Amy J. C. Cuddy
|Alma mater||University of Colorado
Kellogg School of Management
Harvard Business School
|Thesis||The bias map: behavior from intergroup affect and stereotypes (2005)|
|Doctoral advisor||Susan Fiske|
Amy Joy Casselberry Cuddy (born 1972) is an American social psychologist, author and lecturer known for her research on stereotyping and discrimination, emotions, power, nonverbal behavior, and the effects of social stimuli on hormone levels.
Cuddy is an Associate Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, in the Negotiation, Organizations & Markets Unit. Her TED talk, delivered at TEDGlobal 2012 in Edinburgh, Scotland, and posted in October 2012, has been viewed more than 40 million times and ranks second among the most-viewed TED talks.
Cuddy has studied the origins and outcomes of how people judge and influence each other. She has done experimental and correlational research on stereotyping and discrimination (e.g., against Asian Americans, elderly people, Latinos, working mothers), the causes and consequences of feeling ambivalent emotions (e.g., envy and pity), nonverbal behavior and communication, and hormonal responses to social stimuli.
In December 2015 Cuddy published the book, Presence: Bringing Your Boldest Self to Your Biggest Challenges.
Cuddy graduated from Conrad Weiser High School.
Prior to joining Harvard Business School, Cuddy was an Assistant Professor at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, where she taught leadership in organizations in the MBA program and research methods in the doctoral program; and an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Rutgers University, where she taught undergraduate social psychology. At Harvard Business School, she has taught MBA courses on negotiation, and power and influence, as well as executive education courses.
Along with Susan Fiske and Peter Glick (Lawrence University), Cuddy developed the Stereotype Content Model (SCM)  and the Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes (BIAS) Map.  These are used to make judgments of other people and groups within two core trait dimensions, warmth and competence, and to discern how these judgments shape and motivate our social emotions, intentions, and behaviors. 
Cuddy carried out an experiment with Dana Carney and Andy Yap (Columbia University) on how nonverbal expressions of power (i.e., expansive, open, space-occupying postures) affect people’s feelings, behaviors, and hormone levels. In particular, they claimed that adopting body postures associated with dominance and power (“power posing”) for as little as two minutes can increase testosterone, decrease cortisol, increase appetite for risk, and cause better performance in job interviews. This was widely reported in popular media. David Brooks summarized the findings, “If you act powerfully, you will begin to think powerfully.”
This and related research has been published in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Psychological Science, Research in Organizational Behavior, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, and Science.
In 2014, Eva Ranehill and other researchers tried to replicate this experiment with a larger group of participants and a double-blind setup. Ranehill et al. found that power posing increased subjective feelings of power, but did not affect hormones or actual risk tolerance. They published their results in Psychological Science.
Carney, Cuddy, & Yap responded in the same issue of Psychological Science, with an overview of 33 published studies related to power posing, including the Ranehill et al. study. Almost all had reported significant effects of some kind. The overview noted methodological differences between their 2010 study and the Ranehill replication, which may have moderated the effects of posing.
Two researchers at the Wharton School, Simmons & Simonsohn, later shared a meta-analysis of the same 33 studies on their statistics blog. Based on the distribution of p-values reported across the studies (the 'p-curve'), they concluded that studies so far have demonstrated little to no average effect of power posing. Their analyses will appear in Psychological Science 
In a pre-registered direct replication, Garrison et al  found that expansive (vs. contractive) body postures had either no effect or actually reduced psychological states associated with power. The fact the study was pre-registered, had a large n (over 300), used multiple measures of power (an ultimatum game, a gamble, and feelings of being powerful and in charge), and tested not only posing but adopting a direct eye gaze increases confidence that expansive poses have no or in fact negative effects on feelings of power.
In response to the results of these replication studies and meta-analysis, Carney repudiated the effect in an open letter, stating "The evidence against the existence of power poses is undeniable," and discouraging others from studying power poses.
Since the release of Carney's statement a special issue of Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology has been published on the topic of power posing. A summary paper co-authored by Carney entitled "CRSP special issue on power poses: what was the point and what did we learn?", states that a meta-analysis of the preregistered studies included in the issue, "showed a reliable non-zero effect on felt power". In fact according to Gronau et al, who conducted this meta-analysis it "yields very strong evidence for an effect of power posing on felt power", with the results indicating that there is a 99.97% chance that power posing has an effect on feeling powerful.
In December 2015 Cuddy published the book, Presence: Bringing Your Boldest Self to Your Biggest Challenges, which built on the value of the outward practice of power posing to focus on projecting one's authentic self with the inward-focused concept of presence—defined as “believing in and trusting yourself – your real honest feelings, values and abilities.” The book reached at least as high as #3 on The New York Times Best Seller list (Advice, How-To & Miscellaneous).
