Anachronisms in the Book of Mormon

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A page from the original manuscript of the Book of Mormon, covering 1 Nephi 4:38- 5:14

There are a number of words and phrases in the Book of Mormon that are anachronistic—their existence in the text of the Book of Mormon is at odds with known linguistic patterns or archaeological findings.

Each of the anachronisms is a word, phrase, artifact, or other concept that critics, historians, archaeologists, or linguists believe did not exist in the Americas during the time period in which the Book of Mormon claims to have been written.

Mormon scholars and apologists respond to the anachronisms in several ways.

The list below summarizes the most prominent anachronisms, as well as perspectives of Mormon scholars and common apologetic rebuttals.

Background[edit]

According to Joseph Smith, the Book of Mormon was originally engraved on golden plates, which he received in 1827 from an angel named Moroni,[1] whom Smith identified as a resurrected[2] former inhabitant of the American continent. Smith claimed to translate the original text of the plates into English; the book says that a portion of the text was written on the plates in "reformed Egyptian."

The Book of Mormon is said to have taken place somewhere in the Americas from c. 2500 BC to 400 AD, thus placing its events within the pre-Columbian era.

Critics assert that the book's origin lies firmly in the 19th century and that Smith created it with the resources available to him, including the King James Version (KJV) of the Bible.

Unlike the Bible, no manuscripts in the supposed original language of the Book of Mormon are known to exist. No manuscripts or plates containing text similar to Egyptian or Hebrew have ever been excavated in the New World. Outside of Mormon scholars, the consensus is that archaeological findings do not support the historicity of the Book of Mormon. Some Mormon archaeologists and researchers claim various archaeological findings such as place names, and ruins of the Inca, Maya, Olmec, and other ancient American and Old World civilizations as giving credence to the Book of Mormon record.[3]

Historical anachronisms[edit]

Quoting Isaiah[edit]

Book of Mormon prophets quote chapters 48 through 54[4] of the Book of Isaiah after having left Jerusalem around 600 BC. Since Isaiah died around 698 BC, under traditional biblical belief, there would be no conflict. The prevailing scholarly opinion is that these chapters were not written by Isaiah, but rather by one or more other people during the Babylonian captivity, sometime between 586 and 538 BC (between 14 and 82 years after it could have been known to the Book of Mormon prophets).[5] However, there is not complete unanimity, with some conservative Biblical scholars still asserting that Isaiah authored the entire book.[6]

Baptism[edit]

Baptism is mentioned as a ritual that is taught and performed among the Nephite civilization, with its first mention being taught by Nephi between 559 and 545 BC.[7] While some have commented that baptism as a part of conversion was not customary until after the Babylonian captivity,[8] detailed research by Everett Ferguson (2009) has concluded that "the date for the origin of proselyte baptism cannot be determined."[9] The Babylonian captivity occurred subsequent to the departure of the Lehites recounted in the Book of Mormon.

Both Christian and Rabbinic baptism is rooted in the washings in Leviticus[10] which dates to approximately 1445 B.C.[11] A practice similar to baptism is known to have been practiced by the Jewish Essenes between the 2nd century BC and the 1st century AD.[12] The Jewish Encyclopedia compares Christian baptism to ancient Jewish purification and initiation rites involving immersion in water, and states that "Baptism was practised in ancient (Hasidic or Essene) Judaism".[13]

Dating of known historical events[edit]

The Book of Mormon chronology accounts for 600 years from the time that Lehi left Jerusalem to the birth of Jesus Christ, which contradicts the timing of known historical events.[14][15] Lehi is said to have left Jerusalem in the first year of the reign of Zedekiah, which occurred in 597 BC.[14][16] The date of birth of Jesus was no later than 4 BC, based on the Bible stating that it occurred during the reign of Herod the Great, who died in 4 BC.[17][18][19]

A few LDS Church scholars account for this discrepancy by speculating that perhaps the Nephite calendar was a lunar calendar during that time period.[20][21][22]

Flora and fauna anachronisms[edit]

Horses[edit]

There are five incidences where horses are mentioned in the Book of Mormon, and are portrayed as being in the forest upon first arrival of the Nephites, "raise(d)," "fed," "prepared" (in conjunction with chariots), used for food, and being "useful unto man".[23] There is no evidence that horses existed on the American continent during the timeframe of the Book of Mormon. Horses evolved in North America,[24] but are believed to have become extinct on the American continent at the end of the Pleistocene.[25][26] Horses did not reappear in the Americas until the Spaniards brought them from Europe.[27] They were brought to the Caribbean by Christopher Columbus in 1493,[28] and to the American continent by Hernán Cortés in 1519.[29]

Apologists assert that there is evidence that some New World horses may have survived the PleistoceneHolocene transition,[30][31] and that such evidence is accepted by some non-Mormon scholars.[31]

Others believe that the word "horse" in the Book of Mormon does not refer to members of the genus Equus but instead to other animals such as deer or tapirs.[32][33]

FARMS apologist Robert R. Bennett stated that as a comparison, the famed horses of the Huns did not leave any archaeological trace yet numbered in the thousands.[34] Archaeological remains of horses have been found at the Hun sites of Boroo Gol,[35] Mankhan[36] as well as at various grave sites directly preceding the Huns.[37]

Bennett also draws an analogy by discussing the limited evidence of "lions" in Palestine: "The biblical narrative mentions lions, yet it was not until very recently that the only other evidence for lions in Palestine was pictographic or literary. Before the announcement in a 1988 publication of two bone samples, there was no archaeological evidence to confirm the existence of lions in that region."

Elephants[edit]

Elephants are mentioned in the Book of Ether. Critics maintain that there is no evidence of elephants in the Americas after the end of the Pleistocene.

Elephants are mentioned twice in a single verse in the Book of Ether.[38] Mastodons and mammoths lived in the New World during the Pleistocene and the very early Holocene with a disappearance of the Mastodon from North America about 10,500 years ago where recent research indicates mammoths survived on the American mainland until 10,000 years ago;[39] however, as with the prehistoric horse, the fossil record indicates that they became extinct along with most of the megafauna towards the end of the last ice age. The source of this extinction, known as the Holocene extinction is speculated to be the result of human predation, a significant climate change, or a combination of both factors.[40][41] as part of a mass extinction of most of the Pleistocene megafauna that is widely believed to have been a result of human hunting pressure.[42][43] It is known that a small population of mammoths survived on Saint Paul Island, Alaska, up until 5725 BP (3705 BC),[44] but this date is more than 1000 years before the Jaredite record in the Book of Mormon begins.

The main point of contention is how late these animals were present in the Americas before becoming extinct, with Mormon authors asserting that population islands of these animals continued to exist into Jaredite times.[45]

Various Mormon authors have cited evidence that North American mound-builder cultures were familiar with the elephant.[46] The oldest mound-builder societies date to around 2000 BC. The mound builder/elephant controversy did not originate with the Book of Mormon.[47] In The Mound Builders, Their Works and Relics, author Stephen Dennison Peet cites instances of exhumed mastodon remains and arguments given for why the remains were believed to be contemporary with mound builders.[48] Elephant effigy pipes, of the characteristic mound builder platform style, were reported as archaeological finds in Iowa,[49] and many have readily identified the animal depicted in the shape of the Wisconsin "elephant mound", though others question whether this is in fact the animal represented.[50] The former Iowa state archaeologist Marshall McKusick discusses the evidence indicating that the elephant platform pipes are frauds in his book on the so-called Davenport Tablets.[51]

The co-existence of man and elephantine animals is congruent with the archaeological record, but does not address the anachronism, since the dates of all elephantine remains in the Americas have been placed well before their mention in the Book of Mormon.[52]

There are instances of stories preserved orally by Native Americans which some Mormon scholars[53] believe may describe elephants. One such story is related by the Naskapi Indian Tribe, located in eastern Quebec and the Labrador region of Canada. The story concerns a monster from the Naskapi tradition called "Katcheetohuskw", which is described as being very large, with large ears, teeth and a long nose.[54] Similar versions of "monster" legends related by other tribes refer to a monster called "Ursida", which is described as more of a large, stiff-legged bear rather than a mammoth. The story of the "monster bear" is considered by some scholars to be purely mythical.[55] Delaware and other native American legends of the mastodon are likewise said to exist.[56]

Cattle and cows[edit]

There are five separate incidences of "cows" or "cattle" in the New World in the Book of Mormon, including verbiage that they were "raise(d)" and were "for the use of man" or "useful for the food of man,"[57] and indicates that "cattle" and "cows" were not considered the same animal.[58] Critics argue that there is no evidence that Old World cattle (members of the genus Bos) inhabited the New World prior to European contact in the 16th century AD.[59][60]

Apologists argue that the term "cattle" may be more generic than suggesting members of the genus Bos, and may have referred to bison, mountain goats, llamas, or other American species.[61] According to the Book of Mormon, "cattle" could be found in ancient America. However, no species of bison is known to have been domesticated[62] and there is no evidence for the domestication of any other large mammal in the pre-Columbian Americas except for the llama and alpaca which, as members of the camel family, would have been unclean and unsuitable for keeping the Law of Moses (Leviticus 11:4).

