Amy Ashwood Garvey
|Amy Ashwood Garvey|
10 January 1897
Port Antonio, Jamaica
|Died||3 May 1969
|Known for||Activism, black nationalism, Pan-Africanism|
|Spouse(s)||Marcus Garvey (1919–1922; divorced)|
Garvey was born in Port Antonio, Jamaica on 10 January 1897, the only daughter of the three children of businessman Michael Delbert Ashwood and his wife, Maudriana Thompson. As a child, Amy was told by her grandmother that she was of Ashanti descent. Taken to Panama as an infant, she returned in 1904 to Jamaica, and attended the Westwood High School for Girls in Trelawney, where she met Marcus Garvey, with whom she founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in 1914. She organised a women's section of the UNIA, and in 1918, she moved to the United States, where she worked as Garvey's aide and as Secretary of the UNIA's New York branch.
Marriage to Marcus Garvey
She and Marcus Garvey married on 25 December 1919, but the marriage quickly broke down, ending in divorce in 1922. There followed lawsuits and counter suits for annulment, divorce, alimony and bigamy. Garvey divorced Ashwood in Missouri in 1922 and quickly married Amy Jacques, Ashwood's former roommate and maid of honor. Marcus Garvey accused Ashwood of infidelity, theft, alcoholism and laziness. Amy Ashwood reportedly never accepted the divorce and contended to the end of her days that she was the "real" Mrs. Garvey.
Move to London
Ashwood became a director of the Black Star Line Steamship Corporation, and founded the Negro World newspaper. She moved to Great Britain, where she struck up a friendship with Ladipo Solanke. Together, they founded the Nigerian Progress Union, and she later supported Solanke's West African Students' Union, but in 1924 she returned to New York, where she produced comedies with her companion, Sam Manning, a Trinidadian calypso singer who was one of the world's pioneering black recording artists. Among the productions was Brown Sugar, a jazz musical production at the Lafayette Theater, which featured Manning and Fats Waller and his band.
1934–44: London and New York
In 1934, she returned to London, and with Manning, opened the Florence Mills Social Club a jazz club on Carnaby Street which became a gathering spot for supporters of Pan-Africanism. She helped to establish the International African Friends of Abyssinia with C.L.R. James, the International African Service Bureau with figures like George Padmore, Chris Braithwaite and Jomo Kenyatta, and the London Afro-Women's Centre. She spent some time in 1939 in New York, then went to Jamaica, where she and other prominent people formed the shortlived J. A. G. Smith Political Party. In 1944, she again returned to New York, where she joined the West Indies National Council and the Council on African Affairs, and also campaigned for Adam Clayton Powell Jr.
5th Pan-African Congress, 1945, and later years
She chaired the first session of the 5th Pan-African Congress in Manchester in 1945. In 1946, Ashwood moved to Liberia for three years, where she began a relationship with the country's president, William Tubman. She then returned to London, helping to set up the "Afro Peoples Centre" in Ladbroke Grove in 1953. In the wake of the Notting Hill riots in 1958, she co-founded the Association for the Advancement of Coloured People. In 1959, she chaired an enquiry into race relations following the murder of Kelso Cochrane in London.
She returned to Africa in 1960, but was back in London four years later, and spent the next three years mostly in Jamaica and Trinidad. In 1967–68 she toured the United States.
- Estimates of her birthdate have also included 18 January 1897 and 28 January 1897, which may result from birth registration and baptismal records.
- Tony Martin, "Garvey, Amy Ashwood (1895/1897–1969)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2006. Accessed 22 July 2015.
- Comparative studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, Vols 17-18, Duke University Press, 1997, p. 124.
- Nydia Swaby, "Amy Ashwood Garvey: A Revolutionary Pan-African Feminist". Re/Visionist, 1 April 2010.
- Hakim Adi, West Africans in Britain: 1900-1960: Nationalism, Pan-Africanism and Communism (ISBN 0853158487/0-85315-848-7).
- Black History in Westminster, City of Westminster, October 2006.
- "Political Biography on Amy Ashwood Garvey: Pan-Africanist, Feminist", Pan African News, 21 May 2007.
- Eugene Chadbourne, Artist Biography at Allmusic.com
- "Amy Ashwood Garvey", All Woman – Jamaica Observer, 1 January 2007.
- British Library Americas Studies blog entry for Amy Ashwood Garvey
- Espiritu, Allison, "Garvey, Amy Ashwood (1897-1969)", Black Past.org.
- Though some sources cite 11 May 1969 as her date of death, according to her biographer Tony Martin that was the date of her funeral.
- Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia, Volumes 1 and 2, edited by Darlene Clark Hine. Copyright 1993, Carlson Publishing Inc., Brooklyn, New York. ISBN 0-926019-61-9
- Tony Martin, Amy Ashwood Garvey: Pan-Africanist, Feminist and Mrs. Marcus Garvey No. 1 or a Tale of Two Armies, The Majority Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0912469065