Cuddy also wrote a book, translated into the German language, Dein Körper spricht für dich: Von innen wirken, überzeugen, ausstrahlen (Your body speaks for you: From the inside, work, convince, radiate).
Awards and honors
- World Economic Forum Young Global Leader, 2014
- TEDGlobal Speaker, 2012
- TIME magazine ‘Game Changer’, 2012
- PopTech Annual Conference, 'Talk of the Day' October 21, 2011
- Rising Star Award, Association for Psychological Science (APS), 2011
- Psychology Today, The Top 10 Psychology Studies of 2010 (Carney, Cuddy, & Yap, 2010)
- Cover story, Harvard Magazine, Nov-Dec, 2010
- The HBR List: Breakthrough Ideas for 2009, Harvard Business Review
- Michele Alexander Early Career Award, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
- Distinguished Alumni Award, Conrad Weiser High School, Robesonia, PA
Cuddy grew up in a very small Pennsylvania Dutch town, Robesonia, Pennsylvania. She is a classically trained ballet dancer and worked as a roller-skating waitress when she was an undergraduate at the University of Colorado at Boulder. When she was a sophomore in college she sustained a serious head injury in a car accident. Her doctors told her she was not likely to fully recover and should anticipate significant challenges finishing her undergraduate degree. Her IQ fell temporarily by two standard deviations, which is about 30 points in IQ test. She eventually completed her undergraduate studies and went on to earn a PhD at Princeton. Cuddy has often tweeted of her love for live music, and spent a number of seasons following the Grateful Dead. She has one son. In August 2014, in Aspen, Colorado, she married Paul Coster.
- "Faculty and Research". Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- "TedTalks: Your body language shapes who you are". Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- "TedTalks: Most Viewed TEDTalks". Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "What Your Sitting Style Says About You". TODAY Show. NBC. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Game Changers: Amy Cuddy, Power Poser". TIME Inc. 19 March 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Body Language | Your Business". MSNBC. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Kellog School of Management, Meet the new faculty". Kellog World, Alumni Magazine. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Fiske, Susan T.; Glick, Peter; Xu, Jun (June 2002). "A model of (often mixed) sterotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 82 (6): 878–902. PMID 12051578. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2068.
- Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Fiske, Susan T.; Glick, Peter (April 2007). "The BIAS map: Behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 92 (4): 631–648. doi:10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.111. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- Krakovsky, Marina. "Mixed Impressions: How We Judge Others on Multiple Levels". Scientific American Mind. Scientific American. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Carney, Dana R.; Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Yap, Andy J. (October 2010). "Power Posing – Brief Nonverbal Displays Affect Neuroendocrine Levels and Risk Tolerance". Psychological Science. 21 (10): 1363–1368. PMID 20855902. doi:10.1177/0956797610383437.
- Venton, Danielle (15 May 2012). "Power Postures Can Make You Feel More Powerful". Wired. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Boost Power Through Body Language". HBR Blog Network. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Buchanan, Leigh. "Leadership Advice: Strike a Pose". Inc.Magazine. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Baron, Neil. "Power Poses: Tweaking Your Body Language for Greater Success". Expert Perspective. Fast Company. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Halverson, Ph.D., Heidi Grant. "Feeling Timid and Powerless? Maybe It's How You Are Sitting". The Science of Success. Psychology Today. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Brooks, David (20 April 2011). "Matter Over Mind". The Opinion Pages. The New York Times.
- Where the original experiment had 42 subjects (21 in each condition), Ranehill et al had 200. The experimenters were kept unaware of which condition each subject was in to avoid experimenter bias.
- Ranehill, E.; Dreber, A.; Johannesson, M.; Leiberg, S.; Sul, S.; Weber, R. A. (25 March 2015). "Assessing the Robustness of Power Posing: No Effect on Hormones and Risk Tolerance in a Large Sample of Men and Women". Psychological Science. 26 (5): 653–656. ISSN 0956-7976. PMID 25810452. doi:10.1177/0956797614553946.
- Carney, D. R.; Cuddy, A. J. C.; Yap, A. J. (3 April 2015). "Review and Summary of Research on the Embodied Effects of Expansive (vs. Contractive) Nonverbal Displays". Psychological Science. 26 (5): 657–663. ISSN 0956-7976. PMID 25841000. doi:10.1177/0956797614566855.
- The overview concluded, "The work of Ranehill et al. joins a body of research that includes 33 independent experiments published with a total of 2,521 research participants. Together, these results may help specify when nonverbal expansiveness will and will not cause embodied psychological changes."
- Simmons, J. & Simonsohn, U. (2015). Power Posing: Reassessing the Evidence Behind the Most Popular ted Talk. http://datacolada.org/2015/05/08/37-power-posing-reassessing-the-evidence-behind-the-most-popular-ted-talk.
