Ussuri brown bear
|Ussuri brown bear|
|Subspecies:||U. arctos lasiotus|
|Ursus arctos lasiotus
baikalensis Ognev, 1924
The Ussuri brown bear (Ursus arctos lasiotus), also known as the black grizzly is a population of the brown bear that was formerly considered to be a subspecies. One of the largest brown bears, Ussuri brown bears approach Kodiak brown bear in size.
It is very similar to the Kamchatka brown bear, though it has a more elongated skull, a less elevated forehead, somewhat longer nasal bones and less separated zygomatic arches, and is somewhat darker in color, with some individuals being completely black, a fact which once led to the now refuted speculation that black individuals were hybrids of brown bears and Asian black bears. Adult males have skulls measuring 38.7 cm long and 23.5 cm wide. They can occasionally reach greater sizes than their Kamchatka counterparts: the largest skull measured by Sergej Ognew (1931) was only slightly smaller than that of the largest Kodiak brown bear (the largest subspecies of brown bears) on record at the time.
Behaviour and biology
In Sikhote Alin, Ussuri brown bears den mostly in burrows excavated into hillsides, though they will on rarer occasions den in rock outcroppings or build ground nests. These brown bears rarely encounter Asian black bears, as they den at higher elevations and on steeper slopes than the latter species. They may on rare occasions attack their smaller black cousins.
In middle Sakhalin in spring, brown bears feed on the previous year's red bilberry, ants and flotsam, and at the end of the season, they concentrate on the shoots and rhizomes of tall grasses. On the southern part of the island, they feed primarily on flotsam, as well as insects and maple twigs. In springtime in Sikhote Alin, they feed on acorns, Manchurian walnuts and Korean nut pine seeds. In times of scarcity, in addition to bilberries and nuts, they capture larvae, wood-boring ants and lily roots. In early summer, they will strip bark from white-barked fir trees and feed on their cambium and sap. They will also eat berries from honeysuckle, yew, Amur grapevine and buckthorn. In southern Sakhalin, their summer diet consists of currants and chokeberries are eaten. In the August period in the middle part of the island, fish comprise 28% of their diet.
In Hokkaido, the brown bear has a diet including small and large mammals, fish, birds and insects such as ants.
Interactions with tigers
Ussuri brown bears are occasionally preyed on by Siberian tigers, and constitute about 1% of their diet (and up to 18.5% together with black bears in very particular cases). Siberian tigers regularly prey on young bears but adult female Ussuri brown bears are also taken outside their dens as well. Siberian tigers most typically attack brown bears in the winter, in the hibernaculum. They are typically attacked by tigers more often than the smaller black bears, due to their habit of living in more open areas and their inability to climb trees. When hunting bears, tigers will position themselves from the leeward side of a rock or fallen tree, waiting for the bear to pass by. When the bear passes, the tiger will spring from an overhead position and grab the bear from under the chin with one forepaw and the throat with the other. The immobilised bear is then killed with a bite to the spinal column. After killing a bear, the tiger will concentrate its feeding on the bear's fat deposits, such as the back, legs and groin. Tiger attacks on bears tend to occur when ungulate populations decrease. From 1944 to 1959, more than 32 cases of tigers attacking bears were recorded in the Russian Far East. In the same period, four cases of brown bears killing female and young tigers were reported, both in disputes over prey and in self-defense. Gepnter et al (1972) stated bears are generally afraid of tigers and change their path after coming across tiger trails. In the winters of 1970–1973, Yudakov and Nikolaev recorded 1 case of brown bear showing no fear of the tigers and another case of brown bear changing path upon crossing tiger tracks. Despite the possibility of tiger predation, some large brown bears may actually benefit from the tiger's presence by appropriating tiger kills that the bears may not be able to successfully hunt themselves and follow. During telemetry research in the Sikhote-Alin protected area, 44 direct confrontations between the two predators were observed, in which bears were killed in 22 cases, and tigers in 12 cases.
Range and status
The brown bear is found in the Ussuri krai, Sakhalin, the Amur Oblast, northward to the Shantar Islands, Iturup Island, northeastern China, the Korean peninsula, Hokkaidō and Kunashiri Island. About 500–1,500 Ussuri brown bears are present in Heilongjiang, and are classed as a vulnerable species. Illegal hunting and capture has become a very serious contributing factor to the decline in bear numbers, as their body parts are of high economic value.
Five regional sub-populations of Ussuri brown bears are now recognized in Hokkaido. Of these, the small size and isolation of the western Ishikari subpopulation has warranted its listing as an endangered species in Japan’s Red Data Book. 90 to 152 brown bears are thought to dwell in the West Ishikari Region and from 84 to 135 in the Teshio-Mashike mountains. Their habitat has been severely limited by human activities, especially forestry practices and road construction. Excessive harvesting is also a major factor in limiting their population.
In Korea, a few of these bears still exist only in the North, where this bear is officially recognized as natural monument by its government. Traditionally called Ku'n Gom(big bear), whereas black bears are called Gom(bear), the Ussuri brown bear went extinct many years ago in South Korea largely due to poaching. In North Korea, there are two major areas of brown bear population: including JaGang province and HamKyo'ng Mountains. The ones from JaGang province are called RyongLim Ku'n Gom(RyongLim big bear) and they are listed as Natural Monument No.124 of North Korea. The others from Hamkyo'ng Mountains are called GwanMoBong Ku'n Gom(GwanMo Peak big bear) and they are listed as Natural Monument No.330 of North Korea. All big bears(Ussuri brown bears) in North Korea are mostly found around the peak areas of mountains. Their average size varies from 150 kg to 250 kg for Ryonglim bears found in the area south of Injeba'k Mountain, up to average of 500 kg to 600 kg for the ones found in the area north of Injeba'k Mountain.
