Page semi-protected

Digital television transition

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Analog switchoff)
Jump to: navigation, search

The digital television transition, also called the digital switchover, the analog switch-off (ASO), or the analog shutdown, is the process in which analog television broadcasting is converted to and replaced by digital television. This primarily involves the conversion of analog terrestrial television to digital terrestrial. However, it also involves analog cable conversion to digital cable, as well as analog to digital satellite television.

In many countries, a simulcast service is operated where a broadcast is made available to viewers in both analog and digital at the same time. As digital becomes more popular, it is likely that the existing analog services will be removed. In some cases this has already happened, where a broadcaster has offered incentives to viewers to encourage them to switch to digital. In other cases government policies have been introduced to encourage or force the switchover process, especially with regard to terrestrial broadcasts. Government intervention usually involves providing some funding for broadcasters and, in some cases monetary relief to viewers, to enable a switchover to happen by a given deadline.

The switchover for individual countries varies; in some countries it is being implemented in stages as in Australia, India and the United Kingdom, where each region has a separate date to switch off. In others, the whole country switches on one date, such as the Netherlands, which switched off all analog services on 11 December 2006. Some countries have different switch off dates for each channel, such as China where CCTV channels 1-5+ were switched off first.


Other information

The Geneva 2006 Agreement set 17 June 2015 as the date after which countries may use frequencies currently assigned for analog television transmission for digital services, without being required to protect the analog services of neighbouring countries against interference. This date was generally viewed as an internationally mandated analog switch-off date, at least along national borders.[4] The European Commission has recommended that digital switchover should be completed by 1 January 2012 - Commission Recommendation 2009/848/EC, of 28 October 2009.[5]

Digital switchover at a glance

Country DTT transmission
Andorra Andorra 25 September 2007
Australia Australia[6] 1 January 2001 30 June 2010 10 December 2013
Belgium Belgium 16 July 2002 (RTBF)

31 May 2004 (VRT)

3 November 2008 1 March 2010 (RTBF)

3 November 2008 (VRT)

Brazil Brazil[7] 2 December 2007 15 February 2016 31 December 2023
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1 January 2009 1 March 2013 30 September 2013
Canada Canada 1 March 2003 31 August 2011 31 July 2012[8]
Croatia Croatia[9] 13 June 2002 26 January 2010 5 October 2010
Czech Republic Czech Republic[10] October 2005 September 2007 12 February 2012
Denmark Denmark 1 March 2003 1 November 2009
El Salvador El Salvador 22 April 2009 1 March 2018 1 January 2019
Estonia Estonia 1 July 2010
Finland Finland 21 August 2001 1 September 2007
France France[11] 31 March 2005 2 February 2010 29 November 2011
Germany Germany 1 November 2002 25 November 2008
Greece Greece 20 March 2006 24 September 2009 6 February 2015
Guernsey Guernsey 17 November 2010
Hungary Hungary[12][13] October 2001 31 July 2013 31 October 2013
India India[14][15] 26 January 2003 31 October 2012 31 December 2017
Indonesia Indonesia 13 August 2008 (as DVB-T)
16 October 2012 (as DVB-T2)
4 March 2020 11 March 2023
Republic of Ireland Ireland[16] 29 October 2010 24 October 2012
Isle of Man Isle of Man 24 July 2009
Italy Italy 2003 15 October 2008 4 July 2012
Israel Israel 2 August 2009 31 March 2011
Japan Japan[17] 1 December 2003 24 September 2010 31 March 2012
Jersey Jersey 17 November 2010
Latvia Latvia 1 June 2010
Lithuania Lithuania March 2001 29 October 2012
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia 4 May 2004 1 January 2010 1 June 2013
Malaysia Malaysia 16 January 2014 TBD TBD
Mexico Mexico[18] 2 July 2004 18 July 2013 31 December 2016
Netherlands Netherlands 11 December 2006
New Zealand New Zealand[19] 2 May 2007 30 September 2012 1 December 2013
Norway Norway 1 September 2007 1 March 2008 1 December 2009
Peru Peru 30 March 2010 28 July 2020 3 January 2023
Philippines Philippines 14 February 2017 28 February 2017[20] 2023[3]
Poland Poland 30 September 2010 7 November 2012 23 July 2013
Portugal Portugal 29 April 2009 12 January 2012 26 April 2012
Qatar Qatar 1 January 2001 13 February 2012
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 1 January 2001 13 February 2012
Slovakia Slovakia[21][22][23] 22 December 2009 28 October 2010 31 December 2012
Slovenia Slovenia 30 June 2011
South Africa South Africa[24] 1 February 2016 TBD TBD
South Korea South Korea 26 October 2001 1 September 2010 31 December 2012
Spain Spain[25][26] 15 November 1999 5 April 2008 3 April 2010
Sweden Sweden April 1999 19 September 2005 29 October 2007
Switzerland Switzerland 1 June 2006 1 January 2008
Taiwan Taiwan 1 January 2004 7 May 2012 30 June 2012
Thailand Thailand 1 April 2014 1 December 2015 2023
Tunisia Tunisia[27] 2012 6 March 2015 3 April 2015
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 1 January 2001 13 February 2012
United Kingdom United Kingdom[28] 1998 17 October 2007 24 October 2012
United States United States[29] 1998 8 September 2008 12 June 2009 [8]
Serbia Serbia 2005 2014 7 June 2015
Vietnam Vietnam 1997 28 May 2014 2020
Romania Romania 30 April 2014 17 June 2015 1 January 2017

