The 1991 national population census estimated the district population at about 88,700. The 2002 national census estimated the population of Amuru District at about 135,700. The district population grew an annual rate of 2.8% between 2002 and 2012. It is estimated that the population of the district in 2012 was approximately 178,800. The table below illustrates numerically the trajectory of population growth in the district between 2002 and 2012. All numbers are estimates.
Subsistence agriculture is the backbone of the district economy, employing 98% of the population. Arable land, which makes up about 90% of the total land area in the district is very fertile. However, during the last twenty years, less than 1% of the land was utilized for agriculture on account of insecurity caused by the Lord's Resistance Army. With the return of security to Northern Uganda in 2006, the situation in the district is expected to improve. Crops raised include: