Amy Cuddy

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Amy Cuddy
Acuddy.jpg
Amy J. C. Cuddy
Born 1972
Robesonia, Pennsylvania
Nationality American
Alma mater University of Colorado
Princeton University
Scientific career
Institutions Rutgers University
Kellogg School of Management
Harvard Business School
Thesis The bias map: behavior from intergroup affect and stereotypes (2005)
Doctoral advisor Susan Fiske

Amy Joy Casselberry Cuddy (born 1972)[1] is an American social psychologist. She became widely known for her 2012 TED talk, where she presented a 2010 study on "power posing" which she had co-authored. The TED talk, delivered at TEDGlobal 2012 in Edinburgh, Scotland, has been viewed more than 40 million times and ranks second among the most-viewed TED talks.[2][3] The results of the study have since been falsified,[4][5] and "power posing" became a prominent example of the replication crisis in the social sciences.[6] In December 2015 Cuddy published a self-help book advocating power posing. The lead author of the 2010 study, Dana Carney, in October 2016 released a statement recognizing the proposal's falsification,[7] while Cuddy as of September 2016 continued to advocate for it.[8]

Cuddy has also done work on stereotyping and discrimination, emotions, nonverbal behavior, and the effects of social stimuli on hormone levels.[4][9]

Biography[edit]

Cuddy grew up in a very small Pennsylvania Dutch town, Robesonia, Pennsylvania. She graduated from Conrad Weiser High School.[citation needed] She is a classically trained ballet dancer and worked as a roller-skating waitress when she was an undergraduate at the University of Colorado at Boulder.[citation needed]

When she was a sophomore in college she sustained a serious head injury in a car accident.[10][11] Her doctors told her she was not likely to fully recover and should anticipate significant challenges finishing her undergraduate degree. Her IQ fell temporarily by two standard deviations,[12][11]

In 1998, Cuddy earned a B.A. in Psychology, graduating magna cum laude, from the University of Colorado.[13] She attended the University of Massachusetts Amherst from 1998 to 2000 before transferring to Princeton University to follow her adviser, Susan Fiske.[4] She received a M.A. in 2003 and a Ph.D. in 2005 in Social Psychology (dissertation: “The BIAS Map: Behavior from intergroup affect and stereotypes”) from Princeton University.[13]

Cuddy was[year needed] an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Rutgers University, where she taught undergraduate social psychology.[citation needed] In 2012, Cuddy was an Assistant Professor at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University,[14] where she taught leadership in organizations in the MBA program and research methods in the doctoral program

Cuddy was an Associate Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, in the Negotiation, Organizations & Markets Unit.[year needed][dead link][15] At Harvard Business School, she taught MBA courses on negotiation, and power and influence, as well as executive education courses.[citation needed]

Cuddy married Paul Coster in August 2014 and has one son.[citation needed]

Research[edit]

Stereotypes[edit]

In 2002, Cuddy co-authored the proposal of the stereotype content model, with Susan Fiske and Peter Glick (Lawrence University), Cuddy developed [16] In 2007, the same authors proposed the "Behaviors from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes" (BIAS) Map model.[17] These models propose to explain how individuals make judgments of other people and groups within two core trait dimensions, warmth and competence, and to discern how these judgments shape and motivate our social emotions, intentions, and behaviors.[18]

Power posing[edit]

Cuddy carried out an experiment with Dana Carney and Andy Yap[19] (Columbia University) on how nonverbal expressions of power (i.e., expansive, open, space-occupying postures)[20] affect people's feelings, behaviors, and hormone levels.[21] In particular, they claimed that adopting body postures associated with dominance and power ("power posing") for as little as two minutes can increase testosterone, decrease cortisol, increase appetite for risk, and cause better performance in job interviews. This was widely reported in popular media.[22][23][24] David Brooks summarized the findings, "If you act powerfully, you will begin to think powerfully."[11]

This and related research has been published in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Psychological Science, Research in Organizational Behavior, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, and Science.

