to vote on this in December 2015, then a Draft Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement was to be released in 2016 and hearings held on it, for the Leadership Council to finalize the Recommended Selected Alternative in 2017, then publish the Final Tier 1 EIS and receive the Record of Decision in 2018.[43] Then if funds can be found, design and engineering must be done before any construction can begin.

Point Defiance Bypass[edit]

Map of Point Defiance Bypass.

The Point Defiance Bypass is a partnership with Sound Transit to bypass BNSF Railway Puget Sound shore track for an alignment between Tacoma at the north end and the Nisqually River at the south. It increases train speeds in this corridor with a straighter, shorter track alignment, while eliminating the need for Cascades trains to use the single-track Nelson Bennett Tunnel. In exchange for improved freight throughput as a result of the bypass, BNSF agreed to increase the priority of passenger trains along the shared portions of the corridor. The opening of the bypass in December 2017 will reduce Seattle–Portland travel times by around 20 minutes per trip.[44]

Sound Transit construction of the line between Tacoma and Lakewood was completed in 2012 after feasibility studies, design work and acquisition of land had begun in 2005.[45] The first phase of construction began in June 2009; by that time the completion date had been pushed back to 2019.[46] In 2010, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act provided additional funding for the project, enough to bring the completion date forward to 2017.[46] Construction between Lakewood and Dupont began in December 2014 and was completed in mid-2017 and the new line will open to passenger service on December 18, 2017.[47][48][24]

Ridership[edit]

Total ridership for 2008 was 774,421, the highest annual ridership since inception of the service in 1993.[49] Ridership declined in 2009 to 740,154[50] but rose 13% in fiscal year 2010 to 836,499 riders,[50] and to 847,709 riders in 2011.

Ridership declined steadily between 2011 and 2015, attributed in part to competition from low-cost bus carrier BoltBus, which opened a non-stop Seattle–Portland route in May 2012.[51][52][53] Low gas prices and schedule changes due to track construction also contributed to the decline. Ridership rose again in 2016, and is expected to continue rising in 2017 and beyond, after the completion of the Point Defiance Bypass construction project.[54]

Data from the Washington State Department of Transportation:[5][55][56][57][53]

Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Ridership 94,061 180,209 286,656 304,566 349,761 425,138 452,334 530,218 560,381 584,346 589,743 603,059
YoY Diff. 86,148 106,447 17,910 45,195 75,377 27,196 77,884 30,163 23,965 5,397 13,316
YoY Diff. % 91.6% 59.1% 6.2% 14.8% 21.6% 6.4% 17.2% 5.7% 4.3% 0.1% 2.3%
Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Ridership 636,092 629,996 676,765 774,531 761,610 838,251 847,709 836,000 807,000 782,519 751,148 792,481
YoY Diff. 33,033 -6,096 46,769 97,766 -12,921 76,641 9,458 -11,700 -29,000 -26,000 -31,371 41,333
YoY Diff. % 5.5% -1.0% 7.4% 14.4% -1.7% 10.1% 1.1% -1.4% -3.5% -3.2% -4.0% 5.5%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Amtrak Cascades Schedule" (PDF). Amtrak. February 20, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2017. 
  2. ^ "WSDOT adds two daily Amtrak Cascades roundtrips starting Dec.18 | WSDOT". www.wsdot.wa.gov. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  3. ^ "Amtrak Fact Sheet, Fiscal Year 2016 - State of Washington" (PDF). Amtrak. November 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2017. 
  4. ^ Magliari, Marc (November 17, 2016). "Amtrak Delivers Strong FY 2016 Financial Results - Amtrak Media". Amtrak. Retrieved January 15, 2017. 
  5. ^ a b "Amtrak Cascades Annual Performance Report 2016" (PDF). WSDOT. March 2017. Retrieved October 4, 2017. 
  6. ^ The official guide of the Railways and Steam Navigation Lines of the U.S., Rand McNally & Company, May 1966. The guide shows that the service was operated jointly, some trains using Seattle's King Street Station and the rest Seattle's Union Station.
  7. ^ a b Schafer, Mike, Bob Johnston and Kevin McKinney.All Aboard Amtrak. Piscataway, NJ: Railpace Co., 1991
  8. ^ Zimmermann, Karl. Amtrak at Milepost 10. Park Forest IL: PTJ Publishing, 1981.
  9. ^ a b Goldberg, Bruce (1981). Amtrak--the first decade. Silver Spring, MD: Alan Books. pp. 16–17. OCLC 7925036. 
  10. ^ Amtrak (May 1, 1977). "National Train Timetables". Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  11. ^ Wyant, Dan (December 29, 1981). "Slide closes rail line near Oakridge". The Register-Guard. p. 1A. 
  12. ^ Esteve, Harry (March 31, 1994). "Talgo 200 tantalizes train fans". Eugene Register-Guard. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  13. ^ Amtrak (October 30, 1994). "Pacific Northwest Corridor". National Timetable. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  14. ^ Bishoff, Don (November 2, 1994). "Seattle in six, and a nap, too". Eugene Register-Guard. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  15. ^ "For Riders, Vancouver Train's Just the Ticket". The News Tribune. Tacoma, Washington. May 27, 1995. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  16. ^ "TRAVEL ADVISORY; Amtrak Resumes Seattle-Vancouver Run". The New York Times. June 11, 1995. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  17. ^ Amtrak (January 1996). "Pacific Northwest Corridor". National Timetable. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  18. ^ Bishoff, Don (December 2, 1998). "Budget boosts trains service". Eugene Register-Guard. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  19. ^ Wade, Betsy (December 13, 1998). "Practical Traveler: On Amtrak, Full Speed Ahead". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  20. ^ "The New Math: Sound Transit + Amtrak Cascades = RailPlus" (Press release). Sound Transit. 17 September 2004. 
  21. ^ "Second Amtrak Cascades train between Seattle and Vancouver, B.C to begin service August 19, 2009" (PDF) (Press release). Amtrak. 12 August 2009. Retrieved 22 July 2010. 
  22. ^ "Washington state working to keep second Vancouver, B.C., Amtrak train". Trains magazine. September 22, 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2010. 
  23. ^ "Second daily Amtrak train to Vancouver, B.C., made permanent". The Seattle Times. August 17, 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  24. ^ a b Matkin, Janet; LaBoe, Barbara (October 3, 2017). "WSDOT adds two daily Amtrak Cascades roundtrips starting Dec. 18". Washington State Department of Transportation. Retrieved October 4, 2017. 
  25. ^ Shaner, Zach (July 7, 2016). "Amtrak Cascades Looks Toward 2017". Seattle Transit Blog. Retrieved May 20, 2017. 
  26. ^ a b c d "Amtrak Cascades Facts". Retrieved August 1, 2017. 
  27. ^ a b "Trainset Roster". On Track On Line. January 1, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  28. ^ Solomon, Brian (2004). Amtrak. Saint Paul, MN: MBI. ISBN 0-760-31765-8. 
  29. ^ Oregon DOT
  30. ^ "Amtrak Cascades Train Equipment". Washington State Department of Transportation. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  31. ^ "Rail - Amtrak Cascades New Locomotives | WSDOT". www.wsdot.wa.gov. Retrieved 2017-08-01. 
  32. ^ Amtrak Cascades. "Amtrak Cascades - Special Offers". Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  33. ^ Sound Transit. "Sounder train fares". Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  34. ^ "Long Range Plan for Amtrak Cascades" (PDF). WSDOT. February 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 8, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  35. ^ a b Schrader, Jordan (May 17, 2011). "Federal money to improve Amtrak Cascades train travel". Seattle Times. Retrieved 2011-05-17. 
  36. ^ WSDOT - Second Amtrak Cascades Train to Canada
  37. ^ "Amtrak Cascades Mid-Range Plan" (PDF). WSDOT. December 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 5, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  38. ^ The Official guide of the Railways and Steam Navigation Lines of the U.S., Rand McNally & Company, May 1966
  39. ^ Amtrak Winter-Spring Timetable 2013
  40. ^ "ARRA Funded High Speed Rail". WSDOT. Archived from the original on July 5, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  41. ^ Esteve, Harry (July 25, 2009). "Oregon bids big for faster trains". The Oregonian. 
  42. ^ http://oregonpassengerrail.org/files/library/newsletter/opr-newsletter-fall-2015-final-20151013.pdf
  43. ^ http://oregonpassengerrail.org/page/schedule
  44. ^ Courtney, Ricky (August 16, 2017). "More Seattle–Portland trains arriving soon". KING 5. Retrieved November 10, 2017. 
  45. ^ "Tacoma-to-Lakewood Track & Facilities". Sound Transit. Archived from the original on June 14, 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2011. 
  46. ^ a b WSDOT - Project - Rail - Tacoma - Bypass of Point Defiance
  47. ^ "Rail - Tacoma - Bypass of Point Defiance | WSDOT". www.wsdot.wa.gov. Retrieved 2017-10-04. 
  48. ^ "Status - June 2014". WSDOT. Archived from the original on July 8, 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014. WSDOT’s project team will now advance design work and expects construction to begin in 2015 and open the new route to service in 2017 
  49. ^ Washington State Department of Transportation. "Amtrak Cascades Annual Ridership Report 2008" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  50. ^ a b "Amtrak sets new ridership record, thanks passengers for taking the train (link to PDF download)". Amtrak. October 11, 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010. 
  51. ^ Pucci, Carol (July 7, 2012). "BoltBus gives Amtrak a run for the money on Seattle-Portland travel". The Seattle Times. Retrieved May 3, 2017. 
  52. ^ Cook, John (May 1, 2012). "Seattle to Portland for a $1? That's the promise of BoltBus". GeekWire. Retrieved May 3, 2017. 
  53. ^ a b Balk, Gene (October 14, 2013). "Amtrak ridership is down in the Northwest–is Bolt Bus to blame?". The Seattle Times. Retrieved November 9, 2017. 
  54. ^ Johnson, Graham (April 1, 2016). "Amtrak Cascades ridership declining but state predicts a rebound". KIRO 7. Retrieved May 3, 2017. 
  55. ^ Washington State Department of Transportation (December 2009). "Amtrak Cascades Fourth Quarter and Annual Ridership Report - 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-07-29. 
  56. ^ Washington State Department of Transportation (December 2010). "Amtrak Cascades Quarterly Ridership Report - October to December 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-07-29. 
  57. ^ Washington State Department of Transportation (December 2011). "Amtrak Cascades Quarterly Ridership Report - October to December 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-02-11. 

External links[edit]

Route map: Google
KML is from Wikidata