Goats[edit]

There are four mentions of the existence of goats in the Book of Mormon. The Jaredites noted goats "were useful for the food of man" (approximately 2300 BC), the Nephites did "find" "the goat and the wild goat" upon arrival (approximately 589 B.C.) and later "raise(d)" "goats and wild goats" (approximately 500 BC), and the goat was mentioned allegorically (approximately 80 BC).[63]

Domesticated goats are not native to the Americas, having been domesticated in pre-historic times on the Eurasian continent. Domesticated goats are believed to have been introduced on the American continent upon the arrival of the Europeans in the 15th century,[citation needed] 1000 years after the conclusion of the Book of Mormon, and nearly 2000 years after they are last mentioned in the Book of Mormon. The mountain goat is indigenous to North America and has been hunted, and the fleece used for clothing.[64] However it has never been domesticated, and is known for being aggressive towards humans.[citation needed]

Matthew Roper, a FARMS writer, discussed the topic of goats in his article, "Deer as 'Goat' and Pre-Columbian Domesticate". He noted that when early Spanish explorers visited the southeastern United States they found Native Americans herding tame deer:

In all these regions they visited, the Spaniards noticed herds of deer similar to our herds of cattle. These deer bring forth and nourish their young in the houses of the natives. During the daytime they wander freely through the woods in search of their food, and in the evening they come back to their little ones, who have been cared for, allowing themselves to be shut up in the courtyards and even to be milked, when they have suckled their fawns. The only milk the natives know is that of the does, from which they make cheese.[65]

Roper based his arguments on anecdotes from early Spanish colonists which called native Mesoamerican brocket deer goats: "Friar Diego de Landa noted, 'There are wild goats which the Indians call yuc.'" He quoted another friar in the late 16th century, "in Yucatán 'there are in that province ... great numbers of deer, and small goats'".[66]

Yale anthropologist Marion Schwartz noted that in the Americas "The white-tailed deer is a good example of an animal whose solitary behavior precludes its domestication even though it prefers to live in areas that people have opened up. Deer have been tamed and herded but not truly domesticated."[67]

Swine[edit]

"Swine" are referred to twice in the Book of Mormon,[68][69] and states that the swine were "useful for the food of man" among the Jaredites.[69] There have not been any remains, references, artwork, tools, or any other evidence suggesting that swine were ever present in the pre-Columbian New World.[70]

Apologists note that peccaries (also known as javelinas), which bear a superficial resemblance to pigs and are in the same subfamily Suinae as swine, have been present in South America since prehistoric times.[71] Mormon authors advocating the mound-builder setting for the Book of Mormon have similarly suggested North American peccaries (also called "wild pigs")[72] as the "swine" of the Jaredites.[73] The earliest scientific description of peccaries in the New World is in Brazil in 1547 and referred to them as "wild pigs."[74]

Though it has not been documented that peccaries were bred in captivity, it has been documented that peccaries were tamed, penned, and raised for food and ritual purposes in the Yucatan, Panama, the southern Caribbean, and Columbia at the time of the Conquest.[75] Archaeological remains of peccaries have been found in Mesoamerica from the Preclassic (or Formative) period up until immediately before Spanish contact.[76] Specifically, peccary remains have been found at Early Formative Olmec civilization sites,[77] which civilization is thought by some Mormon apologists to correlate to the Jaredites.[citation needed]

Barley and wheat[edit]

Grains are mentioned 28 times in the Book of Mormon, including "barley" and "wheat".[78] The introduction of domesticated modern barley and wheat to the New World was made by Europeans sometime after 1492, many centuries after the time in which the Book of Mormon is set.

FARMS scholar Robert Bennett offered two possible explanations for this anachronism:

Research on this matter supports two possible explanations. First, the terms barley and wheat, as used in the Book of Mormon, may refer to certain other New World crop plants that were given Old World designations; and second, the terms may refer to genuine varieties of New World barley and wheat. For example, the Spanish called the fruit of the prickly pear cactus a "fig," and emigrants from England called maize "corn," an English term referring to grains in general. A similar practice may have been employed when Book of Mormon people encountered New World plant species for the first time.[79]

Bennett also postulates that references to "barley" could refer to Hordeum pusillum, also known as "little barley," a species of grass native to the Americas. The seeds are edible, and this plant was part of the pre-Columbian Eastern Agricultural Complex of cultivated plants used by Native Americans. Hordeum pusillum was unknown in Mesoamerica, where there is no evidence of pre-Columbian barley cultivation. Evidence exists that this plant was domesticated in North America in the Woodland periods contemporary with mound-builder societies (early centuries AD) and has been carbon-dated to 2,500 years ago.[80][81][82] Barley samples that date to 900 AD were also found in Phoenix, Arizona, and samples from Southern Illinois date between 1 and 900 AD.[83]

Technology anachronisms[edit]

Chariots[edit]

Inca road in Peru

The Book of Mormon mentions the presence of "chariots" in three instances, in two instances (both around 90 BC at the same location) inferring them as a mode of transportation.[84] There is no archaeological evidence to support the use of wheeled vehicles in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. Many parts of ancient Mesoamerica were not suitable for wheeled transport. Clark Wissler, the Curator of Ethnography at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, noted: "we see that the prevailing mode of land transport in the New World was by human carrier. The wheel was unknown in pre-Columbian times."[85]

A broader claim that wheels did not exist in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is incorrect. Wheels were used in a limited context in Mesoamerica for what were probably ritual objects, "small clay animal effigies mounted on wheels."[86] Richard Diehl and Margaret Mandeville have documented the archaeological discovery of wheeled toys in Teotihuacan, Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, and Panuco in Mesoamerica.[87] Some of these wheeled toys were referred to by Smithsonian archealogist William Henry Holmes and archaeologist Désiré Charnay as "chariots." [88][89] While these items establish that the concept of the wheel was known in ancient Mesoamerica, lack of suitable draft animals and a terrain unsuitable for wheeled traffic are the probable reasons that wheeled transport was never developed."[90][91]

A comparison of the South American Inca civilization to Mesoamerican civilizations shows the same lack of wheeled vehicles. Although the Incas used a vast network of paved roads, these roads are so rough, steep, and narrow that they were likely unsuitable for wheeled use.[citation needed] Bridges that the Inca people built, and even continue to use and maintain today in some remote areas, are straw-rope bridges so narrow (about 2–3 feet wide) that no wheeled vehicle can fit.[citation needed] Inca roads were used mainly by chaski message runners and llama caravans. Mayan paved roads at Yucatan had characteristics which could allow the use of wheeled vehicles, but there is no evidence that those highways were used by other than people on foot and nobles who were borne on litters.[92]

One Mormon researcher responds to the lack of evidence with a comparison to biblical archaeology, suggesting that though there are no archaeological evidences that any of the numerous ancient American civilizations used wheeled transportation, few chariot fragments have been found in the Middle East dating to biblical times[93] (apart from the disassembled chariots found in Tutankhamun's tomb). Although few fragments of chariots have been found in the Middle East, there are many images of ancient chariots on pottery and frescoes and in many sculptures of Mediterranean origin, thus confirming their existence in those societies.[citation needed] Chariots are absent in pre-Columbian frescoes, pottery and artwork found in the New World.

