|Anakin Skywalker/Darth Vader|
|Star Wars character|
|First appearance||Star Wars (1977)|
|Last appearance||Revenge of the Sith (2005)|
|Created by||George Lucas|
|Full name||Anakin Skywalker (birth name)|
|Nickname(s)||"Ani" (by Padmé Amidala and Qui-Gon Jinn)
"Sky Guy" (by Ahsoka Tano)
|Aliases||Darth Vader (Sith name)|
|Species||Darth Vader: Human/cyborg
Anakin Skywalker: Human
|Occupation||Darth Vader: Sith Lord, Supreme Commander of the Imperial Fleet
Anakin Skywalker: Jedi Master, General in the Grand Army of the Republic
|Family||Shmi Skywalker (mother)
Cliegg Lars (stepfather)
Owen Lars (stepbrother)
Ben Solo (grandson)
Darth Vader, also known as Anakin Skywalker, is a fictional character in the Star Wars universe. Vader appears in the original trilogy as a pivotal figure, and his past as Anakin Skywalker is central to the prequel trilogy.
The character was created by George Lucas and has been portrayed by numerous actors. His appearances span the first six Star Wars films, and his character is heavily referenced in Episode VII: The Force Awakens. He is also an important character in the Star Wars expanded universe of television series, video games, novels, literature and comic books. Originally a Jedi prophesied to bring balance to the Force, he falls to the dark side of the Force and serves the evil Galactic Empire at the right hand of his Sith master, Emperor Palpatine (also known as Darth Sidious). He is also the father of Luke Skywalker and Princess Leia Organa, grandfather of Kylo Ren, and secret husband of Padmé Amidala.
Concept and creation
In the first draft of The Star Wars, tall, grim general "Darth Vader" was already close in line with his final depiction, and the protagonist "Anikin Starkiller" had a role similar to Luke Skywalker's as the 16-year-old son of a respected warrior. Vader's mask was originally designed by Ralph McQuarrie as part of Vader's spacesuit and not intended to be part of the regular costume. Brian Muir sculpted Vader's costume based on McQuarrie's design.
After the success of Star Wars, Lucas hired science fiction author Leigh Brackett to write the sequel with him. They held story conferences and, by late November 1977, Lucas had produced a handwritten treatment. The treatment is similar to the final film, except that Vader does not reveal he is Luke's father. In the first draft that Brackett would write from this, Luke's father appears as a ghost to instruct Luke. Lucas was disappointed with the script, but Brackett died of cancer before he could discuss it with her. With no writer available, Lucas had to write the next draft himself. In this draft, he made use of a new plot twist: Vader claiming to be Luke's father. According to Lucas, he found this draft enjoyable to write, as opposed to the year-long struggles writing the first film.
The new plot element of Luke's parentage had drastic effects on the series. Michael Kaminski argues in his book that it is unlikely that the plot point had ever seriously been considered or even conceived of before 1978, and that the first film was clearly operating under an alternate storyline where Vader was a separate character from Luke's father. After writing the second and third drafts in which the plot point was introduced, Lucas reviewed the new backstory he had created: Anakin had been Obi-Wan's brilliant student and had a child named Luke, but was swayed to the dark side by Palpatine. Anakin battled Kenobi on the site of a volcano and was badly wounded, but was then reborn as Vader. Meanwhile, Kenobi hid Luke on Tatooine while the Galactic Republic became the tyrannical Galactic Empire and Vader systematically hunted down and killed the Jedi. This change in character would provide a springboard to the "Tragedy of Darth Vader" storyline that underlies the prequels.
After deciding to create the prequel trilogy, Lucas indicated the series would be a tragic one depicting Anakin's fall to the dark side. He also saw that the prequels could form the beginning of one long story that started with Anakin's childhood and ended with his death. This was the final step towards turning the film series into a "saga".
For the first prequel, Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace, Lucas made Anakin nine years old to make the character's separation from his mother more poignant. Movie trailers focused on Anakin and a one-sheet poster showing him casting Vader's shadow informed otherwise unknowing audiences of the character's eventual fate. The movie ultimately achieved a primary goal of introducing audiences to Anakin.