Transitions around the world

Transitions completed


  •  Netherlands moved to digital-only broadcasting on Monday, 11 December 2006, being the first country to do so. The switch-off was helped greatly by the fact that about 80% of Dutch households subscribe to cable systems, which continued to use analog distribution, and thus their old tuners continued to be useful. Like Germany and Sweden, the Netherlands still has a high number of analog cable viewers and therefore a switchover to digital broadcasting is unlikely to happen in the near future.
Analog closedown warning broadcast in Finland.
  •  Finland ceased analog terrestrial transmissions nationwide at 04:00, Saturday, 1 September 2007[30] (the switch-off was previously planned for midnight on September 1 but a few extra hours were added for technical reasons). This was controversial, as the cost of a digital TV set in Finland at the time was heavily criticised and saw a substantial decrease in how much the television license cost. Cable TV viewers continued to receive analog broadcasts until the end of February 2008.
  •  Andorra completed its switch-off on Tuesday 25 September 2007.[31]
  •  Sweden: The switch-off of the analog terrestrial network progressed region–by–region. It started on the island of Gotland on Monday, 19 September 2005, and was completed on Monday, 15 October 2007, when the last analog SVT1 transmitters in Blekinge and western Scania were shut down.[32] Like the Netherlands, Germany and Japan, cable distributors continued broadcasting analog television. Cable broadcasters continue to broadcast in analog (like the Netherlands and Germany), so therefore a cable switchover is unlikely to happen in the near future.
  •   Switzerland began with the switch-off on Monday 24 July 2006 in Ticino and continued with Engadin on Monday 13 November 2006. The switch-off was completed on Monday 26 November 2007. A very high percentage of Swiss viewers receive their signals via cable distributors. By 2012 40% of cable viewers have switched to digital. The government planned to shut off analog cable by 2015.[33]
  •  Germany started the switch-off in the Berlin area, beginning on Friday, 1 November 2002 and completing on Monday 4 August 2003. "Simulcast" digital transmissions started in other parts of the country in an effort to prepare for a full switchover. The switch-off of terrestrial analog transmitters was completed on Tuesday 25 November 2008, except one main transmitter in Bad Mergentheim, which was shut down in June 2009. Analog satellite receivers were still used by 6% of households in 2010 - the highest in Europe. The analog satellite transmissions were switched off on Monday 30 April 2012, being the last in Europe. However, analog cable is still used by about 30% of the population and 55% of all cable broadcasts, so therefore a cable switchover is unlikely to happen in the near future.
  •  Isle of Man switched off all analog services on Thursday 16 July 2009.[34]
  •  Denmark switched off all terrestrial analog services at midnight on Sunday 1 November 2009.[35] Analogue cable was switched off at 9 February 2016.[36]
  •  Norway: The switch-off of the analog transmissions started in March 2008 and was completed on Tuesday 1 December 2009. Norway started its DTT service on the Saturday 1 September 2007.[37]
  •  Belgium: Media regulations are under regional legislation. Flanders switched off analog television on Monday 3 November 2008, while in Wallonia, all analog services were switched off on Monday, 1 March 2010, making the country completely serviced by digital signal. However, analog cable is still used by many cable subscribers, so therefore a cable switchover is unlikely to happen in the near future.
  • Analog closedown warning broadcast in Spain
     Spain: The switch-off of the analog terrestrial transmissions was completed on Saturday 3 April 2010. The switch-off was successful, as about 70% of Spanish television transmissions are terrestrial, so it was easy for people to just switch to the digital signal. Spain started its DTT service on Wednesday 30 November 2005.[38]
  •  Latvia's analog television completely converted to digital broadcasting on Tuesday 1 June 2010.
  •  Estonia's analog television was switched off completely on Thursday, 1 July 2010.
  •  Jersey and  Guernsey switched off their analog signals on Wednesday 17 November 2010.
  •  Croatia: Analog television broadcasts were switched off for all national TV channels on Tuesday 5 October 2010 at 12:35 and for local TV channels on Saturday 20 November 2010.[39]
  •  Slovenia: The switch-off of main transmitters was completed on Wednesday 1 December 2010. The last local analog transmitters were switched off on Thursday 30 June 2011.
  •  San Marino completed its switch-off on Thursday 2 December 2010.
  •  Luxembourg shut down their last analog transmitter on UHF Channel 21 on Friday 31 December 2010.
  •  Monaco switched off their analog TV broadcasts on Tuesday 24 May 2011.
  •  Austria: Began analog switch-off on Monday, 5 March 2007, progressing from the west to the east.[40] The analog broadcast was shut down nationwide at the end of 2010 regarding the main transmitters.[41] The last analog translators were switched off on 7 June 2011.
  •  Cyprus terminated all analog transmissions on Thursday 30 June 2011 and moved to digital-only transmissions in MPEG-4 on Friday 1 July 2011.