Referencing the discovery of wheeled chariot "toys" in Mayan funerary settings, Mormon scholar William J. Hamblin has suggested that the "chariots" mentioned in the Book of Mormon might refer to mythic or cultic wheeled vehicles.[94]

Mormon scholar Brant Gardner has asserted that the Book of Mormon "chariot' may be a palanquin or litter vehicle, since the Book of Mormon makes no reference to the specific use of the wheel.[95]

Silk[edit]

A silkworm building its cocoon

The Book of Mormon mentions the use of "silk" in the New World four times.[96] Most commercial silk comes from the cocoon of one of several Asian moths, predominantly Bombyx mori; this type of silk was unknown in pre-Columbian America.

Mormon scholar John L. Sorenson documents several materials which were used in Mesoamerica to make fine cloth equivalent to silk, some of which the Spanish actually called "silk" upon their arrival, including the fiber (kapok) from the seed pods of the ceiba tree, the cocoons of wild moths, the fibers of silkgrass (Achmea magdalenae), the leaves of the wild pineapple plant, and the fine hair of the underbelly of rabbits.[97] He alleges that the inhabitants of Mexico used the fiber spun by a wild silkworm to create a fabric.[98]

The Aztecs, Mixtecs and Zapotecs used and traded[99] a silk material taken from the large nests made by two indigenous insects, the moth Eucheira socialis[100] and the butterfly Gloveria psidii.[101] The nests were cut and pieced together to make a fabric, rather than extracting and weaving the fiber as in modern silk. Weaving of silk from what are thought to be the same insects has been reported in more recent times, though its use in pre-Columbian times has been debated.[102]

Compass[edit]

The Book of Mormon also states that a "compass" or "Liahona" was used by Nephi in the 6th-century BC. The compass is widely recognized to have been invented in China around 1100 AD, and remains of a compass have never been found in America. In the Book of Alma, Alma explains to his son that "our fathers called it Liahona, which is, being interpreted, a compass".[103]

Apologists counter that Liahona was, according to the narrative, created by God,[103] and not by the Nephites. Also, unlike a normal compass, the Book of Mormon says that there was also writing on the ball that displayed instructions from God,[104] and there was no mention of any part of it pointing to a geographic point. Recent speculation has raised the possibility of the Liahona being a form of astrolabe which are indicated to have existed during Lehi's time frame.[105]

Windows[edit]

The Book of Mormon describes that the Jaredite people were familiar with the concept of "windows" near the time of the biblical Tower of Babel, and that they specifically avoided crafting windows for lighting in their covered seagoing vessels, because of fears that "they would be dashed in pieces" during the ocean voyage.[106] Transparent window panes are a more recent invention, dating to the 11th century AD in Germany.[107]

FairMormon, citing several such uses in the KJV of the Bible, notes that 'the term "window" originally referred to an opening through which the wind could enter' and which sometimes had doors or shutters (2 Kings 13:17) or lattices (Song of Solomon 2:9) and were not made of glass, so these parts of the window could be what is referred to as being "dashed to pieces." It is also suggested that the warning in Ether may have referred to the entire vessel being "dashed in pieces" if the structure was weakened by additional openings.[108]

Uses of metal[edit]

The Book of Mormon mentions a number of metals, and the use of metal. However, while pre-Columbian tribes used metal, often beaten, there is no accepted evidence of high-temperature melting. The word "dross" appears twice in the Book of Alma. In addition to meaning a by-product of smelting, it can also mean "waste matter; refuse; any worthless matter separated from the better part; impure matter."[109] Thus, use of the word dross does not necessarily imply the melting of metal but may be consistent with low temperature working of metal to eliminate inclusions or surrounding gangue material. The Book of Mosiah also mentions "ziff" as a metal, but its modern correlate is unknown.

Steel and iron[edit]

Three incidences of "steel" in the New World are mentioned in the Book of Mormon, one early amongst the Jaredites after their arrival around 2400 BC, one immediately after the Lehi party's arrival in the New World discussing Nephi's knowledge of steel at approximately 580 BC, and one of occurrence amongst the Nephites around 400 BC.[110] Four incidences of "iron" in the New World are mentioned in the Book of Mormon, one amongst the Jaredites around 1000 BC, one immediately after the Lehi party's arrival in the New World discussing Nephi's knowledge of iron at approximately 580 BC, and two of occurrence amongst the Nephites, one around 400 BC and the other around 160 BC.[111]

Between 2004 and 2007, a Purdue University archaeologist, Kevin J. Vaughn, discovered a 2000-year-old iron ore mine near Nazca, Peru; however there is no evidence of smelting, and the hematite was apparently used to make pigments.[112] He noted:

Even though ancient Andean people smelted some metals, such as copper, they never smelted iron like they did in the Old World .... Metals were used for a variety of tools in the Old World, such as weapons, while in the Americas, metals were used as prestige goods for the wealthy elite.[113]

An Olmec mining colony has been identified in the Cintalapa valley in Mexico. Among items excavated were partially worked blocks of ilmenite (a form of iron oxide) and magnetite (a magnetic iron oxide) and a fragment of an iron mirror, together with tools and San Lorenzo-style ceramics. These remains date to around 950 BC. Among the products produced from this material were Olmec mirrors which were formed from polished iron, beads, and figurines[114] At the Olmec site of Las Bocas in Puebla, Mexico a particularly fine iron mosaic mirror was recovered and dated to around 1000 BC.[115]

There were two forms of ancient steeling of iron that did not involve smelting. The first is achieved through quenching and the second through carburizing iron by heating, hammering, and folding the iron in the presence of charcoal.[116]

Apologists counter that the word "steel" may be referring to another alloy of hardened metal such as the hardened copper alloy that is translated with the word "steel" in the KJV.[117][118] This alloy is in fact a hardened copper similar to bronze and not hardened iron.[119]

Metal swords, which had "rusted"[edit]

Aztec warriors brandishing maquahuitls

The Book of Mormon makes numerous references to "swords" and their use in battle.[120] What the swords are made of is mostly ambiguous except for two instances involving the Jaredites. The first was an early battle (around 2400 BC) involving the king Shule which used "steel" swords.[121] When the remnants of the Jaredite's abandoned cities were discovered (around 120 BC),[122] the Book of Mormon narrative states that some swords were brought back "the hilts thereof have perished, and the blades thereof were cankered with rust," suggesting that these swords had metal blades.[123]

Though usually more resistant to oxidation than iron, copper alloys are susceptible to bronze disease in humid conditions[124] and hardened alloys of copper can oxidize[citation needed]. It is therefore not certain that the mention of "rust"[125] is a reference to iron oxide.

Warriors in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica are known to have used wooden clubs with blade-like obsidian flakes;[126] as a volcanic glass, obsidian does not rust.