Michael Kaminski, in The Secret History of Star Wars, offers evidence that issues in Anakin's fall to the dark side prompted Lucas to make massive story changes, first revising the opening sequence of the third prequel, Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, to have Palpatine kidnapped and his apprentice, Count Dooku, murdered by Anakin as the first act in the latter's turn towards the dark side. After principal photography was complete in 2003, Lucas made even more massive changes in Anakin's character, re-writing his entire turn to the dark side; his fall from grace would now be motivated by a desire to save his wife, Padmé Amidala, rather than the previous version in which that reason was one of several, including that he genuinely believed that the Jedi were plotting to take over the Republic. This fundamental re-write was accomplished both through editing the principal footage, and new and revised scenes filmed during pick-ups in 2004.
Darth Vader was portrayed by bodybuilder David Prowse and by stunt performer Bob Anderson during the character's intense lightsaber fight scenes. James Earl Jones provided Vader's voice, but was initially uncredited in Star Wars and The Empire Strikes Back because he felt his contributions were too small to warrant recognition. The character has also been voiced by Scott Lawrence and Matt Sloan for several video games. Hayden Christensen portrays Vader in Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. Brock Peters was the voice of Darth Vader in the NPR/USC radio series.
Anakin Skywalker has been portrayed by Sebastian Shaw in Return of the Jedi, Jake Lloyd in Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace, and Hayden Christensen in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones and Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. Christensen appears briefly reprising the role in the final scene of Return of the Jedi. The character has also been voiced by Mat Lucas for the 2003 micro-series Star Wars: The Clone Wars and Matt Lanter in the CGI Star Wars: The Clone Wars and later animated TV series.
Introduced in the original 1977 film Star Wars, Darth Vader appears as a ruthless cyborg serving the Galactic Empire who is tasked along with Imperial commander Grand Moff Tarkin to recover the secret technical plans of the Death Star, which were stolen by the Rebel Alliance. Princess Leia Organa has secretly hidden the plans inside the Astromech droid R2-D2 and has sent it to find Jedi Master Obi-Wan Kenobi on the nearby planet of Tatooine. Vader has Leia tortured, but she resists revealing anything. During Leia's rescue, Vader fights and kills Obi-Wan in a lightsaber duel and later attempts to kill Luke when the Death Star is about to fire on the Rebel base in Yavin 4. However, Han Solo sends Vader spiraling off course, allowing Luke to destroy the Death Star.
Three years later in The Empire Strikes Back (1980), Vader leads an Imperial starfleet in pursuit of the Rebels. He leads an invasion of the Rebel base on Hoth, but the Rebels escape. He later confers with the Emperor, who tells him that Luke has become a threat to the Empire and must not become a Jedi. Vader persuades the Emperor that Luke can be turned to the dark side of the Force. Vader negotiates with Cloud City administrator Lando Calrissian to capture Han, Leia, Chewbacca, C-3PO and R2-D2 on Cloud City, and lure Luke into a trap. He has Han tortured, frozen in carbonite and delivered to bounty hunter Boba Fett, but Calrissian helps Leia, Chewbacca and the droids flee. Vader battles and defeats Luke before revealing that he is Luke's father. Vader asks his son to turn to the dark side so they can "rule the galaxy as father and son", but Luke flees. Later, Vader telepathically tells his son that it is his destiny to join the dark side.
In Return of the Jedi (1983), Vader travels to the second Death Star and orders its commander, Moff Jerjerrod, to advance its construction. He meets with the Emperor, who assures him that they will turn Luke to the dark side. Luke surrenders himself to Vader in the hope that he can turn his father back "to the light side". Vader brings Luke onto the Death Star, where the Emperor tries to seduce Luke to the dark side. Vader and Luke fight again, during which Vader learns that Leia is Luke's twin sister. When Vader threatens to turn Leia to the dark side if Luke will not submit, Luke overpowers and defeats him and the Emperor orders Luke to kill Vader and take his place. However, Luke refuses and declares himself a Jedi, and the Emperor attacks Luke with Force lightning. Unwilling to let his son die, Vader kills the Emperor by throwing him down the Death Star's reactor shaft, but is mortally wounded in the process. With his dying breath, the redeemed Anakin Skywalker asks Luke to remove his mask, and tells his son that there was good left in him after all. Luke escapes the Death Star with his father's remains, which he later ceremonially burns in a pyre. As the Rebels celebrate the destruction of the Death Star and the fall of the Empire, Luke sees his father's spirit, standing alongside those of Obi-Wan and Yoda.
In Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999), Anakin Skywalker appears as a nine-year-old slave, pilot and mechanic. Raised on the planet Tatooine by his mother Shmi, it is revealed that Anakin had no father, and that he is able to "see things before they happen". During his childhood, he develops his own protocol droid, C-3PO. Jedi Master Qui-Gon Jinn meets him when he makes an emergency landing on Tatooine. After discovering that Anakin's blood has an unusually high number of midi-chlorians, which is a measure of Force potential, Qui-Gon becomes convinced the boy is the "Chosen One" of Jedi prophecy who will bring balance to the Force. Anakin wins his freedom in a podrace, but is forced to leave his mother behind. Qui-Gon asks the Jedi Council to train Anakin as a Jedi, but the Council are concerned that the boy is vulnerable to the dark side and they decline. During the voyage, Anakin forms a close bond with Padmé Amidala, the young queen of Naboo. During the invasion of Naboo, Anakin helps defeat the Trade Federation by destroying their command ship. After Qui-Gon is killed in a battle with Sith Lord Darth Maul, his apprentice Obi-Wan Kenobi promises to train Anakin, a proposal the Council reluctantly accepts. Palpatine, the Galactic Republic's newly elected Chancellor, befriends Anakin, promising to watch the boy's career "with great interest".
Ten years later in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002), Anakin and Obi-Wan are assigned by Palpatine to investigate a failed assassination attempt on Padmé. Anakin travels with her to Naboo, where they fall in love. Anakin has a vision of Shmi in pain and goes to Tatooine, where he learns that she was kidnapped by Tusken Raiders. Arriving at the Tusken campsite, Anakin reunites with Shmi as she dies from wounds inflicted by the tribe's torture. Anakin kills the entire tribe in a fit of rage. He then returns with Shmi's corpse and tells Padmé what he has done. Soon after, Anakin and Padmé travel to Geonosis to rescue Obi-Wan from Sith Lord Count Dooku and his Separatist army, but Dooku captures the two and sentences them to death. Anakin and Padmé profess their love for each other before being rescued by an army of clone troopers and Jedi. Obi-Wan and Anakin duel with Dooku, but the Sith Lord defeats them and Anakin loses an arm in the process. After being fitted with a prosthetic arm, Anakin marries Padmé in a secret ceremony.
Three years later in Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith (2005), Anakin, who is now a Jedi Knight, and Obi-Wan lead a mission to rescue Palpatine from Separatist commander General Grievous. During the rescue, Anakin fights and decapitates Dooku at Palpatine's urging. When he returns to Coruscant, he meets with Padmé, who reveals that she is pregnant with his child. That night, he has a vision of Padmé dying in childbirth that he fears will come true. Meanwhile, Palpatine names Anakin his representative on the Jedi Council. The Council declines Anakin the rank of Jedi Master, however, and asks him to spy on Palpatine, shaking Anakin's faith in the Jedi. Palpatine eventually reveals to Anakin that he is the Sith Lord Darth Sidious and that the dark side holds the power to save Padmé's life. After Anakin reports Palpatine's treachery to Jedi Master Mace Windu, Anakin follows Windu to the Chancellor's office to ensure Palpatine is captured alive. Anakin intervenes on Palpatine's behalf, allowing him to kill Windu. Desperate to save his wife, Anakin pledges himself to the dark side and becomes Palpatine's Sith apprentice, Darth Vader.