  •  Malta terminated all analog services on Monday, 31 October 2011. The switch-off was originally planned for Wednesday 1 June 2011 but was delayed for unknown reasons.[42]
  •  France switched off all analog services (terrestrial, satellite and cable) on Tuesday, 29 November 2011. This included overseas departments and territories such as Guadeloupe, French Guiana, Martinique, Mayotte, Réunion, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and Wallis and Futuna.
  •  Portugal: Digital broadcasts started on Wednesday 29 April 2009. Portugal's government hoped to cover 80% of the territory with DTV by the end of 2009, and simulcasts remained until Thursday 26 April 2012, when the analog broadcasting ended. The switchover began on Thursday 12 January 2012.
  •  Czech Republic: The last analog retransmitters in the south-east Moravia and the northern Moravia - Silesia were switched off on Saturday, 30 June 2012.
  •  Italy: The conversion to digital television progressed region–by–region. It started in Sardinia on Wednesday 15 October 2008, and was completed on Wednesday 4 July 2012, when the last analog transmitters in the Province of Palermo were shut down.
  •  United Kingdom: Digital terrestrial broadcasting began in the UK on Sunday 15 November 1998 with the launch of the ONdigital, later renamed ITV Digital and now Freeview. The transition from analog and digital to digital-only terrestrial signals started on Wednesday 17 October 2007 with the Whitehaven transmitter in Cumbria,[43] and followed a transmitter switchover timetable, implemented by region. The first constituent country to switch off all its analog signals was Wales on Wednesday 31 March 2010[28] and the last region to switch off its analog signals was Northern Ireland on Wednesday 24 October 2012.[44] analog cable broadcasts ended in January 2012, with Milton Keynes still relying on analog cable, which the town will not get an analog switch-off. Analog satellite was discontinued on Thursday 27 September 2001, making the UK and Ireland the first countries in Europe with digital-only satellite.
  •  Ireland: Digital television was launched in Ireland as Saorview on Friday 29 October 2010.[16] At launch it had 5 standard-definition channels and 1 high-definition channel. The analog service was terminated on Wednesday 24 October 2012 [45] and was replaced by a second multiplex for Saorview. A small number of low power independent analog re-broadcast systems remained licensed until the Monday 31 December 2012.[46] There has been no date released for the shutdown of analog cable, and many major cable companies (e.g. UPC Ireland) are still actively offering analog. Analog satellite was discontinued on Thursday 27 September 2001, making the UK and Ireland the first countries in Europe with digital-only satellite.
  •  Lithuania: The switch-off of the analog terrestrial transmissions was completed on Monday, 29 October 2012.
  •  Slovakia: Slovakia finished analog transmission broadcasts on Monday, 31 December 2012.
  •  Gibraltar: Analog transmissions ceased in December 2012.
  •  Macedonia: Analog transmissions were terminated on Saturday, 1 June 2013.[47]
  •  Poland: The switch-off of the analog terrestrial transmissions was completed on Tuesday, 23 July 2013.
  •  Bulgaria: The analog signal was officially terminated on Monday, 30 September 2013.[48]
  •  Hungary: Hungarian analog terrestrial transmissions stopped on Thursday, 31 October 2013, after completing two phases that ended on 31 July and 31 October, respectively.
  •  Iceland: All analog terrestrial transmissions were switched off on Monday, 2 February 2015.[49][50][51]
  •  Greece: The analog terrestrial transmissions were terminated on Friday, 6 February 2015.[52][53]
  •  Serbia launched its first DTT transmissions in 2005. The first DTT-only channel was made available in 2008. As of 2013, the DVB-T2 network covers Belgrade and much of Vojvodina, several cities in Šumadija and Western Serbia and the southern city of Niš.[54] Digital TV switchover for 98% of citizens started on September 1, 2014. Transition progressed in six stages. First switchoff took place in Vršac on April 15, 2015.[55] Last switchoff took place on June 7, 2015.
  •  Montenegro: Has shut down analog signals on June 17, 2015.[56]
  •  Albania: Analog broadcasts were switched off on June 17, 2015.
  •  Azerbaijan: Began analog switch-off on Sunday, 17 October 2010, completed on June 17, 2015.[57][58]
  •  Kosovo (partially recognized state): Has shutdown analog signals on June 17, 2015.
  •  Romania has switched off analog broadcasting on June 17, 2015. It began phasing out the analog transmission on 30 April 2014, with 5 licences awarded for the DTT multiplexes, and also the main channel switched off at 1 January, 2017.[59]
  •  Georgia: Analog broadcasts should have been switched off June 17, 2015, but due to the flooding in Tbilisi, which occurred on the night of 13 to 14 June 2015 analogue switch-off happened on July 1, 2015.[60]
  •  Armenia: Has shut down analog signals on July 10, 2015.
  •  Belarus: Analogue broadcasting was disabled May 15, 2015 in UHF band and June 16, 2015 in the VHF band (channels 6-12). The final analogue switch-off occurred at the end of 2015.
  •  Ukraine: Analog switch-off took place in four stages. The first phase of analog switch-off started on June 15, 2015. Analog broadcasting was completely turned off December 31, 2016.[61]