Some studies have shown that metallurgy did exist in a primitive state in Mesoamerica during the Preclassic/Formative and Classic periods (which corresponds to the time period in the Book of Mormon). These metals include brass, iron ore, copper, silver, and gold.[127] However, the metals were never used to make swords:

Even though ancient Andean people smelted some metals, such as copper, they never smelted iron like they did in the Old World .... Metals were used for a variety of tools in the Old World, such as weapons, while in the Americas, metals were used as prestige goods for the wealthy elite.[128]

The closest evidence to a pre-Columbian metal blade on Mesoamerica come from the Maya, but those artifacts were not swords, but small copper axes used as tools.[129]

Cimeters[edit]

"Cimeters" are mentioned in eight instances in the Book of Mormon stretching from approximately 500 BC to 51 BC.[130] Critics argue this existed hundreds of years before the term "scimitar" was coined. The word "cimiter" is considered an anachronism since the word was never used by the Hebrews (from which the Book of Mormon peoples came) or any other civilization prior to 450 AD[131] and because metal swords are not found in the Americas in the Book of Mormon timeframe. The word 'cimeterre' is found in the 1661 English dictionary Glossographia and is defined as "a crooked sword" and was part of the English language at the time that the Book of Mormon was translated.[132] In the 7th century, scimitars generally first appeared among the Turko- Mongol nomads of Central Asia however a notable exception was the sickle sword of ancient Egypt known as the khopesh[133] which was used from 3000 BC and is found on the Rosetta Stone dated to 196 BC. Eannatum, the king of Lagash, is shown on a Sumerian stele from 2500 BC equipped with a sickle sword.[134]

Apologists, including Michael R. Ash, and William Hamblin of FAIR, note that the Book of Mormon does not mention the materials that the "cimiters" were made out of, and postulate that the word was chosen by Joseph Smith as the closest workable English word for the weapon used by the Nephites[135] that was not made of metal, and was short and curved. Mormon scholar Matthew Roper has noted there are a variety of weapons with curved blades found in Mesoamerica.[136]

System of exchange based on measures of grain using precious metals as a standard[edit]

The Book of Mormon details a system of measures used by the societies described therein.[137] However, the overall use of metal in ancient America seems to have been extremely limited. A more common exchange medium in Mesoamerica were cacao beans.[138]

Linguistic anachronisms[edit]

Knowledge of a modified Hebrew and reformed Egyptian languages[edit]

Photograph of the document known as the Caractors document, with reformed Egyptian symbols

The Book of Mormon account refers to various groups of literate peoples, at least one of which is described as using a language and writing system with roots in Hebrew and Egyptian. Fifteen examples of distinct scripts have been identified in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, many from a single inscription.[139] Archaeological dating methods make it difficult to establish which was earliest (and hence the forebear from which the others developed) and a significant portion of the documented scripts have not been deciphered. None of the documented Mesoamerican language scripts have any relation to Hebrew or Egyptian. The Book of Mormon describes another literate culture, the Jaredites, but does not identify the language or writing system by name. The text that describes the Jaredites (Book of Ether) refers only to a language used prior to the alleged confounding of languages at the great tower, presumably a reference to the Tower of Babel.

Linguistic studies on the evolution of the spoken languages of the Americas agree with the widely held model that the initial colonization of the Americas by Homo sapiens occurred over 10,000 years ago.[140]

FairMormon apologists argue that the Book of Mormon does not describe all of the original settlers of the Americas, but rather a subset of the larger population, who settled in a limited geographical setting. Thus, their language and writing may have had little to no impact on the culture of the rest of the population.[141]

"Christ" and "Messiah"[edit]

The words "Christ" and "Messiah" are used several hundred times throughout the Book of Mormon.[142] The first instance of the word "Christ" in the Book of Mormon dates to between 559 and 545 BC.[143] The first instance of the word "Messiah" dates to about 600 BC.[144]

"Christ" is the English transliteration of the Greek word Χριστός (transliterated precisely as Christós); it is relatively synonymous with the Hebrew word rendered "Messiah" (Hebrew: מָשִׁיחַ, Modern: Mashiaẖ, Tiberian: Māšîăḥ). Both words have the meaning of "anointed," and are used in the Bible to refer to "the Anointed One".[145] In Greek translations of the Old Testament (including the Septuagint), the word "Christ" is used for the Hebrew "Messiah", and in Hebrew translations of the New Testament, the word "Messiah" is used for the Greek "Christ".[146] Any usage in the Bible of the word "Christ" can be alternately translated as "Messiah" with no change in meaning (e.g. Matthew 1:1, 16, 18).

The Book of Mormon uses both terms throughout the book. In the vast majority of cases, it uses the terms in an identical manner as the Bible, where it does not matter which word is used:

And now, my sons, remember, remember that it is upon the rock of our Redeemer, who is Christ, the Son of God, that ye must build your foundation; that when the devil shall send forth his mighty winds, yea, his shafts in the whirlwind, yea, when all his hail and his mighty storm shall beat upon you, it shall have no power over you to drag you down to the gulf of misery and endless wo, because of the rock upon which ye are built, which is a sure foundation, a foundation whereon if men build they cannot fall (Helaman 5:12).

And after he had baptized the Messiah with water, he should behold and bear record that he had baptized the Lamb of God, who should take away the sins of the world." (1 Nephi 10:10).

The Book of Mormon occasionally uses the word "Christ" in a way that is not interchangeable with "Messiah". For example in 2 Nephi 10:3, the Book of Mormon prophet Jacob says an angel informed him that the name of the Messiah would be Christ:

Wherefore, as I said unto you, it must needs be expedient that Christ—for in the last night the angel spake unto me that this should be his name—should come among the Jews (2 Nephi 10:3)

The word "Messiah" is used in the text before this point, but from this point on the word "Christ" is used almost exclusively.

Richard Packham argues that the Greek word "Christ" in the Book of Mormon challenges the authenticity of the work since Joseph Smith clearly stated that, "There was no Greek or Latin upon the plates from which I, through the grace of the Lord, translated the Book of Mormon."[147]

The Foundation for Apologetic Information & Research states that the word "Christ" is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew word "Messiah" and that Smith simply chose the more familiar Greek word to translate the word that appeared in the language of the plates.[148]

Hugh Nibley postulated that the word "Messiah" could have been derived from Arabic rather than Hebrew,[149] although Arabic is not mentioned as one of the languages in which the golden plates were written.

Greek names[edit]

Joseph Smith stated in a letter to the editor of Times and Seasons, "There was no Greek or Latin upon the plates from which I, through the grace of the Lord, translated the Book of Mormon."[150] The Book of Mormon contains some names which appear to be Greek, some of which are Hellenizations of Hebrew names (e.g. Antipas, Archeantus, Esrom, Ezias, Jonas, Judea, Lachoneus, and Zenos).

Other Greek names are non-biblical and their presence in the book is puzzling to both believers and skeptics, since neither Smith nor the Nephites spoke Greek. One explanation has been offered by Stephen D. Ricks. Writing in the LDS magazine Ensign he said that though the language of the Mulekites is not put forward in the Book of Mormon, the party could have included Phoenicians who had regular contact with the Greeks or perhaps some Greek sailor or traders were also in the initial group. In addition, Greek names have occurred as loan names in ancient Hebrew.[151]

"Church" and "synagogue"[edit]

The word "church" first occurs in 1 Nephi 4:26, where a prophet named Nephi disguises himself as Laban, a prominent man in Jerusalem whom Nephi had slain:

And he [Laban's servant], supposing that I spake of the brethren of the church, and that I was truly that Laban whom I had slain, wherefore he did follow me (1 Nephi 4:26).

According to the Book of Mormon, this exchange happened in Jerusalem, around 600 BC. The meaning of the word "church" in the Book of Mormon is more comparable to usage in the KJV than modern English. The concept of a church, meaning a convocation of believers, existed among the House of Israel prior to Christianity. For instance, Psalms 89:5 speaks of praising the Lord "in the congregation of the saints"; the Septuagint contains the Greek word "ecclesia" for "congregation," which is also translated as "church" in the New Testament. The Book of Mormon using the word "church" in the same "style" as the KJV is seen by some apologists as support for the Book of Mormon.[citation needed]

A similar question regards the word "synagogue," found in Alma 16:13:

And Alma and Amulek went forth preaching repentance to the people in their temples, and in their sanctuaries, and also in their synagogues, which were built after the manner of the Jews (Alma 16:13).