On Palpatine's orders, Vader leads a battalion of clone troopers to kill everyone in the Jedi Temple before assassinating the Separatist leaders on Mustafar. There, Padmé finds Vader and begs him to flee with her. He refuses, saying that the two of them can overthrow Palpatine and rule the galaxy. When Obi-Wan emerges from Padmé's ship, Vader accuses her of conspiring against him and uses the Force to choke her into unconsciousness. Vader and Obi-Wan fight each other in a lightsaber battle; Obi-Wan defeats Vader by severing his legs and arm, and Vader is badly burned when he slides too close to a lava flow. Obi-Wan takes Vader's lightsaber and leaves him to die.
Shortly afterwards, Palpatine finds Vader and takes him back to Coruscant, where he has his apprentice's ruined body reconstructed with cybernetic limbs and a respiratory suit. Palpatine informs Vader that he caused Padmé's death, which agonizes Vader. Later, the two supervise the first Death Star's construction.
Anakin Skywalker is a central character in the 2003–05 animated microseries Star Wars: Clone Wars, in which he has becomes a full-fledged Jedi Knight and has adventures such as battling Dark Jedi Asajj Ventress and liberating the planet Nelvaan from the Confederacy.
In the 2008 animated film Star Wars: The Clone Wars and the subsequent television series of the same name, Anakin decides to teach a young Padawan, Ahsoka Tano, after becoming a Jedi. The two of them have many adventures, such as saving Jabba the Hutt's son from the Separatists. The responsibility of a Padawan helps Anakin become a better leader and a wiser man.
Both of these series include a scene in which Anakin sees a cryptic vision of his future as Darth Vader. The film and the two series are set in the time between Attack of the Clones and Revenge of the Sith.
Darth Vader occasionally appears in the television series Star Wars: Rebels, once again voiced by James Earl Jones. In this series, set during the early days of the Rebel Alliance, he leads a squadron of Force-sensitive Imperial Inquisitors who are actively searching for and killing any remaining Jedi and Force-sensitive children. Vader later discovers that Ahsoka Tano (who left the Jedi Order before the events of Revenge of the Sith) has joined the Rebels, and the Emperor orders him to hunt her down.
In James Luceno's Dark Lord: The Rise of Darth Vader (2005), set a few months after the events of Revenge of the Sith, Vader disavows his identity as Anakin Skywalker as he systematically pursues and kills the surviving Jedi and cements his position in the Empire. The novel also reveals that Vader plans to eventually overthrow Palpatine, and that he betrayed the Jedi because he resented their supposed failure to recognize his power.
Vader's Quest (1999) depicts Vader hiring a bounty hunter to bring him information about the pilot who destroyed the Death Star, ultimately meeting Luke for the first time. In the novel Splinter of the Mind's Eye (1978), Vader and Luke duel for the first time, and Luke cuts off Vader's right arm. Shadows of the Empire (1996) reveals that Vader is conflicted about trying to turn his son to the dark side of the Force, and knows deep down that there is still some good in him.
Anakin's redeemed spirit appears in The Truce at Bakura (1993), set a few days after the end of Return of the Jedi. He appears to Leia, imploring her forgiveness. Leia condemns him for his crimes and banishes him from her life. He promises that he will be there for her when she needs him, and disappears. In Tatooine Ghost (2003), Leia learns to forgive her father after learning about his childhood as a slave and his mother's traumatic death. In The Unifying Force (2003), Anakin tells his grandson Jacen Solo to "stand firm" in his battle with the Supreme Overlord of the Yuuzhan Vong.
In The Dark Nest trilogy (2005), Luke and Leia uncover old recordings of their parents in R2-D2's memory drive; for the first time, they see their own birth and their mother's death, as well as their father's corruption to the dark side. In Bloodlines (2006), Jacen—who has himself turned to the dark side—uses the Force to "watch" Darth Vader slaughter the children at the Jedi Temple.
Darth Vader plays a central role in Star Wars: The Force Unleashed (2008). He is a playable character in the first level of the game, where he and his armies invade Kashyyyk to hunt down a Jedi who had survived the Order's destruction. Vader kills the Jedi and kidnaps the man's young Force-sensitive son, whom he raises as his secret apprentice. Vader sends Starkiller (the game's protagonist) on various missions throughout the galaxy, with an ultimate goal to assassinate Palpatine so that Vader can rule the galaxy himself. Toward the end of the game, however, it is revealed that Vader isn't planning to overthrow Palpatine at all; he is merely using his apprentice to expose the Empire's enemies. At the game's climax, the player chooses between attacking Palpatine to help his Rebel friends escape the Death Star or killing Vader to become the Emperor's new apprentice. He also appears in the sequel Star Wars: The Force Unleashed II as the main antagonist and final boss.