  •  Namibia: Analog signals were terminated on 13 September 2014.
  •  Algeria: Digital broadcasting started in 2009, analog signals were switched off on 10 November 2014.[62]
  •  Morocco: Analogue transmitters were switched off on 17 June 2015.
  •  Kenya: Analog switch off was supposed to take place in 2013, however media houses challenged the move in court and the switch off has since been moved to 31 December 2014 for the metropolitan areas and their surroundings while in the rest of the country switched to DVB-T2 in March 2015.
  •  Ghana: Analog switch-off occurred in June 2015, switching to DVB-T.[63]
  •  Rwanda: Shut off the last of its analog signals in March 2014. Switched to DVB-T,[64] with plans to upgrade to DVB-T2 in the future.[65]
  •  Tanzania: Shut off the last of its analog signals in July 2014. Switched to DVB-T2[64][66]
  •  Mauritius: Analog shut off on June 17, 2014. Switched to DVB-T.[64]
  •  Zambia: Analog shut off on December 31, 2014. Switched to DVB-T2.[67][68]
  •  Gabon turned off all analog signals on June 17, 2016.[69]


  •  Bermuda: The Bermuda Broadcasting Company terminated over-the-air NTSC-M broadcasts as of March 2016. ZFB-TV (analog channel 7) and ZBM-TV (analog channel 9), the two television stations in Bermuda, have now switched to digital channels 20.1 and 20.2, respectively.[70] Like its parent nation (the United Kingdom) and unlike the United States, Canada and the Bahamas (which have been transitioning to ATSC), Bermuda switched over to DVB-T.
  •  Mexico: Digital broadcasts commenced in 2000, with the first being Tijuana's XETV – an English-language television station that primarily served San Diego, California between the 1960s and the early 2010s. Analog shutdown was originally scheduled to occur in 2021, but on Thursday, September 2, 2010, Mexican government advanced the analog shutdown from 2021 to 2015.[71] From 2013, areas began to be switched over regionally depending on the presence of digital television stations and a campaign headed by the SCT to distribute free television converters to households on the government welfare rolls. The first digital switchover was to begin on Tuesday, May 28, 2013 in Tijuana, but was postponed to July 18 due to the 2013 Baja California state elections.[72] The switchover was completed nationwide on December 31, 2015, when all remaining analog television stations left the air.[18] There does however remain a very small number of community-based transmitters, which had to switch off before December 31, 2016.
  •  United States: On Monday, 8 September 2008, Wilmington, North Carolina became the first city in the United States to fully switch over from analog to digital broadcasts. All analog signals were terminated at noon. This switchover was a test by FCC to make further improvements to the transition process before the whole nation was switched over to digital.[73] Having moved the deadline from 17 February 2009 (some stations still chose to shut down on that date), all VHF transmissions (stations 2–13) and most full-power UHF analog transmitters were shut down on 12 June 2009, with the exception of low-power stations, and "nightlight" stations which broadcast PSAs on the transition until 12 July 2009. Television transmission on channels 52 to 69 was required to cease by Saturday, 31 December 2011, to allow the FCC to commence with the first phase of spectrum reallocation for other services. Class A low-power stations were required to transition by 1 September 2015. The deadline for low-power and translator stations was suspended on 24 April 2015, due to concerns that the upcoming spectrum auction could "potentially displace a significant number of LPTV and TV translator stations", and would "[require] analog stations to incur the costs of transitioning to digital before completion of the auction and repacking process".[74]
  •  Canada: Canada's DTV transition was completed in 28 mandatory markets on Wednesday, 31 August 2011. Some CBC analog transmitters in mandatory markets were permitted to operate for another year, and transmitters outside mandatory markets were given the option of converting to digital, or remaining in analog. The CBC decided to shut down all (more than 600) of its remaining analog transmitters on Tuesday, 31 July 2012, without replacing them.[75] Also on 31 August 2011, all full-power TV transmitters had to vacate channels 52 to 69. There does however remain a very small number of community-based transmitters; see Digital television in Canada.