Scholars note that synagogues did not exist in their modern form before the destruction of the temple and the Babylonian captivity. The oldest known synagogue is located in Delos, Greece, and has been dated to 150 BC.[152] References to synagogues have been found in Egypt as early as the 3rd Century BC.[153]

The Name "Sam" as an anachronism[edit]

Critics Jerald and Sandra Tanner and Marvin W. Cowan contend that certain linguistic properties of the Book of Mormon provide evidence that the book was fabricated by Joseph Smith.[154][155] These critics cite as a linguistic anachronism the Americanized name "Sam" (1 Nephi 2:5,17). Apologists assert that it is potentially a hypocoristicon from Samuel representing the common Semitic vocable šm and would most likely mean “the name,” “Name,” or even “descendant/offspring" among other Near Eastern linguistic possibilities.[156] Gee, Roper and Tvedtnes report that the name "Sam" is found on a bronze ringmounted seal dated in the 7th century B.C.[157] They also note that the name "Samuel" in Hebrew is a combination of two words—Shem and El. In early Hebrew, the same letter was used for "s" and "sh" and vowels were not specified. Judges 12:6 demonstrates that the tribe of Joseph pronounced the letter that Shem began with as "s".

"Adieu"[edit]

The French word "adieu" appears once in the Book of Mormon, in Jacob 7:27.

Supporters of the Book of Mormon argue that the text is a translation into modern English, so the use of a French word is not amiss. For example, Daniel H. Ludlow contends that it may have been the result of Joseph Smith choosing the best word available to convey the meaning of the original text.[158] The word is found in the 1828 Webster's Dictionary so was considered an English word at the time of the Book of Mormon translation.[159]

Anachronisms apparently perpetuated from King James's translation[edit]

A significant portion of the Book of Mormon quotes from the brass plates, which purport to be another source of Old Testament writings mirroring those of the Bible. In many cases, the biblical quotations in the English-language Book of Mormon, are close, or identical to the equivalent sections of the KJV. Critics consider several Book of Mormon anachronisms to originate in the KJV.

"Satyr"[edit]

In 2 Nephi 23:21, the Book of Mormon quotes Isaiah 13:21, which mentions a "satyr". Satyrs are creatures from Greek mythology, which are half-man, half-goat. The KJV translates Isaiah 34:14 thus:

The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with the wild beasts of the island, and the satyr shall cry to his fellow; the screech owl also shall rest there, and find for herself a place of rest. ("וְרָבְצוּ־שָׁם צִיִּים וּמָלְאוּ בָתֵּיהֶם אֹחִים וְשָׁכְנוּ שָׁם בְּנֹות יַֽעֲנָה וּשְׂעִירִים יְרַקְּדוּ־")

Other English-language versions of the Bible, including the New International Version, translate the word שעיר (sa`iyr) as "wild goat"; other translations include "monkey" and "dancing devil".[160]

Doctrinal Anachronisms[edit]

Anti-Universalist rhetoric[edit]

Universalism, or the doctrine that all humanity would be saved, was a prominent theology that peaked in popularity in the northeastern United States in the 1820s and 1830s. The Book of Mormon contains a number of sermons and passages that use anti-Universalist religious arguments common to that time and place, not known to have occurred in any ancient American setting.[161] The existence of 19th century anti-Universalist arguments and rhetoric in the Book of Mormon has been pointed out as anachronistic by various scholars, including Fawn M. Brodie and Dan Vogel.[162]

LDS Church scholars generally argue that because Book of Mormon prophets were shown by Jesus Christ the modern era, and the audience of the Book of Mormon was people in the modern era, that Book of Mormon prophets would have been intimately familiar with anti-Universalist rhetoric and purposefully used it to convince modern day readers.[162]

Satisfaction theory of atonement[edit]

