Anal language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Native to India and Burma
Region Southeast Manipur
Ethnicity Anal people
Native speakers
23,000 (2001 census)[1]
  • Langet?
Language codes
ISO 639-3 anm
qfs Langet
Glottolog anal1239[2]

Anal, also known as Namfau after the two principal villages it is spoken in, is a Northern Naga language, part of the Sino-Tibetan language family, spoken by the Anal people in India and a dwindling number in Burma. It had 23,000 speakers in India according to the 2001 census, and 50 in Burma in 2010.[1] It has two principal dialects, Laizo and Malshom, and is closest to Lamkang. The language of wider communication is Meithei. Langet may be a dialect, though its position within Kukish is uncertain (Shafer 1955:106).[needs update] Anal is written in the Latin script,[3] with a literacy rate of about 74%.[1]


The Namfau (Anal Naga) language started to be written down in the 19-20th century.

Geographical distribution[edit]

Anal is spoken in Chandel district, southeastern Manipur, on the banks of the Chakpi River in Chandel, Chakpikarong, and Engnoupal subdivisions (Ethnologue).


Standard 26 letter Latin A-Z


The following vocabulary exemplifies words in the language.[4]

Anal gloss Anal gloss
khol 'deep hole'; 'social division' ahno 'kind of short skirt'
lunguin 'kind of long shawl' zupar 'rice beer'
piruili 'elopement' min 'bride price'
ithin 'divorce' sinnuperu 'adultery'
pakum 'hearth' mote 'first-born'
kepu 'second-born' cakhow 'brown rice'
khon 'fifty rupees' thunlon 'grave'
dao 'kind of iron blade' shingkho 'plate'
vopum 'basket' athiru 'kind of marble necklace'
akarfo 'kind of China necklace' sanamba 'kind of fiddle'
tilli 'kind of flageolet' tuklee 'kind of loom'


  1. ^ a b c Anal at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Anal". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Bareh 2007, p. 120
  4. ^ Bareh 2007, pp. 119–128