  •  Israel started digital transmissions in MPEG-4 on Sunday 2 August 2009 and analog transmissions ended on Thursday 31 March 2011. Israel was the first nation in the Middle East and the first Non-European nation to shut down their analog signals.
  •  Saudi Arabia: The analog terrestrial transmissions were terminated on Monday 13 February 2012 and was replaced by a multiplex for Nilesat. The government plans to shut off analog cable by 31 March 2023. Saudi Arabia was transitioning from using MPEG-2 to MPEG-4 for its terrestrial broadcasts, a process which began on Sunday 26 August 2012. Saudi Arabia adopted DVB-T2 in March 2013. Analog satellite transmission were switched off on Monday 1 March 2004. Digital television launched terrestrially throughout Arab world on Monday 1 January 2001 (known as Nilesat).
Example of analog broadcast termination notice screen in Japan.
  •  Japan: The analog shutdown began on 24 September 2010 in Suzu, Ishikawa. Analog terrestrial television transmissions in the remainder of Ishikawa Prefecture and 43 other prefectures stopped analog broadcasting at noon on Sunday 24 July 2011, along with the analog satellite services; three remaining prefectures (Fukushima, Iwate, and Miyagi) that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the 11 March 2011 9.0 magnitude Tohoku earthquake and its related nuclear accidents stopped analog broadcasting at noon on Saturday, 31 March 2012.[76] Analog high-definition television broadcasting ended on Sunday, 30 September 2007.[77] Like Netherlands, Germany and Sweden, an analog cable service (known as Dejiana since 1 July 2011) continued to be broadcast, but starting on 1 April 2012, all cable providers in Japan were required to convert from analog to digital within the next three years. The last cable providers shut down their analog services on 30 April 2015.[78] All television stations across the country are now broadcasting only in digital, ending an analog-digital simulcast period that began on Monday 1 December 2003 in the Kantō region (which expanded to all other prefectures over the next four years) and ended between 24 July 2011 and 31 March 2012 (when all analog transmissions were shut down).
  •  Qatar: The analog terrestrial transmissions were terminated on Monday, 13 February 2012 and was replaced by a multiplex for Nilesat. The government plans to shut off analog cable by 31 March 2023. Qatar was transitioning from using MPEG-2 to MPEG-4 for its terrestrial broadcasts, a process which began on Sunday, 26 August 2012. Qatar adopted DVB-T2 in February 2013. Analog satellite transmission were switched off on Monday 1 March 2004. Digital television launched terrestrially throughout Arab world on Monday 1 January 2001 (known as Nilesat).
  •  Taiwan: Digital television launched terrestrially throughout Taiwan on Friday, 2 July 2004. Analog terrestrial television ended transmission on Saturday, 30 June 2012. The shut down of analog cable television is in progress.
  •  South Korea: Digital switchover progressed region–by–region, with the first analog transmitters in Uljin, North Gyeongsang Province ending transmissions on Wednesday, September 1, 2010.[79] Digital switchover was completed on Monday, December 31, 2012, when the last analog transmitters in Seoul, Gyeonggi Province and Incheon ended transmissions. A few border analog transmitters targeting North Korea were switched off in June 2015.[failed verification][80]
  •  United Arab Emirates: The analog terrestrial transmissions were terminated on Monday, 13 February 2012 and was replaced by a multiplex for Nilesat. The government plans to shut off analog cable by 31 March 2023. United Arab Emirates were transitioning from using MPEG-2 to MPEG-4 for its terrestrial broadcasts, a process which began on Sunday 26 August 2012. United Arab Emirates adopted DVB-T2 in February 2013. Analog satellite transmission were switched off on Monday 1 March 2004. Digital television launched terrestrially throughout Arab world on Monday 1 January 2001 (known as Nilesat).
  •  India: The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has set 31 December 2017 as the deadline for digital switchover. Digitalization of cable and terrestrial television is happening in four phases, starting from 1 November 2012, and expected to finish on 31 December 2017.
  •  Cambodia launched DVB-T2 on Tuesday, 9 November 2010, transition started in 2012 and finished on January 1, 2015.[81]
  •  Turkey launched trial digital transmissions in 2006 and originally planned to gradually handle the switchover. The completion date was late 2015[citation needed].