Vader is also a playable character in the video games Lego Star Wars: The Video Game, Lego Star Wars II: The Original Trilogy, Lego Star Wars: The Complete Saga, Soulcalibur IV, Star Wars: Battlefront II, Star Wars: Empire at War, Star Wars: Empire at War: Forces of Corruption, Star Wars Commander, and Star Wars: Galactic Battlegrounds. He also is an active but non-playable character in Star Wars Galaxies, Star Wars: Battlefront, (as an evil pig) is a non-playable character in Angry Birds Star Wars and is a playable character in Angry Birds Star Wars II. Vader's helmet and mask appear as a selectable attire for created superstars in WWE SmackDown! Shut Your Mouth.
Anakin Skywalker is a playable character in the video games Star Wars: Battlefront II, Lego Star Wars: The Video Game, Lego Star Wars II: The Original Trilogy, Lego Star Wars: The Complete Saga, Star Wars: The Clone Wars - Lightsaber Duels, Star Wars: The Clone Wars - Jedi Alliance, Star Wars: The Clone Wars - Republic Heroes and is featured (as an Angry Bird) in Angry Birds Star Wars II.
In Attack of the Clones, Anakin Skywalker feels "smothered" by Obi-Wan Kenobi and is unable to control his life. By Revenge of the Sith, however, his "father-son" friction with his master has matured into a more equal, brotherly relationship. Once he becomes Darth Vader, each evil act he commits makes it harder for him to return to the light, but he ultimately escapes the dark side and redeems himself by sacrificing his life to save his son Luke Skywalker and kill Palpatine in Return of the Jedi.
Eric Bui, a psychiatrist at University of Toulouse Hospital, argued at the 2007 American Psychiatric Association convention that Anakin Skywalker meets six of the nine diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD), one more than necessary for a diagnosis. He and a colleague, Rachel Rodgers, published their findings in a 2010 letter to the editor of the journal Psychiatry Research. Bui says he found Anakin Skywalker a useful example to explain BPD to medical students. In particular, Bui points to Anakin's abandonment issues and uncertainty over his identity. Anakin's mass murders of the Tusken Raiders in Attack of the Clones and the young Jedi in Revenge of the Sith count as two dissociative episodes, fulfilling another criterion. Bui hoped his paper would help raise awareness of the disorder, especially among teens.
Darth Vader's iconic status has made the character a synonym for evil in popular culture; psychiatrists have even considered him as a useful example to explain borderline personality disorder to medical students. Anakin's origin story in The Phantom Menace has been compared to signifiers of African American racial identity, and his dissatisfaction with his life has been compared to Siddartha's before he became Gautama Buddha. A Mexican church advised Christians against seeing The Phantom Menace because it portrays Anakin as a Christ figure. The slime-mold beetle Agathidium vaderi is named after Vader, and several buildings across the globe are regularly compared to him. A grotesque of Darth Vader looms over the east face of the Washington National Cathedral's northwest tower. During the 2007–08 NHL season, Ottawa Senators goaltender Martin Gerber performed so well in an all-black mask that fans endearingly termed him "Darth Gerber". In 2015, a statue of Vladimir Lenin in Odessa, Ukraine, was converted into one of Darth Vader due to a law on decommunization.
Many commentators and comedians have also evoked his visage to satirize politicians and other public figures, and several American political figures have been unflatteringly compared to the character, including General George Custer, the subject of the acrylic painting Darth Custer by Native American artist Bunky Echohawk. In 2005, Al Gore referred to Tele-Communications Inc.'s John C. Malone as the "Darth Vader of cable", and political strategist Lee Atwater was known by his political enemies as "the Darth Vader of the Republican Party".