In 2014, Eva Ranehill and other researchers tried to replicate this experiment with a larger group of participants and a double-blind setup.[25] Ranehill et al. found that power posing increased subjective feelings of power, but did not affect hormones or actual risk tolerance. They published their results in Psychological Science.[26]

Carney, Cuddy, & Yap responded in the same issue of Psychological Science,[27] with an overview of 33 published studies related to power posing, including the Ranehill et al. study. Almost all had reported significant effects of some kind. The overview noted methodological differences between their 2010 study[19] and the Ranehill replication, which may have moderated the effects of posing.[28]

Two researchers at the Wharton School, Simmons & Simonsohn, later shared a meta-analysis of the same 33 studies on their statistics blog.[29] Based on the distribution of p-values reported across the studies (the 'p-curve'), they concluded that studies so far have demonstrated little to no average effect of power posing.[30] Their analyses will appear in Psychological Science.[31]

In a pre-registered direct replication, Garrison et al.[32] found that expansive (vs. contractive) body postures had either no effect or actually reduced psychological states associated with power. The fact the study was pre-registered, had a large n (over 300), used multiple measures of power (an ultimatum game, a gamble, and feelings of being powerful and in charge), and tested not only posing but adopting a direct eye gaze increases confidence that expansive poses have no or in fact negative effects on feelings of power.

Another critique of the findings and methodology appeared in a January 2016 article published in Slate magazine by two professors at Columbia University.[33]

In response to the results of these replication studies and meta-analysis, one of the co-authors of the 2010 paper, Carney, has repudiated this line of research in an open letter dated September 2016, stating "The evidence against the existence of power poses is undeniable", and discouraging others from studying power poses. Reflecting on what may have been flawed about their 2010 paper, Carney admits that their methodology included some instances of p-hacking, such as discarding certain variables of "self-reported confidence" that did not correlate with making power poses.[34] The other two authors, Cuddy and Yap, have not repudiated their initial results.

Since the release of Carney's statement a special issue of Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology has been published on the topic of power posing. A summary paper co-authored by Carney entitled "CRSP special issue on power poses: what was the point and what did we learn?", states that a meta-analysis of the preregistered studies included in the issue, "showed a reliable non-zero effect on felt power".[35] In fact, according to Gronau et al, who conducted this meta-analysis, it "yields very strong evidence for an effect of power posing on felt power".[36]

The "power posing" theory has been described as an example of the replication crisis in psychology, in which initially seductive theories can not be replicated in follow-up experiments.[6]

Publications[edit]

Books

In December 2015 Cuddy published a self-help book advocationg power posing, Presence: Bringing Your Boldest Self to Your Biggest Challenges, which built on the value of the outward practice of power posing to focus on projecting one's authentic self with the inward-focused concept of presence—defined as “believing in and trusting yourself – your real honest feelings, values and abilities.”[37] The book reached at least as high as #3 on The New York Times Best Seller list (Advice, How-To & Miscellaneous) in February 2016.[38] The book was translated into German in 2016.[39]

Academic papers
TED talk

Awards and honors[edit]