  •  New Zealand: Digital terrestrial television broadcasts began officially in April 2008. analog PAL switchoff started on 30 September 2012 with the North Island's Hawke's Bay region and the South Island's West Coast region and finished with the Upper North Island which was switched off 1 December 2013.[82]
  •  Australia: Digital television commenced in Australia's five most populous cities on Monday 1 January 2001. The Mildura region was the first to terminate its analog network, on Wednesday 30 June 2010. Digital switchover was originally expected to be complete by Tuesday 31 December 2013, however the last regions to switch over (Melbourne and Remote Eastern/Central Australia) did so slightly earlier, on Tuesday 10 December 2013 at 9:00 am.[6] Until the switch-off in the respective areas, free-to-air stations were simulcast, along with digital-only channels like ABC2. Cable television networks began simulcasting in 2004 and analog cable services were switched off in April 2007. The switchover was co-ordinated by the Digital Switchover Taskforce operating under the federal Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy.

Transitions in progress


  •  Moldova: Will shut down analog signals in 2018.
  •  Russia: The deadline for analog switch-off signal is in 2019.[83]



  •  Argentina: Digital television broadcasts started on Tuesday, 9 September 2008 in Buenos Aires. The analog network will be terminated on 1 January 2019.
  •  Bolivia: Started on Tuesday, 20 July 2010, it will be completed on 1 September 2017.
  •  Brazil: Began free-to-air HD digital transmissions, after a period of test broadcasts, on Sunday, 2 December 2007 in São Paulo, expanding in 2008 to Brasília, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte.[87] Digital broadcasts were phased into the other 23 state capitals in the following years, and to the remaining cities by Tuesday 31 December 2013.[88] The country started on February 15, 2016 in Rio Verde, Goiás as a pilot experiment, followed by the Federal District and main cities and metropolitan regions from October 26, 2016 to December 31, 2023, when it is expected the ending of all analog television broadcasting.[89]
  •  Colombia: The government planned to close down analog broadcast on 31 December 2019.
  •  Costa Rica: Will shut down analog signals permanently in December 2018.
  •  Chile: The transition to digital started in 2012, and will be switched off in 2020.
  •  Dominican Republic: The Dominican Government once set a final analog shut down date of all analog transmissions on 24 September 2015.[90] However, INDOTEL, a telecommunications department of the Dominican Government, postponed it to 9 August 2021.[2]
  •  El Salvador: The target date is 31 December 2018.[91]
  •  Paraguay: The transmission of digital television broadcasts started in August 2011, by TV Pública (which belongs to the Paraguayan government) with an initial coverage area of 25 kilometres (about 16 miles) from Asuncion downtown. The analog television system switch-off is estimated to be completed on Friday, 1 September 2017.
  •  Peru: Digital television broadcasts started in Lima in March 2010, and analog broadcasts are scheduled to be terminated on 30 September 2020 as a Peruvian Master Plan.
  •  Venezuela
  •  Uruguay
  •  Panama


  •  China: China Central Television, the country's state broadcaster, began its conversion from analog broadcasting to digital broadcasting on all of its channels in 2014. Analog broadcasts of CCTV-1, CCTV-2, CCTV-3, CCTV-4, CCTV-5, and CCTV-5+ were terminated on 31 January 2014, while analog broadcasts of CCTV-6, CCTV-7, CCTV-8, CCTV-9, and CCTV-10 were terminated on 22 November 2014. On 12 July 2015 analog broadcasts of CCTV-11, CCTV-12, CCTV-13, CCTV-14, and CCTV-15 were terminated. Analog broadcasts of CCTV-News, CCTV-F, CCTV-E, CCTV International Arabic, and CCTV International Russian ended on 14 May 2016. This date marked the completion of the CCTV's switchover to digital broadcasting. No deadline has been set for commercially owned private broadcasters to shut down their analog signals.
  •  Hong Kong's The original digital switchover plan was supposed to take place in 2012.[92] The plan has been postponed by the end of 2020.[93]
  •  Indonesia: The original digital switchover plan was supposed to take place in 1 January 2018. The plan has been postponed to 11 March 2023. Digital terrestrial television were launched on August 13, 2008 (as DVB-T) and launched also on October 16, 2012 (as DVB-T2).
    Further information: Digital television in Indonesia
  •  Iran commenced broadcasting digital TV in 2009, using the DVB-T MPEG-4 standard, with 40% of population having access to digital TV by mid-2011.[94][95][96] There is no deadline yet for converting analog signals to digital.
  •  Malaysia: The first roll-out of DTTB services were rolled out on 16 January 2014, for a start in a few test areas, while full nationwide coverage to an estimated 98% populated areas is slated by the end of the analog-digital simulcast period.[97] However, the date for analogue switch over is not yet announced.
  •  North Korea: On 19 January 2015, Korean Central Television, the country's state broadcaster, began broadcasting via digital satellite. However, there is no deadline yet for when the analog terrestrial network will switch over to digital.[98][99]
  •  Philippines: In June 2010, the National Telecommunications Commission set a deadline of 11:59 p.m. on 31 December 2015 for the discontinuation of analog television. However, since the last quarter of 2014, the digitization deadline has been postponed to 2019 [100] and should be expected that all analog broadcasts will be shut off in 2023.[3] ZOE Broadcasting Network's DZOZ-TV became the first station in the country to permanently cease analog terrestrial operations on February 28, 2017,[20] signaling the start of the country's transition to digital-only broadcasting. Digital television in the Philippines uses the Japanese ISDB standards for its terrestrial broadcast.
  •  Singapore launched digital terrestrial television under MediaCorp in June 2006 (DVB-T) and December 2013 (DVB-T2). The country announced that free-to-air broadcaster MediaCorp will transmit all its free-to-air channels digitally in DVB-T2. Analogue TV channels will be switched off in end 2017 and MediaCorp TV channels will be broadcast in digital only.[101]
  •  Thailand launched digital terrestrial television in May 2014 after postponing it for 12 years. Analog signals will be switched off will start in 2017 for some channel and will complete in 2023.
    Further information: Digital television in Thailand
  •  Vietnam: The country launched DVB-T unofficially in 1997, and shut down all analog signals for good on 28 May 2014.