The satisfaction theory of atonement was a medieval theological development, created to explain how God could be both merciful and just through an infinite atonement, and not known to have appeared in any ancient American setting.[163]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Roberts (1902, pp. 11, 18–19).
  2. ^ Smith (1838, pp. 42–43).
  3. ^ Priddis 1975; see RLDS D&C 110:20, were advanced by RLDS members: Hills 1917; Hills 1918; Hills 1924, and Gunsolley 1922
  4. ^ "LDS chapter headings to the Book of Isaiah". churchofjesuschrist.org. 2012-02-21. Retrieved 2012-06-11.
  5. ^ John L. McKenzie, Second Isaiah (1969, Yale University Press)
    Brevard S. Childs, Isaiah (2000, Westminster John Knox Press)
    Herbert G. May and Bruce M. Metzger, The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha (1977, Oxford)
  6. ^ Bergsma notes: "Ever since the publication of Duhm's influential Isaiah commentary, Isaiah 40–55 has generally been ascribed to an exilic Second Isaiah, while chapters 56–66 have been attributed to a post-exilic Third Isaiah. However, there has not been complete unanimity. Some conservative scholars have continued to defend the eighth-century prophet's authorship of the entire book." from – Bergsma, John Sietze (2007). The Jubilee from Leviticus to Qumran: A History of Interpretation (Supplements to Vetus Testamentum, Volume 115 ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: Brill Leiden. p. 191. ISBN 978-90-04-15299-1.
  7. ^ 2 Nephi 9:23 "And he commandeth all men that they must repent, and be baptized in his name".
  8. ^ "Notes on the Bible by Albert Barnes: Matthew: Matthew Chapter 3". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2018-03-15.
  9. ^ Ferguson, Everett (2009). Baptism in the Early Church: History, Theology, and Liturgy in the First Five Centuries. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. p. 76. ISBN 978-0802871084.
  10. ^ Collins, A.Y. (1989). "The Origin of Christian Baptism". Studia Liturgica. 19: 28–46. doi:10.1177/003932078901900104. S2CID 171869392.
  11. ^ "Leviticus Bible Timeline". Biblehub.com. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  12. ^ "Religion: Out of the Desert". Time. 1957-04-15.
  13. ^ "BAPTISM - JewishEncyclopedia.com". jewishencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2018-03-15.
  14. ^ a b Hardy, G. (2010). Understanding the Book of Mormon a readers guide. New York: Oxford University Press. Footnote 15 on page 103
  15. ^ Book of Mormon, 1 Nephi 10:4, 19:8; 2 Nephi 25:19, 3 Nephi 1:1
  16. ^ Book of Mormon, 1 Nephi 1:4
  17. ^ Barnes, Timothy David (1968). "The Date of Herod's Death". Journal of Theological Studies (19): 204–219. doi:10.1093/jts/XIX.1.204.
  18. ^ Bernegger, P. M. (1983). "Affirmation of Herod's Death in 4 B.C". Journal of Theological Studies. 34 (2): 526–531. doi:10.1093/jts/34.2.526. JSTOR 23963471.
  19. ^ Gelb, Norman (21 February 2013). Herod the Great: Statesman, Visionary, Tyrant. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 140.
  20. ^ Sorenson, John L. Comments on Nephite Chronology Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 2, 2 (1993):207–211
  21. ^ Spackman, Randall P. The Jewish/Nephite Lunar Calendar Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 7, 1 (1998): 48–59.
  22. ^ Spackman, Randall P. (1993). "Introduction to Book of Mormon Chronology: The Principal Prophecies, Calendars, and Dates". Foundation for Ancient Research & Mormon Studies: Preliminary Reports. SPA-93.
  23. ^ 1 Nephi 18:25, Enos 1:21, Alma 18:9,10,12, Alma 20:6, 3 Nephi 3:22, 3 Nephi 4:4, and Ether 9:19.
  24. ^ R.J.G. Savage & M.R. Long, Mammal evolution, an illustrated guide (1986, Facts on File, p. 202): "although the true horses had themselves also by then died out in Europe and Asia, they survived in North America and from there they continued to evolve."
  25. ^ Guthrie, R. Dale (2003). "Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction". Nature. 426 (6963): 169–171. Bibcode:2003Natur.426..169D. doi:10.1038/nature02098. PMID 14614503. S2CID 186242574. Retrieved 2006-12-10.
  26. ^ Baker, Barry W.; Collins, Michael B.; Bousman, C. Britt. "Late Pleistocene Horse (Equus sp.) from the Wilson-Leonard Archaeological Site, Central Texas" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-02-20.
  27. ^ R. Dale Guthrie, New carbon dates link climatic change with human colonization and Pleistocene extinctions, Nature 441 (11 May 2006), 207–209.
  28. ^ Kirkpatrick, Jay F.; Fazio, Patricia M. "Wild Horses as Native North American Wildlife". Archived from the original on 2006-11-29. Retrieved 2006-12-10.
  29. ^ Singer, Ben. "A brief history of the horse in America; Horse phylogeny and evolution". Canadian Geographic Magazine. Archived from the original on 2014-08-19. Retrieved 2009-10-30.
  30. ^ See Ray, Clayton E. (May 1957). "Pre-columbian Horses from Yucatan". Journal of Mammalogy. 58 (2): 278. doi:10.2307/1376338. JSTOR 1376338. and references cited therein; see also other references cited in John L. Sorenson, An Ancient American Setting for the Book of Mormon (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book, 1996), 295, n.63.
  31. ^ a b "Book of Mormon/Animals/Horses – FairMormon". www.fairmormon.org. Retrieved 2017-10-11.
  32. ^ Bennett, Robert R. "Horses in the Book of Mormon". Maxwell Institute. Brigham Young University. Archived from the original on 2008-06-11. Retrieved 2008-08-30.
  33. ^ "Reexploring the Book of Mormon". Neil A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Studies. Archived from the original on 2015-02-13. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
  34. ^ Robert R. Bennett. "Reexploring the Book of Mormon". Neil A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Archived from the original on 2015-02-13. Retrieved 2015-03-05.
  35. ^ Denis Ramseyer; Nicole Pousaz; Tsagaan Torbat. "THE XIONGNU SETTLEMENT OF BOROO GOL, SELENGE AIMAG, MONGOLIA". Academia.edu. Retrieved 2014-06-25.
  36. ^ Mongolia Today. "Hun Princess Graveyard's Secret". Mongolia Today. Archived from the original on 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2014-06-25.
  37. ^ Higham, Charles F. W. ""Xiongnu." Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations". Facts On File, Inc. Retrieved 2014-06-25.
  38. ^ Ether 9:19 "And they also had horses, and asses, and there were elephants," and considered at least semi-domesticated as "useful unto man."
  39. ^ Haile, J.; Froese, D. G.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; Roberts, R. G.; Arnold, L. J.; Reyes, A. V.; Rasmussen, M.; Nielsen, R.; Brook, B. W.; Robinson, S.; Demuro, M.; Gilbert, M. T. P.; Munch, K.; Austin, J. J.; Cooper, A.; Barnes, I.; Moller, P.; Willerslev, E. (2009). "Ancient DNA reveals late survival of mammoth and horse in interior Alaska". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (52): 22352–22357. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10622352H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0912510106. PMC 2795395. PMID 20018740.
  40. ^ Diamond 1999
  41. ^ Sharon Levy, "Mammoth Mystery, Did Climate Changes Wipe Out North America's Giant Mammals, Or Did Our Stone Age Ancestors Hunt Them To Extinction?", Onearth, winter 2006, pp. 15–19
  42. ^ Martin, P. S. (2005). "Chapter 6. Deadly Syncopation". Twilight of the Mammoths: Ice Age Extinctions and the Rewilding of America. University of California Press. pp. 118–128. ISBN 0-520-23141-4. OCLC 58055404. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
  43. ^ Burney, D. A.; Flannery, T. F. (July 2005). "Fifty millennia of catastrophic extinctions after human contact" (PDF). Trends in Ecology & Evolution. Elsevier. 20 (7): 395–401. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2005.04.022. PMID 16701402. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 10, 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2009.
  44. ^ Enk, J. M.; Yesner, D. R.; Crossen, K. J.; Veltre, D. W.; O'Rourke, D. H. (2009). "Phylogeographic analysis of the mid-Holocene Mammoth from Qagnaxˆ Cave, St. Paul Island, Alaska" (PDF). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 273 (1–2): 184–190. Bibcode:2009PPP...273D...5.. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.12.019.
  45. ^ Sorenson, John (2013). Mormon's Codex: An Ancient American book. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company. pp. 313–314. ISBN 978-1-60907-399-2.
  46. ^ Wayne N. May (editor), Ancient American, Archaeology of America Before Columbus, LDS Special Edition III
  47. ^ On the subject of the mound builder / elephant archaeological controversy and the original mound builder setting for the Book of Mormon (19th century mound-builder literary genre): Robert Silverberg, “and the mound-builders vanished from the earth”, American Heritage Magazine, June 1969, Volume 20, Issue 4 http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1969/4/1949_4_60.shtml[permanent dead link]
  48. ^ Stephen Dennison Peet, The Mound Builders, pp. 38–44
  49. ^ Stephen Dennison Peet, The Mound Builders, pp. 11–14. see also M.C. Read, Archaeology of Ohio, pp 116–117