  • World Economic Forum Young Global Leader, 2014[42]
  • TIME magazine 'Game Changer', 2012[43]
  • Rising Star Award, Association for Psychological Science (APS), 2011[44]
  • The HBR List: Breakthrough Ideas for 2009, Harvard Business Review[45][dead link]
  • Michele Alexander Early Career Award, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues[year needed][citation needed]
  • Distinguished Alumni Award, Conrad Weiser High School, Robesonia, PA[year needed][citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ middle names and year of birth as reported by worldcat.org
  2. ^ "TedTalks: Your body language shapes who you are". Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  3. ^ "TedTalks: Most Viewed TEDTalks". Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c Dominus, Susan (October 18, 2017). "When the Revolution Came for Amy Cuddy". New York Times. Retrieved October 19, 2017. 
  5. ^ "Sorry, but standing like Superman probably won't make your life any better". 13 September 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017. 
  6. ^ a b Singal, Jesse. "There's an Interesting House-of-Cards Element to the Fall of Power Poses". New York magazine. Retrieved 21 October 2017.  Romm, Cari; Baer, Drake; Singal, Jesse; Dahl, Melissa. "Why People Love(d) Power Posing: A Science of Us Conversation". New York magazine. Retrieved 21 October 2017.  Singal, Jesse. "How Should We Talk About Amy Cuddy, Death Threats, and the Replication Crisis?". New York magazine. Retrieved 21 October 2017. 
  7. ^ Morris, David Z. (October 2, 2016). "'Power Poses' Researcher Dana Carney Now Says Effects are "Undeniably" False". Fortune. 
  8. ^ Singal, Jesse; Dahl, Melissa. "Here Is Amy Cuddy's Response to Critiques of Her Power-Posing Research". New York magazine. Retrieved October 21, 2017. 
  9. ^ Engber, Daniel. "The Trials of Amy Cuddy". Slate. Retrieved 22 October 2017. 
  10. ^ "Amy Cuddy, Power Poser". Game Changers. TIME Inc. 19 March 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.  "What Your Sitting Style Says About You". TODAY Show, May 21, 2012. NBC. Retrieved 29 May 2012.  Lambert, Craig. "The Psyche on Automatic: Amy Cuddy Probes Snap Judgements, Warm Feelings, and How to Become an 'Alpha Dog'". Cover Story. Harvard Magazine. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  11. ^ a b c Brooks, David (20 April 2011). "Matter Over Mind". The Opinion Pages. The New York Times. 
  12. ^ "Ted Talks: Your body language shapes who you are". Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  13. ^ a b "Curriculum Vitae AMY J. C. CUDDY" (PDF). HBS. 
  14. ^ "Kellog School of Management, Meet the new faculty". Kellog World, Alumni Magazine. Retrieved 23 June 2012. 
  15. ^ "Faculty and Research". Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  16. ^ Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Fiske, Susan T.; Glick, Peter; Xu, Jun (June 2002). "A model of (often mixed) sterotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 82 (6): 878–902. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.82.6.878. PMID 12051578. 
  17. ^ Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Fiske, Susan T.; Glick, Peter (April 2007). "The BIAS map: Behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 92 (4): 631–648. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.92.4.631. Retrieved 7 June 2012. 
  18. ^ Krakovsky, Marina. "Mixed Impressions: How We Judge Others on Multiple Levels". Scientific American Mind. Scientific American. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  19. ^ a b Carney, Dana R.; Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Yap, Andy J. (October 2010). "Power Posing – Brief Nonverbal Displays Affect Neuroendocrine Levels and Risk Tolerance". Psychological Science. 21 (10): 1363–1368. doi:10.1177/0956797610383437. PMID 20855902. 
  20. ^ Venton, Danielle (15 May 2012). "Power Postures Can Make You Feel More Powerful". Wired. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  21. ^ "Boost Power Through Body Language". HBR Blog Network. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  22. ^ Buchanan, Leigh. "Leadership Advice: Strike a Pose". Inc.Magazine. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  23. ^ Baron, Neil. "Power Poses: Tweaking Your Body Language for Greater Success". Expert Perspective. Fast Company. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  24. ^ Halverson, Ph.D., Heidi Grant. "Feeling Timid and Powerless? Maybe It's How You Are Sitting". The Science of Success. Psychology Today. Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  25. ^ Where the original experiment had 42 subjects (21 in each condition), Ranehill et al had 200. The experimenters were kept unaware of which condition each subject was in to avoid experimenter bias.