Transitions not yet started


  •  Belize
  •  Cuba began to propose DVB-T in May 2009. However, Cuba opted for the Chinese DMB-T standard and began tests in 2013, with new digital transmitters being rolled out and a shutoff date in 2021.[102]
  •  Ecuador
  •  Honduras
  •  Nicaragua



  •  Bosnia and Herzegovina: One analog transmitter has been shut down in June 2015, by request of neighboring Serbia, affecting one of the public broadcast channels, but the signal was reestablished within days. DVB-T test signal on MUX-A was expected by the end of 2015 in some parts of the country, and the tender procedure for completing MUX-A for the whole territory of the country ("second phase") has started.

Digital-to-analog converters

After the switch from analog to digital broadcasts is complete, analog TVs will be incapable of receiving over-the-air broadcasts without the addition of a set-top converter box. Consequently, a digital converter box – an electronic device that connects to an analog television – must be used in order to allow the television to receive digital broadcasts.[105] In the United States, the government subsidized the purchase of such boxes for consumers via their coupon-eligible converter box program in 2009, funded by a small part of the billions of dollars brought in by a spectrum auction. The program was managed by the Department of Commerce through its National Telecommunications and Information Administration.

See also


  1. ^ "Roadmap for the transition from analog to digital terrestrial television broadcasting" (PDF). 2012. 
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^ a b c "Gov't wants analog TV switched off by 2023". 14 February 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017. 
  4. ^ "DigiTAG Analog Switch Off Handbook" (PDF). 2008. 
  5. ^ "Official Journal of the European Union". October 28, 2009. Retrieved 2014-01-13. 
  6. ^ a b "Digital TV Switchover Australia: Digital TV timetable by region". Australian Government Digital Switchover Taskforce. 2012-10-26. Retrieved 2012-11-29. 
  7. ^ "Transição para rádio e TV digitais começa em 2015 | INFO". Retrieved 2014-01-13. 
  8. ^ a b
  9. ^ "Dobrodošli u digitalno doba! / Vijesti / Digitalna televizija / Aktualne teme / Aktualne teme i projekti / Vlada Republike Hrvatske - službeni web portal". (in Croatian). Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  10. ^ "Analogové vysílání televize skončí v Česku 12. 2. 2012. Konečně vypíná i Nova". (in Czech). Retrieved 2012-09-13. 
  11. ^ "Page introuvable / Accueil" (PDF). (in French). Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  12. ^ (Hungarian)"A new era in the Hungarian television - Start of the residential phase of digital switchover". 2013-03-11. 
  13. ^ "Hungary set for digital switchover". Retrieved 2013-03-20. 
  14. ^ [1] Archived September 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ "Questions raised over I&B ministry's digitisation numbers". Business Standard. October 29, 2012. 
  16. ^ a b "Home - Going Digital". 2012-06-04. Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  17. ^ "[Dpa] 社団法人 デジタル放送推進協会". 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  18. ^ a b "Posible, concluir apagón analógico en 2015: Cofetel" (in Spanish). El Economista. 2013-06-03. Retrieved 2013-06-11. 
  19. ^ "When is my area". Going Digital. Archived from the original on 2011-10-17. Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  20. ^ a b Delos Reyes, Dyan (February 14, 2017). "Light Network, nasa Digital TV na!". Light Network Website. Retrieved February 28, 2017. 
  21. ^ "DVB-T je realitou už aj na Slovensku". Retrieved 2012-12-28. 
  22. ^ "Vypínanie vybraných analógových vysielačov". Retrieved 2012-12-28. 
  23. ^ "Éra analógového vysielania sa definitívne končí". Retrieved 2012-12-28. 
  24. ^ "Finally, digital TV era arrives in SA | TechCentral". Retrieved 2016-09-18. 
  25. ^ Onda Digital inicia sus emisiones en pruebas El Mundo, 16 November 1999
  26. ^ El "apagón analógico", dividido en cuatro fases, culminará finalmente el 3 de abril de 2010 Mundoplus, 7 September 2007
  27. ^ Webfactory "Digital Video Broadcasting - Tunisia". DVB. Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  28. ^ a b "When". 2011-04-06. Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  29. ^ P.R. China (2011-07-19). "FCC Sets Deadlines for LPTV, TV Translator and Class A Stations To Convert to Digital - And Gives Hints When Television Spectrum May Be Reclaimed for Broadband". Broadcast Law Blog. Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  30. ^ "Digi-tv esillä ympäri maata". Finnish Ministry of Communications. Retrieved 2007-08-12. 