On June 22, 2006, US Vice President Dick Cheney referred to himself as the Darth Vader of the Bush administration. Discussing the administration's philosophy on gathering intelligence, he said to CNN's John King, "It means we need to be able to go after and capture or kill those people who are trying to kill Americans. That's not a pleasant business. It's a very serious business. And I suppose, sometimes, people look at my demeanor and say, 'Well, he's the Darth Vader of the administration.'" Jon Stewart put on a Darth Vader helmet to address Dick Cheney as a "kindred spirit" on The Daily Show on January 25, 2007. Cheney's wife, Lynne, presented Stewart with a Darth Vader action figure on her appearance on the show on October 10, 2007. Both Stewart and Stephen Colbert have occasionally referred to Cheney as "Darth Cheney". In the satirical cartoon show Lil' Bush, Dick Cheney's father is portrayed as being Darth Vader. At her presidential campaign event on September 19, 2007, Hillary Rodham Clinton also referred to Cheney as Darth Vader. At the 2008 Washington Radio and Television Correspondents' Association Dinner, Cheney joked that his wife Lynne told him that the Vader comparison "humanizes" him. George Lucas told The New York Times columnist Maureen Dowd, however, that Cheney is more akin to Emperor Palpatine, and that a better stand-in for Vader would be George W. Bush. An issue of Newsweek referenced this quote, and compared Bush and Cheney to Vader and Palpatine, respectively, in a satirical article comparing politicians to various Star Wars and Star Trek characters.
Many films and television series have paid homage to Darth Vader. Marty McFly in Back to the Future (1985), dressed in a radiation suit, calls himself "Darth Vader from the planet Vulcan" to convince the past version of his father to ask his mother to a dance. Rick Moranis plays "Dark Helmet" in the Star Wars parody Spaceballs (1987). In Chasing Amy (1997), Hooper X speaks at a comic convention about Darth Vader being a metaphor for how poorly the science fiction genre treats black people; he is especially offended that Vader, the "blackest brother in the galaxy", reveals himself to be a "feeble, crusty old white man" at the end of Return of the Jedi. The character was also parodied in the Nickelodeon cartoon Rocko's Modern Life in the episode "Teed Off". On another Nickelodeon cartoon, Jimmy Neutron, Darth Vader's infamous line was interpolated in the mini-episode "New Dog, Old Tricks". The line was also alluded to in Toy Story, a film franchise also owned by Disney.
The character has gained much positive reception as a classic film villain. Darth Vader ranked number two on Empire magazine's 2008 list of The 100 Greatest Movie Characters. Premiere magazine also ranked Vader on their list of The 100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time. On their list of the 100 Greatest Fictional Characters, Fandomania.com ranked Vader at number 6. Darth Vader was also the #1 supervillain on the Bravo series Ultimate Super Heroes, Vixens and Villains. Darth Vader was also ranked as #1 in IGN's list of top 100 Star Wars characters. Furthermore, Darth Vader's quote in The Empire Strikes Back — "No, I am your father" (often misquoted as "Luke, I am your father"), — is one of the most well known quotes in cinema history. The line was selected as one of the 400 nominees for the American Film Institute's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes, a list of the greatest American movie quotes. Vader received the Ultimate Villain recognition at the 2011 Scream Awards.
|Skywalker-Solo family tree|
- "The Imperial March" – the theme music that accompanies Vader's appearances in The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi as well as scenes where Anakin becomes more aggressive and unstable in Attack of the Clones and Revenge of the Sith.
- Two men named Darth Vader were candidates at the 25 May 2014 Kiev mayoral election and the Odessa mayoral election of the same day. A man named Darth Vader earlier had submitted documents to be registered as a presidential candidate in the 25 May 2014 Ukrainian presidential election; but his registration was refused because his real identity could not be verified. In the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election Darth Vader and Star Wars characters such as Chewbacca, Princess Amidala and Yoda ran for seats in the Ukrainian parliament. Candidates named Darth Vader reappeared in the 2015 Ukrainian local elections.
- Bowen 2005, p. 94
- Helinski, Keith. ""Revenge" Is Just Too Sweet", moviefreak.com. Retrieved May 5, 2007.
