|Trade names||Anatropin, Neo-Novum|
|Synonyms||ORF-1658; Anapregnone acetate; 3-Deketo-6α-methyl-17α-acetoxyprogesterone; 6α-Methyl-17α-hydroxypregn-4-en-20-one acetate|
|Drug class||Progestin; Progestogen; Progestogen ester|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||372.549 g/mol g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Anagestone acetate, also known as 3-deketo-6α-methyl-17α-acetoxyprogesterone or as 6α-methyl-17α-acetoxypregn-4-en-20-one, is a synthetic pregnane steroid and a derivative of progesterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. It is the C17α acetate ester of anagestone, which, in contrast to anagestone acetate, was never marketed. Anagestone acetate is closely related structurally to medroxyprogesterone acetate (6α-methyl-17α-acetoxyprogesterone).
In 1969, along with a variety of other progestogens including progesterone, chlormadinone acetate, megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, ethynerone, and chloroethynyl norgestrel, anagestone acetate was found to induce the development of mammary gland tumors in Beagle dogs after extensive treatment (2–7 years) with very high doses (10–25 times the recommended human dose), though notably not with 1–2 times the human dosage. In contrast, the non-halogenated 19-nortestosterone derivatives norgestrel, norethisterone, noretynodrel, and etynodiol diacetate were not found to produce such nodules. Because of these findings, anagestone acetate was voluntarily withdrawn from the market by the manufacturer in 1969. The findings also led to the virtual disappearance of most 17α-hydroxyprogesterone derivatives as hormonal contraceptives from the market (though medroxyprogesterone acetate, cyproterone acetate, and chlormadinone acetate have continued to be used). According to Hughes et al., "It is still doubtful how much relevance these findings have for humans as the dog mammary gland seems to be the only one which can be directly maintained by progestogens." Subsequent research revealed species differences between dogs and humans and established that there is no similar risk in humans.
Society and culture
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Progestational activity depends on the presence of a 3-keto group in ring A of the steroid skeleton. Most of the progestogens used today do indeed carry such a group in their original molecules. However, the 3-keto group is initially missing in the case of desogestrel and norgestimate. They are prodrugs which undergo metabolic conversion to active 3-keto derivatives in the body.
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Prodrugs (lack 3-keto): Ethylestrenol, Lynestrenol, Ethynodiol, Allylestrenol, Norgestimate
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