  50. ^ On Elephant platform pipes and the Elephant Mound of Grand County, Wisconsin, see Charles E. Putnam (President of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences), Elephant Pipes and Inscribed Tablets in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Davenport, Iowa, 1885, pp. 19–20, and U.S. Ethnology Bureau, Vol. 2., 1880–81, Pg. 153; see also Charles Valentine Riley, The American Naturalist, American Society of Naturalists (Essex Institute), pp. 275–277
  51. ^ McKusick, Marshall, The Davenport Conspiracy Revisited. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0-8138-0344-9
  52. ^ Dickie, Gloria (July 16, 2014). "Ancient Native Americans Ate Pachyderms; Site Challenges Theory of Where New World Culture Began".
  53. ^ "Book of Mormon anachronisms: Elephants".
  54. ^ Johnson, Ludwell H III (October 1952). "Men and Elephants in America". Scientific Monthly. 75 (4): 215–21. Bibcode:1952SciMo..75..215J.Johnson states that the stories claimed that the monster was "very large, had a big head, large ears and teeth, and a long nose with which he hit people."
  55. ^ Siebert, F. T. Jr (October–December 1937). "Mammoth or "Stiff-Legged Bear"". American Anthropologist. 39 (4): 721–25. doi:10.1525/aa.1937.39.4.02a00410.
  56. ^ Richard C. Adams, Legends of the Delaware Indians and Picture Writing, pp. 70-71, 1905; also Johanna R. M. Lyback, Indian Legends of Eastern America, pp. 155–59, 1925
  57. ^ Enos 1:21, 1 Nephi 18:25, Ether 9:18
  58. ^ Ether 9:18
  59. ^ Johnson, D.L.; Swartz, B.K. "Evidence for Pre-Columbian Animal Domestication in the New World". Lambda Alpha Journal. 21: 34–46.
  60. ^ [1]
  61. ^ For example, Enos in the Book of Mormon tells that the Nephites raised "flocks of all manner of cattle of every kind": Enos 1:21, see also 2 Nephi 17:25.
  62. ^ Jared Diamond. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (1999, Norton, pages 165, 167, 168)
  63. ^ Enos 1:21, 1 Nephi 18:25, Ether 9:18, Alma 14:29
  64. ^ "mountain goat". www.env.gov.yk.ca. Archived from the original on 2018-03-22. Retrieved 2018-03-16.
  65. ^ Matthew Roper. "Deer as "Goat" and Pre-Columbian Domesticate – Matthew Roper – Insights – Volume 26 – Issue 6". Farms.byu.edu. Archived from the original on 2009-02-10. Retrieved 2012-06-11.
  66. ^ Deer as "Goat" and Pre-Columbian Domesticate Matthew Roper
  67. ^ "A History of Dogs in the Early Americas". www.nytimes.com.
  68. ^ 3 Nephi 14:6
  69. ^ a b Ether 9:17–18
  70. ^ John J. Mayer and I Lehr Brisbin, Jr. Wild Pigs in the United States: Their History, Comparative Morphology, and Current Status (1991, University of Georgia Press).
  71. ^ Gongora, J.; Moran, C. (2005). "Nuclear and mitochondrial evolutionary analyses of Collared, White-lipped, and Chacoan peccaries (Tayassuidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 34 (1): 181–189. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.08.021. PMID 15579391.
  72. ^ S.v. "peccary", The New Columbia Encyclopedia.
  73. ^ Phyllis Carol Olive, Lost Lands of the Book of Mormon, 83
  74. ^ Donkin, R.A. (1985). "The Peccary – With Observations on the Introduction of Pigs to the New World". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 75 (5): 3. doi:10.2307/1006340. JSTOR 1006340.
  75. ^ Donkin, R.A. (1985). "The Peccary – With Observations on the Introduction of Pigs to the New World". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 75 (5): 30,35–39. doi:10.2307/1006340. JSTOR 1006340.
  76. ^ Donkin, R.A. (1985). "The Peccary – With Observations on the Introduction of Pigs to the New World". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 75 (5): 29. doi:10.2307/1006340. JSTOR 1006340.
  77. ^ Venderwarker, Amber M. (2006). Farming, Hunting, and Fishing in the Olmec World. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. pp. 125–127, 131. ISBN 9780292726246.
  78. ^ "Barley and Wheat in the Book Mormon". Featured Papers. Archived from the original on 23 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-19.
  79. ^ Barley and Wheat in the Book Mormon, Robert R. Bennett Provo, Utah: Maxwell Institute.[2] Archived 2008-09-18 at the Wayback Machine
  80. ^ Bennett cites, Nancy B. Asch and David L. Asch, "Archeobotany," in Deer Track: A Late Woodland Village in the Mississippi Valley, ed. Charles R. McGimsey and Michael D. Conner (Kampsville, Illinois, Center for American Archaeology, 1985), 44, p. 78
  81. ^ Robert R. Bennett, "Barley and Wheat in the Book Mormon", Provo, Utah: Maxwell Institute.[3] Archived 2008-09-18 at the Wayback Machine
  82. ^ "Little Barley". Archived from the original on 2013-12-30.
  83. ^ "Fullscreen | Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship". Publications.maxwellinstitute.byu.edu. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-05-06.
  84. ^ Alma 18:9-10,12, Alma 20:6, 3 Nephi 3:22
  85. ^ Wissler, Clark. The American Indian. pp. 32–39 – as quoted by B. H. Roberts, Studies of the Book of Mormon, Second Edition, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, 1992, pg. 99.
  86. ^ Phillips, Charles; Jones, David M (2005). Aztec & Maya: Life in an Ancient Civilization. London: Hermes House. p. 65.
  87. ^ Diehl, Richard A.; Mandeville, Margaret D. (July 1987). "Tula, and wheeled animal effigies in Mesoamerica" (PDF). Antiquity. 61 (232): 239–46. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00052054.
  88. ^ Charnay, Désiré (1888). The Ancient Cities of the New World, being Voyages and Explorations in Mexico and Central America from 1857–1882. New York, New York: Harper and Brothers. p. 171. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  89. ^ Holmes, William Henry (1919). Handbook of Aboriginal American Antiquities – Bulletin 60, Part 1. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. p. 20. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  90. ^ "Tula, and wheeled animal effigies in Mesoamerica" http://www.precolumbianwheels.com/Tula&wheeled_animal_effigies.pdf Archived 2012-07-16 at the Wayback Machine
  91. ^ Wheeled Toys in Mexico. Gordon F. Ekholm, American Antiquity. Vol. 11, No. 4 (Apr. 1946)
  92. ^ "Mesoweb Publications". www.mesoweb.com.
  93. ^ Sorenson[when?], p. 59.
  94. ^ See Pre-Columbian Contact with the Americas across the Oceans: An Annotated Bibliography Archived 2008-03-06 at the Wayback Machine
  95. ^ Gardner, Brant (2015). Traditions of the Fathers: The Book of Mormon As History. Sandy, Utah: Greg Kofford Books. pp. 295–297. ISBN 978-1589586659.
  96. ^ Alma 1:29, Alma 4:6, Ether 9:17, Ether 10:24.
  97. ^ Sorenson, John L. (2013). Mormon's Codex. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book. pp. 346–347.
  98. ^ Sorenson, John L (March 1995). "A New Evaluation of the Smithsonian Institution "Statement regarding the Book of Mormon"". Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship. Archived from the original on 2018-09-03. Retrieved 2018-09-03.
  99. ^ Peigler, Richard S. (1993-07-01). "Wild Silks of the World". American Entomologist. 39 (3): 151–162. doi:10.1093/ae/39.3.151. ISSN 1046-2821. ...the silk was used by the Aztecs and by the two major indigenous peoples in the state of Oaxaca: the Mixtecs and Zapotecs... The silk was supposedly an article of commerce during the time of Moctezuma II, whose reign was 1502–1519.
  100. ^ Brown, Thomas (1832). The Book of Butterflies, Sphinxes, and Moths: Illustrated by Ninety-six Engravings Coloured After Nature. Whittaker, Treacher. pp. 65–66. The manufacture of this silk was an object of much commercial interest among the ancient Mexicans, at least as far back as the time of Montezuma, king of Mexico
  101. ^ Hogue, Charles Leonard (1993). Latin American insects and entomology. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 328. ISBN 978-0520078499. OCLC 25164105. Silk swaths gathered from the large hammock-net cocoons of Gloveria psidii (= Sagana sapotoza) and pasted together to form a kind of hard cloth, or paper, were an important trade item in Mexico at the time of Moctezuma II
  102. ^ de Avila, Alejandro (1997). Klein, Kathryn (ed.). The Unbroken Thread: Conserving the Textile Traditions of Oaxaca (PDF). Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute. p. 125. Borah (1943:102—14) proposed that indigenous weavers began to use wild silk only after sericulture, brought from Europe, began to wane. However, a document dating from 1777 describes the excavation of a Pre-columbian burial in which textiles of wild silk, cotton, and feathers were found
  103. ^ a b Alma 37:38
  104. ^ 1 Nephi 16:26-29
  105. ^ Gervais, Timothy; et al. (Sep 30, 2018). ""By Small Means": Rethinking the Liahona". Interpreter. 30: 207–232. Retrieved 2019-03-30.
  106. ^ Ether 2:22–23
  107. ^ "A Brief History of Glass". Archived from the original on 2011-10-24.
  108. ^ "Book of Mormon/Windows – FairMormon". www.fairmormon.org. Retrieved 2017-10-11.
  109. ^ Webster, Noah. "Dross". Webster's Dictionary 1828. Retrieved 2019-03-28.
  110. ^ Ether 7:9, 2 Nephi 5:15, Jarom 1:8,
  111. ^ Ether 10:23, 2 Nephi 5:15, Jarom 1:8, Mosiah 7:3, 8
  112. ^ "Hematite Mining in the Ancient Americas: Mina Primavera, A 2,000 Year Old Peruvian Mine". Retrieved 2012-10-03.
  113. ^ "Archaeologist 'Strikes Gold' With Finds Of Ancient Nasca Iron Ore Mine In Peru". ScienceDaily. Purdue University. 29 January 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
