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Temporal range: Eocene–Recent
Anacardium occidentale fruit
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
Subfamily: Anacardioideae
Genus: Anacardium

See text


Cassuvium Lam.
Rhinocarpus Bertero & Balb. ex Kunth[1]

Anacardium, the cashews, are a genus of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas. The best known species is Anacardium occidentale, which is commercially cultivated for its cashew nuts and cashew apples.


The name Anacardium, originally from the Greek, actually refers to the nut, core or heart of the fruit, which is outwardly located (ana means "upwards" and -cardium means "heart").


The oldest species of the genus Anacardium is Anacardium germanicum from the Eocene aged Messel Pit of Germany, well outside the current range of the genus.[2] They were present in the Americas by the Oligocene-Miocene, as evidenced by the species Anacardium gassonii from Panama.[3]

As of July 2020, the Plants of the World Online accepts 20 species:[4]


  1. ^ "Anacardium L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-11-23. Archived from the original on 2009-05-06. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
  2. ^ Manchester, Steven R.; Wilde, Volker; Collinson, Margaret E. (October 2007). "Fossil Cashew Nuts from the Eocene of Europe: Biogeographic Links between Africa and South America". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 168 (8): 1199–1206. doi:10.1086/520728. ISSN 1058-5893. S2CID 84629334.
  3. ^ Rodríguez-Reyes, Oris; Estrada-Ruiz, Emilio; Monje Dussán, Camila; de Andrade Brito, Lilian; Terrazas, Teresa (2021-06-02). Vermeij, Geerat J. (ed.). "A new Oligocene-Miocene tree from Panama and historical Anacardium migration patterns". PLOS ONE. 16 (6): e0250721. Bibcode:2021PLoSO..1650721R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0250721. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 8171895. PMID 34077439.
  4. ^ Kew Science Plants of the World Online, retrieved 11 July 2020
  5. ^ "Species Records of Anacardium". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2010-02-10.

External links[edit]

Data related to Anacardium at Wikispecies

Media related to Anacardium at Wikimedia Commons