- Winzler, Jonathan W. "The Making of Star Wars: Revenge of the Sith (Star Wars)", Powell's Books, April 2005. Retrieved May 5, 2007.
- Thornton, Mark. "What is the "Dark Side" and Why Do Some People Choose It?", Ludwig von Mises Institute, May 13, 2005. Retrieved May 5, 2007.
- "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains" (PDF). afi.com. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- Insider Excerpt: Vader Sculptor Brian Muir, StarWars.com, March 24, 2010
- "Vader, Darth". Databank. Lucasfilm. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- "Skywalker, Anakin". Databank. Lucasfilm. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- Biodrowski, Steve. "Star Wars : The Original Trilogy – Then And Now". Hollywood Gothique. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
- (Bouzereau 1997, p. 144)
- The Empire Strikes Back (DVD). 20th Century Fox. 2004.
- Kaminski 2008, pp. 120–121
- Kaminski 2008, pp. 164–165
- "Lawrence Kasdan". Star Wars. Archived from the original on June 6, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
- Kaminski 2008, pp. 299–300
- Bowen 2005, p. 22
- Kaminski 2008, pp. 380–384
- Star Wars: Episode III Revenge of the Sith documentary "Within a Minute" (DVD documentary). 2005.
- Bowen 2005, p. 3
- Star Wars Episode IV: The New Hope Strikes Back, Special Edition (DVD, 20th Century Fox, 2004), disc 1.
- Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi, Special Edition (DVD, 20th Century Fox, 2004), disc 1.
- Kottler, Jeffrey A.; Leah Brew (2007). Applied Helping Skills: Transforming Lives. SAGE. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-4129-4990-3.
- Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (DVD, 20th Century Fox, 1999), disc 1.
- Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith (DVD, 20th Century Fox, 2005), disc 1.
- WWE Smackdown Shut Your Mouth Create Mode Attire
- Bortolin 2005, p. 17
- Kapell, Matthew; John Shelton Lawrence (2006). Finding the force of the Star wars franchise: fans, merchandise, & critics. Peter Lang. p. 137. ISBN 0-8204-8808-9.
- Bortolin 2005, p. 115
- Bortolin 2005, p. x
- Hsu, Jeremy (June 8, 2010). "The Psychology of Darth Vader Revealed". LiveScience (TopTenReviews). Retrieved June 8, 2010.
- Nama, Adilifu (2008). Black space: imagining race in science fiction film. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71745-9.
- Bortolin 2005, p. xiii
- Bowen 2005, p. 97
- "Bush, Cheney and Rumsfeld are now species of slime-mold beetles – but strictly in homage". Cornell News. Cornell University. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- "An architectural Star Wars clash at Sierra Point", San Francisco Chronicle, News Page 4, April 17, 1986
- Property Values Reduced,Sun Sentinel, October 27, 1991
- Egan, Timothy (June 29, 1986). "Focus: Seattle; Creating An Office Empire". NY Times. Retrieved May 8, 2008.
- "the bell awards – Tom Graff (interview)". Belltown Messenger. June 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2008.
- Day Out Results: BNZ Building.
- "Grand Canyon Scale for Wellingtonians" Wayward Wellingtonians, July 11, 2008.
- "About Darth Vader". Washington National Cathedral. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- "Sens' Gerber has new mask, new outlook on season". TSN.ca. Bell Media. 24 September 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2010.
- Worland, Justin (October 25, 2015). "Ukrainian Lenin Statue Turned Into Darth Vader". TIME. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Steele, Robin (October 5, 2007). "Bunky Echo-Hawk takes the stage with live painting". The Brown Daily Herald. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Gunther, Marc (August 22, 2005). "Al Gore Battles Old Cable Demons". CNN. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- "Harvey Leroy "Lee" Atwater, was a Republican political consultant". Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- "Transcripts". The Situation Room (CNN). Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- "The Daily Show: Cheney Camera 3". Comedy Central. January 25, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2008.
- Dowd, Maureen (April 19, 2009). "The Aura of Arugulance". The New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2009.