  114. ^ Diehl, Richard (2004). The Olmecs: America's First Civilization. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 93, 133. ISBN 978-0500285039.
  115. ^ Carlson, John B. (1081). "Olmec Concave Iron-Ore Mirrors: The Aesthetics of a Lithic Technology and the Lord of the Mirror" in The Olmec & their neighbors: essays in memory of Matthew W. Stirling. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks. p. 117-148. ISBN 978-0884020981.
  116. ^ Madden, R. (October 1977). "How the Iron Age Began". Scientific American. 237 (4): 131. Bibcode:1977SciAm.237d.122M. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1077-122.
  117. ^ "Steel in the Book of Mormon – FairMormon".
  118. ^ "STEEL". www.kingjamesbibleonline.org. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
  119. ^ Even in biblical verses where iron is paired with "steel" (Job 20:24, Jeremiah 15:12), "steel" nevertheless refers to hardened copper alloys. See נְחוּשָׁה and נְחֹשֶׁת in the Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew / Aramaic Lexicon)
  120. ^ 2 Nephi 5:14
  121. ^ "Question: Are all swords mentioned in the Book of Mormon made of metal?". FairMormon. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  122. ^ Mosiah 8:8
  123. ^ Mosiah 8:11
  124. ^ "e-conservation magazine – The Appearance of "Bronze Disease"". 2012-09-17. Archived from the original on 2012-09-17. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  125. ^ Mosiah 8:11
  126. ^ Roper, Matthew (1999). "Swords and "Cimeters" in the Book of Mormon". Journal of Book of Mormon Studies. 8 (1): 34–43. Archived from the original on 8 December 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-11."Spaniards who faced native Mesoamerican swords in battle were deeply impressed by their deadly cutting power and razorlike sharpness."
  127. ^
    • "The first Andean evidence for metallurgy dates to around 1500 B.C. " site: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5348/is_199905/ai_n21438921 it is in the middle of the page.
    • Olmec Archaeology and Early Mesoamerica Series: Cambridge World Archaeology Christopher Pool University of Kentucky
    • Hosler, D.; Pean, G. Stresser (1992). "The Huastec Region: A Second Locus for the Production of Bronze Alloys in Ancient Mesoamerica". Science. 257 (5074): 1215–1220. Bibcode:1992Sci...257.1215H. doi:10.1126/science.257.5074.1215. PMID 17742754. S2CID 24957171.
    • Hosler, D.; MacFarlane, Andrew (1996). "Copper Sources, Metal Production and Metals Trade in Late Post-Classic Mesoamerica". Science. 273 (5283): 1819–1824. Bibcode:1996Sci...273.1819H. doi:10.1126/science.273.5283.1819. S2CID 178633633.
    • Brill, R.; Wampler, J. (1967). "Isotope Studies ofAncient Lead". American of Archaeoloe. 71 (1): 63–77. doi:10.2307/501589. JSTOR 501589.
    • E. Pemika, Archaeometry, 35 (1993), p. 259
    • A.F. MacFarlane (Paper presented at the Harvard Symposium on Ancient Metallurgy, September 1997
    • G.L. Cummings, S.E. Kessler, and D. Kristic, Economic Geology 74 (1979), p. 1395
    • D. Hosler, "Six Metal Production Sites in the Tierra Caliente of Guerrero" (unpublished research).
    • H. Ball and D. Brockinton, Mesoamerican Communication Routes and Cultural Contacts, Papers of the New World Archaeological Foundation, 40, pp. 75–106
    • The Sounds and Colors of Power: The Sacred Metallurgical Technology of Ancient West Mexico by Dorothy Hosler
  128. ^ "Archaeologist 'Strikes Gold' With Finds Of Ancient Nasca Iron Ore Mine In Peru". ScienceDaily. Purdue University. 29 January 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
  129. ^ "The Maya Archaeometallurgy Project at Lamanai".
  130. ^ Enos 1:20, Mosiah 9:16, Mosiah 10:8, Alma 2:12, Alma 27:29, Alma 43:18, 20, 37, Alma 44:8, Alma 60:2, Helaman 1:14
  131. ^ B. H. Roberts noted: "The word [cimiter] is of oriental and uncertain origin and appears in various forms. How it came to be introduced into the speech and writings of the Nephites, and how not used in the other Hebrew literature at an earlier date, is so far as I know, unaccountable. The earliest use of the word I have found is in Gibbon, where referring to the alleged incident of finding the sword of Mars for Attila, he there calls that sword of Mars 'cimiter'; but that was about 450 A.D." – Roberts 1992, p. 112
  132. ^ Blount, Thomas (1661). Glossographia, or, A dictionary interpreting all such hard words of whatsoever language now used in our refined English tongue with etymologies, definitions and historical observations on the same : also the terms of divinity, law, physick, mathematicks and other arts and sciences explicated. London, England: Tho. Newcombe. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  133. ^ Kamenir, Victor. "Scimitar: How One Sword Dominated Warfare for Centuries". nationalinterest.org. The National Interest, Warfare History Network. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  134. ^ Yadin, Yigael (1963). The Art of Warfare in Biblical Lands: In the Light of Archaeological Study Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 134.
  135. ^ Ash states: "there is enough Mesoamerican artwork and artifacts that display the basic characteristics of a scimitar that the Book of Mormon is vindicated for its usage." See: http://www.fairlds.org/FAIR_Brochures/Anachronisms3.pdf
  136. ^ Roper, Matthew (1999). "Swords and Cimeters in the Book of Mormon". Journal of Book of Mormon Studies. 8 (1): 34–43, 77–78. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  137. ^ "Alma 11". churchofjesuschrist.org. 2012-02-21. Retrieved 2012-06-11.
  138. ^ Coe 2002, p. 132 "[W]ell into Colonial times the beans served as a form of money in regional markets."
  139. ^ Macri, Martha J. (1996). "Maya and Other Mesoamerican Scripts," in The World's Writing Systems. England: Oxford. pp. 172–182.
  140. ^ Lyle Campbell, American Indian Languages, The Historical Linguistics of Native America (1997, Oxford)
  141. ^ "Hebrew and Native American languages".
  142. ^ The word "Christ" is used 99 times, and the word "Messiah" is used 13 times.
  143. ^ See 2 Nephi 10:3
  144. ^ 1 Nephi 1:19.
  145. ^ "Messiah". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2012-06-11.
  146. ^ "BibleGateway.com: A searchable online Bible in over 50 versions and 35 languages". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
  147. ^ Packham, Richard (April 20, 2003). "A Linguist Looks at Mormonism".
  148. ^ "Book of Mormon Anachronisms: Pre-Christian Christianity". Retrieved November 7, 2013.
  149. ^ Hugh Nibley, Since Cumorah, pp. 167–68, discusses the origin, interchangeability, and translated use of the terms "Messiah" and "Christ" as they appear in scripture. Nibley points out that the Arabic word al-masih, for instance, could be translated using the Hebrew term "Messiah" or the New Testament term "Christ" depending on the context and translator. See also "Meshiach" (מָשִׁיחַ), "anointed", Hebrew-Aramaic Lexicon
  150. ^ Times and Seasons, vol.4, no.13, May 15, 1843, p. 194
  151. ^ Ricks, Stephen D. (October 1992). "The name of one of the Lord's disciples listed in 3 Nephi 19:4—Timothy—seems to be Greek in origin. Is there an explanation for the appearance of a Greek name in the Book of Mormon?". Ensign. 22 (10): 53–54. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  152. ^ The Oldest Original Synagogue Building in the Diaspora: The Delos Synagogue Reconsidered," Monika Trümper Hesperia, Vol. 73, No. 4 (Oct.–Dec., 2004), pp. 513–98
  153. ^ Donald D. Binder. "Egypt".
  154. ^ Beckwith, Francis (2002). The New Mormon Challenge. Zondervan. pp. 367–396. ISBN 978-0-310-23194-3.
  155. ^ Cowan, Marvin (1997). Mormon Claims Answered.
  156. ^ "Sam". The Book of Mormon Onomasticon. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  157. ^ Avigad, Nahman; Sass, Benjamin (1997). Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals. Jerusalem, Israel: Institute of Archaeology, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. p. 69. ISBN 978-9652081384.
  158. ^ Daniel H. Ludlow, A Companion to Your Study of the Book of Mormon, p. 163
  159. ^ Webster, Noah. "Adieu". Webster's Dictionary 1828. Retrieved 2019-03-28.
  160. ^ "Isaiah 13:21 But desert creatures will lie there, jackals will fill her houses; there the owls will dwell, and there the wild goats will leap about". Bible.cc. Retrieved 2012-06-11.
  161. ^ Metcalfe, B. L., & Vogel, D. (1993). New approaches to the Book of Mormon: Exploration in critical methodology. Salt Lake City, UT: Signature Books. chapter 2 online at:http://signaturebookslibrary.org/anti-universalist-rhetoric-in-the-book-of-mormon/ ; presented in lecture form at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wm7t7pNUWAM
  162. ^ a b Givens, T. (2002). By the hand of Mormon: The American scripture that launched a new world religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. page 164-166
  163. ^ Blake T. Ostler, "The Book of Mormon as a Modern Expansion of an Ancient Source" Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought (Spring 1987): page 82 online at: https://www.dialoguejournal.com/wp-content/uploads/sbi/articles/Dialogue_V20N01_68.pdf

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