  26. ^ Ranehill, E.; Dreber, A.; Johannesson, M.; Leiberg, S.; Sul, S.; Weber, R. A. (25 March 2015). "Assessing the Robustness of Power Posing: No Effect on Hormones and Risk Tolerance in a Large Sample of Men and Women". Psychological Science. 26 (5): 653–656. doi:10.1177/0956797614553946. ISSN 0956-7976. PMID 25810452. 
  27. ^ Carney, D. R.; Cuddy, A. J. C.; Yap, A. J. (3 April 2015). "Review and Summary of Research on the Embodied Effects of Expansive (vs. Contractive) Nonverbal Displays". Psychological Science. 26 (5): 657–663. doi:10.1177/0956797614566855. ISSN 0956-7976. PMID 25841000. 
  28. ^ The overview concluded, "The work of Ranehill et al. joins a body of research that includes 33 independent experiments published with a total of 2,521 research participants. Together, these results may help specify when nonverbal expansiveness will and will not cause embodied psychological changes."
  29. ^ Simmons, J. & Simonsohn, U. (2015). Power Posing: Reassessing the Evidence Behind the Most Popular ted Talk. http://datacolada.org/2015/05/08/37-power-posing-reassessing-the-evidence-behind-the-most-popular-ted-talk.
  30. ^ They suggested publication bias as a possible explanation: "e.g., labs that run studies that worked wrote them up, labs that run studies that didn't, didn't."
  31. ^ Simmons, Joseph P.; Simonsohn, Uri (2016-06-06). "Power Posing: P-Curving the Evidence". Psychological Science. SSRN 2791272Freely accessible. 
  32. ^ Garrison, Katie E.; Tang, David; Schmeichel, Brandon J. (2016-06-07). "Embodying Power A Preregistered Replication and Extension of the Power Pose Effect". Social Psychological and Personality Science: 1948550616652209. doi:10.1177/1948550616652209. ISSN 1948-5506. 
  33. ^ Gelman, Andrew (January 1, 2016). "Amy Cudd's Power Pose Research Is the Latest Example of Scientific Overreach". Slate. 
  34. ^ Carney, Dana (2016). "My position on "Power Poses": Regarding: Carney, Cuddy & Yap (2010)" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-09-26. 
  35. ^ Cesario, Joseph; Jonas, Kai; Carney, Dana (28 June 2017). "CRSP special issue on power poses: what was the point and what did we learn?". Journal Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology. 2 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1080/23743603.2017.1309876. 
  36. ^ Gronau, Quentin; van Erp, Sara; Heck, Daniel; Cesario, Joseph; Jonas, Kai; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan (28 June 2017). "A Bayesian Model-Averaged Meta-Analysis of the Power Pose Effect with Informed and Default Priors: The Case of Felt Power". Journal Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology. 2 (1): 123–138. doi:10.1080/23743603.2017.1326760. 
  37. ^ Davis-Laack, Paula (January 5, 2016). "How To Bring Presence To Your Biggest Challenges". Forbes. Archived from the original on January 5, 2016. 
  38. ^ "Best Sellers / Advice, How-To & Miscellaneous". The New York Times. February 7, 2016. Archived from the original on January 29, 2016. 
  39. ^ Robinson, Melia; Lebowitz, Shana; Maisch, Andreas (January 2, 2016). ""Power-Posen": So einfach verbessert ihr mit Körpersprache euer Selbstbewusstsein ("Power-poses": Improve your self-confidence with body language". Business Insider Deutschland. Archived from the original on February 11, 2016. 
  40. ^ Heidi Grant Halvorson, "The Top 10 Psychology Studies of 2010. Ten great studies from 2010 that can improve your life.", Psychology Today, 20 December 2010.
  41. ^ "PopTech Annual Conference". 'Talk of the Day', October 21, 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2012. 
  42. ^ "Young Global Leaders 2014 - World Economic Forum". widgets.weforum.org. Retrieved 2015-07-30. 
  43. ^ Cuddy, Amy (19 March 2012). "Game Changers, Innovators and problem solvers that are inspiring change in America". TIME Specials. TIME, Inc. Retrieved 23 June 2012.  "Amy Cuddy, Power Poser. Using a few simple tweaks to body language, Harvard researcher Amy Cuddy discovers ways to help people become more powerful"
  44. ^ "Rising Star Award, 2011". Association for Psychological Science (APS). 
  45. ^ "Harvard Business Review". The HBR List: Breakthrough Ideas for 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2012.