- Newsweek[volume & issue needed]
- "Western Animation: Rocko's Modern Life". TV Tropes. TV Tropes. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
- "The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius > Season 1 > Episode 1 > New Dog, Old Tricks.". TV.com. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- "Toy Story references to the Star Wars films". In a far away Galaxy. December 7, 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
- "Empire's The 100 Greatest Movie Characters". Empire Magazine. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "Premiere Magazine's The 100 Greatest Movie Characters". Filmsite.org. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "The 100 Greatest Fictional Characters". Fandomania.com. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "Ultimate Super Heroes, Vixens and Villains Episode Guide 2005 – Ultimate Super Villains". TVGuide.com. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
- "Darth Vader/Anakin Skywalker is #1". IGN. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
- Michael French (2003). "The Common Concept of In". TheRaider.net. Retrieved February 26, 2007.
- "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes: Official Ballot" (PDF). AFI.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- Ford, Rebecca (October 15, 2011). "George Lucas Makes Surprise Appearance at Spike TV Scream Awards". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- "Darth Vader is number 25". IGN.com. Retrieved December 6, 2010.
- "Darth Vader Is Running for Prime Minister of Ukraine, Vowing to Take On Putin". Newsweek. 24 October 2014.
- "Kyiv Election Commission Registers Darth Vader As Candidate For Kyiv Mayor". Ukrainian News Agency. 1 May 2014.
- (Ukrainian) Darth Vader candidate for mayor of Odesa, Espreso TV (1 May 2014)
- Tsushko to compete for post of Odesa mayor, Interfax-Ukraine (29 March 2014)
- Ukraine’s Darth Vader presidency bid rejected, Euronews (4 April 2014)
- Momtaz, Rym; Jovanovic, Dragana (26 October 2014). "Pro-Western Parties, Not Darth Vader, Set to Win Ukrainian Elections". ABCNews.go.com. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- Cooper, Geraldine (26 October 2014). "Ukraine's Darth Vader candidate denied vote after refusing to remove mask". The Telegraph. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
Darth Alekseyevich Vader, an official candidate in Ukraine's parliamentary elections, is turned away from a Kiev polling station after refusing to remove his mask
- Putin headed for victory in Odesa as Darth Vader clouds farcical election, Ukraine Today (23 October 2015)
- Bortolin, Matthew (2005). The Dharma of Star Wars. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-497-1.
- Bowen, Jonathan L. (2005). Anticipation: The Real Life Story of Star Wars: Episode I-The Phantom Menace. iUniverse. ISBN 978-0-595-34732-2.
- Kaminski, Michael (2008). The Secret History of Star Wars. Legacy Works Press. ISBN 0-9784652-3-7.
- Further reading
- Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Novelization, 1st edition paperback, 1999. Terry Brooks, George Lucas
- Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Novelization, 2003. R. A. Salvatore, ISBN 0-345-42882-X
- Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith Novelization, 1st edition hardcover, 2005. Matthew Woodring Stover, George Lucas, ISBN 0-7126-8427-1
- The New Essential Guide to Characters, 1st edition, 2002. Daniel Wallace, Michael Sutfin, ISBN 0-345-44900-2
- Vader: The Ultimate Guide, 2005.
- Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary, hardcover, 1998. Dr. David West Reynolds, ISBN 0-7894-3481-4
- Star Wars: The Phantom Menace: The Visual Dictionary, hardcover, 1999. Dr. David West Reynolds, ISBN 0-7894-4701-0
- Star Wars: Attack of the Clones: The Visual Dictionary, hardcover, 2002. Dr. David West Reynolds, ISBN 0-7894-8588-5
- Star Wars: Revenge of the Sith: The Visual Dictionary, hardcover, 2005. James Luceno, ISBN 0-7566-1128-8
- "Darth Vader in Games: A Visual History". IGN. October 28, 2010.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Darth Vader|
- Darth Vader official site at StarWars
- Anakin Skywalker official site at StarWars
- Anakin Skywalker / Darth Vader on Wookieepedia, a Star Wars wiki
- Darth Vader at the Internet Movie Database
- Darth Vader on Encyclopedia Britannica