- They suggested publication bias as a possible explanation: "e.g., labs that run studies that worked wrote them up, labs that run studies that didn’t, didn’t."
- Simmons, Joseph P.; Simonsohn, Uri (2016-06-06). "Power Posing: P-Curving the Evidence". Psychological Science. SSRN .
- Garrison, Katie E.; Tang, David; Schmeichel, Brandon J. (2016-06-07). "Embodying Power A Preregistered Replication and Extension of the Power Pose Effect". Social Psychological and Personality Science: 1948550616652209. ISSN 1948-5506. doi:10.1177/1948550616652209.
- Carney, Dana (2016). "My position on “Power Poses”: Regarding: Carney, Cuddy & Yap (2010)." (PDF). Retrieved 2016-09-26.
- Cesario, Joseph; Jonas, Kai; Carney, Dana (28 June 2017). "CRSP special issue on power poses: what was the point and what did we learn?". Journal Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology. 2 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1080/23743603.2017.1309876.
- Gronau, Quentin; van Erp, Sara; Heck, Daniel; Cesario, Joseph; Jonas, Kai; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan (28 June 2017). "A Bayesian Model-Averaged Meta-Analysis of the Power Pose Effect with Informed and Default Priors: The Case of Felt Power". Journal Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology. 2 (1): 123–138. doi:10.1080/23743603.2017.1326760.
- Davis-Laack, Paula (January 5, 2016). "How To Bring Presence To Your Biggest Challenges". Forbes. Archived from the original on January 5, 2016.
- "Best Sellers / Advice, How-To & Miscellaneous". The New York Times. February 7, 2016. Archived from the original on January 29, 2016.
- Robinson, Melia; Lebowitz, Shana; Maisch, Andreas (January 2, 2016). ""Power-Posen": So einfach verbessert ihr mit Körpersprache euer Selbstbewusstsein ("Power-poses": Improve your self-confidence with body language". Business Insider Deutschland. Archived from the original on February 11, 2016.
- "Young Global Leaders 2014 - World Economic Forum". widgets.weforum.org. Retrieved 2015-07-30.
- "TEDGlobal". Program Speakers, 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- Cuddy, Amy (19 March 2012). "Game Changers, Innovators and problem solvers that are inspiring change in America". TIME Specials. TIME, Inc. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
- "PopTech Annual Conference". 'Talk of the Day', October 21, 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Rising Star Award, 2011". Association for Psychological Science (APS).
- "Harvard Business Review". The HBR List: Breakthrough Ideas for 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Amy Cuddy, Power Poser". Game Changers. TIME Inc. 19 March 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- "What Your Sitting Style Says About You". TODAY Show, May 21, 2012. NBC. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- Brooks, David. "Matter Over Mind". The Opinion Pages. The New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Lambert, Craig. "The Psyche on Automatic: Amy Cuddy Probes Snap Judgements, Warm Feelings, and How to Become an 'Alpha Dog'". Cover Story. Harvard Magazine. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- "Ted Talks: Your body language shapes who you are". Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- Brooks, David (20 April 2011). "Matter Over Mind". The Opinion Pages. The New York Times. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- Intelligence quotient
- Cuddy, A. J. C.; Glick, P.; Beninger, A. (2011). "The dynamics of warmth and competence judgments, and their outcomes in organizations". Research in Organizational Behavior. 31: 73–98. doi:10.1016/j.riob.2011.10.004.
- Carney, D.; Cuddy, A. J. C.; Yap, A. (2010). "Power posing: Brief nonverbal displays affect neuroendocrine levels and risk tolerance". Psychological Science. 21: 1363–1368. PMID 20855902. doi:10.1177/0956797610383437.
- Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, P. (2008). Warmth and competence as universal dimensions of social perception: The Stereotype Content Model and the BIAS Map. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (vol. 40, pp. 61–149). New York, NY: Academic Press.
- Cuddy, A. J. C.; Fiske, S. T.; Glick, P. (2007). "The BIAS Map: Behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 92: 631–648. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1681.
- Fiske, S. T.; Cuddy, A. J. C.; Glick, P. (2007). "Universal dimensions of social cognition: Warmth, then competence". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 11: 77–83. PMID 17188552. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2006.11.005.
- Fiske, S. T.; Cuddy, A. J. C.; Glick, P.; Xu, J. (2002). "A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from status and competition". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 82: 878–902. PMID 12051578. doi:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1248.
- Amy Cuddy at TED
- TED Talk: Amy Cuddy: "Your body language shapes who you are" (TED Global, June 2012), about the effect of peoples' body language on their perception of how powerful they themselves are. (same video on YouTube)
- Cuddy is interviewed by Anderson Cooper, host of AC360 about body language and the 2012 United States Presidential Debate between President Barack Obama and Mitt Romney.