Attacks on humans
In Hokkaido, during the first 57 years of the 20th century, 141 people died from bear attacks, and another 300 were injured. The Sankebetsu brown bear incident (三毛別羆事件 Sankebetsu Higuma jiken?), which occurred in December 1915 at Sankei in the Sankebetsu district was the worst bear attack in Japanese history, and resulted in the deaths of seven people and the injuring of three others. The perpetrator was a 380 kg and 2.7 m tall brown bear, which twice attacked the village of Tomamae, returning to the area the night after its first attack during the prefuneral vigil for the earlier victims. The incident is frequently referred to in modern Japanese bear incidents, and is believed to be responsible for the Japanese perception of bears as man-eaters.
- McLellan, B.N., Servheen, C. & Huber, D. (2008). Ursus arctos. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
- California Grizzly by Tracy Irwin Storer, Lloyd Pacheco Tevis. Publisher University of California Press, 1996 ISBN 0-520-20520-0
- Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol.II Part 1a, SIRENIA AND CARNIVORA (Sea cows; Wolves and Bears), V.G Heptner and N.P Naumov editors, Science Publishers, Inc. USA. 1998. ISBN 1-886106-81-9
- Seryodkin, I.V. (2003). "Denning ecology of brown bears and Asiatic black bears in the Russian Far East" (PDF). Ursus 14 (2): 153–161. JSTOR 3873015.
- Onoyama, Keiichi (1987-11-16). "Ants as prey of the Yezo brown bear Ursus arctos yesoensis with consideration on its feeding habits" (PDF). Res. Bull. Obihiro University (Obihiro, Hokkaidō, Japan: Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine) 15: 313–318. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Seryodkin; et al. (2005). "Relationship between tigers, brown bears, and Himalayan black bears". Tigers of Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik: Ecology and Conservation: 156–163.
- Geptner, V. G., Sludskii, A. A. (1972). Mlekopitaiuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Vysšaia Škola, Moskva. (In Russian; English translation: Heptner, V. G.; Sludskii, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; (1992). the Soviet Union. Volume II, Part 2: Carnivora (Hyaenas and Cats). Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation, Washington DC). Pp. 95–202.
- Frasef, A. (2012). Feline Behaviour and Welfare. CABI. pp. 72–77. ISBN 978-1-84593-926-7.
- Prynn, David (2004). Amur tiger. Russian Nature Press. p. 115.
- V.G. Heptner and N.P. Naumov. Mammals of the Soviet Union. Vol 2 IIa 1998. New Delhi, India: Amerind Publishing. p671
- Geptner, V.G and Sludskii, A.A. Mammals of the Soviet Union, Volume II, Part 2. pp. 175–177. ISBN 90-04-08876-8.
- Mammals of the Soviet Union Volume 2, by V.G Heptner & A.A. Sludskii, p177
- Seryodkin, I. V., J. M. Goodrich, A. V. Kostyrya, B. O. Schleyer, E. N. Smirnov, L. L. Kerley, and D. G. Miquelle (2005). "Relationship between tigers, brown bears, and Himalayan black bears". pp. 95-202 in D. G. Miquelle, E. N. Smirnov, and J. M. Goodrich (eds.), Tigers of Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik: Ecology and Conservation. Vladivostok, Russia: PSP.
- Table 1. Location, physical status, size and circumstances of deaths of Amur tiger males in the Russian Far East, 1970-1994.
- Yudakov, A. G. and Nikolaev, I. G. (2004). "Hunting Behavior and Success of the Tigers' Hunts". The Ecology of the Amur Tiger based on Long-Term Winter Observations in 1970-1973 in the Western Sector of the Central Sikhote-Alin Mountains (english translation ed.). Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Far-Eastern Scientific Center, Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
- Yudakov, A. G., Nikolaev, I. G. (2004). "Hunting Behavior and Success of the Tigers' Hunts". The Ecology of the Amur Tiger based on Long-Term Winter Observations in 1970–1973 in the Western Sector of the Central Sikhote-Alin Mountains (english translation ed.). Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Far-Eastern Scientific Center, Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
- Miquelle, D.G., Smirnov, E.N., Goodrich, J.M. (2005). "1". Tigers of Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik: ecology and conservation. Vladivostok, Russia: PSP.
- Seryodkin, I. V.; Goodrich, J. M.; Kostyria, A. V.; Smirnov, E. N.; Miquelle, D. G. (2011). "Intraspecific relationships between brown bears, Asiatic black bears and the Amur tiger". 20th International Conference on Bear Research & Management (PDF). International Association for Bear Research and Management. p. 64.
- Chapter 7. Brown Bear Conservation Action Plan for Asia. pp. 123-143 in Bears. Christopher Servheen, Stephen Herrero, Bernard Peyton (eds.). IUCN (1999). ISBN 2831704626
- North Korean Human Geography, Ryonglim Big Bear. cybernk.net
- North Korean Human Geography, Gwanmobong Big Bear. cybernk.net
- Knight, John (2000). Natural Enemies: People-Wildlife conflicts in Anthropological Perspective. p. 254. ISBN 0-415-22441-1.
- "Fu Watto Tomamae". Retrieved 2008-06-07.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ursus arctos lasiotus.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Ursus arctos lasiotus|