  31. ^ "Andorra fa el salt a la TDT" (in Catalan). Vilaweb. 
  32. ^ "Sista analoga TV-nätet släckt" (in Swedish). Sydsvenskan. 15 October 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2015. 
  33. ^
  34. ^ "Douglas transmitter group (Border region) – Arqiva confirms completion of Digital Switch Over" (Press release). arqiva. 
  35. ^ "Nyt TV-signal fejres med lysshow". TVTid på TV2. Retrieved 2009-11-01. 
  36. ^ "Ændringer i din tv-pakke". YouSee. Retrieved 2015-12-14. 
  37. ^ "Norway completes ASO". 
  38. ^ (Spanish) Disposición adicional primera del Real Decreto 944/2005, de 29 de julio, published in BOE del 30 de julio
  39. ^
  40. ^ "DVB-T: Zeitplan". Digitales Fernsehen Förder GmbH. June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-23. 
  41. ^ "analog terrestrial TV switch-off in the EU - briefing — - EU Business News". Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  42. ^ Webfactory "Digital Video Broadcasting - Malta". DVB. Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  43. ^ "First digital TV switch date set". BBC News. 2007-03-15. Retrieved 2007-04-24. 
  44. ^ "Northern Ireland". Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  45. ^ "Digital switchover takes place". The Irish Times. 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  46. ^ "analog Deflectors still in service until 31 December". Retrieved 2014-01-13. 
  47. ^ "Digitalization of all Macedonian televisions by 2013". Ministry of Information Society and Administration. 14 March 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2012. 
  48. ^
  49. ^ "Digital Television". Icelandic National Broadcasting Service. 
  50. ^ "Turning off the analogue distribution". Icelandic National Broadcasting Service. Feb 2, 2015. 
  51. ^ "Watershed in Icelandic telecommunications history". Vodafone. Feb 2, 2015. 
  52. ^ "Map coverage Broadcast Centres". Directorate General of Technology and Development. 
  53. ^ "Announcement". Digea. Dec 2014. Archived from the original on February 6, 2015. ANNOUNCEMENT Saturday, December 27, 2014 the morning will begin digital broadcasting (while stopping analogue) of the centers: Agios Athanasios Water Tower Gate Tsotyli Vounasa Royal Polygyros Delvinaki Curse Granitsopoula Igoumenitsa Korfovouni Amfilochia Those viewers covered by these centers will need to have receiver (TV or decoder) that supports MPEG4 technology and coordinate the morning of December 27 the new frequencies. Those viewers already receive terrestrial digital TV signal need not make any action. 
  54. ^ "Pilot mreža". JP Emisiona tehnika i veze. Retrieved 2013-06-24. 
  55. ^ . RTSšac+na+dan+od+digitalizacije.html. Retrieved 2015-04-14.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  56. ^ "Montenegro shuts down the analogue signal". CDM. 
  57. ^ "Azerbaijan to switch over to digital TV 'very soon'". News.Az. 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  58. ^ "In 2013, Azerbaijan will fully switch to digital TV - Minister". News.Az. 2012-12-03. Retrieved 2012-12-10. 
  59. ^ "Televiziune digitală: Procedura de selecţie a celor cinci licenţe ar putea fi lansată în ianuarie". Mediafax. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  60. ^ [2]
  61. ^ [3]
  62. ^ "News" (PDF). DVB. Retrieved 2014-01-13. 
  63. ^
  64. ^ a b c
  65. ^
  66. ^
  67. ^
  68. ^
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^ "México avanza hacia el ''Apagón analógico'" (in Spanish). 2010-09-03. Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  72. ^ "México posterga 'apagón analógico'" (in Spanish). Univision. 2013-06-01. Retrieved 2013-06-11. 
  73. ^ [4] Archived September 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  74. ^ "Suspension of Sept. 1, 2015 Digital Transition Date for LPTV/Translator". Federal Communications Commission. April 24, 2015. Retrieved May 2, 2015. 
  75. ^ "2015 Same Strategy, Different Path". 2012-04-04. Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  76. ^ 岩手、宮城、福島の3県のアナログ放送は平成24年3月31日に終了しました [Analog broadcast ended in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima on 31 March 2012 (year Heisei 24)] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2012-03-31. Retrieved 2012-04-01. 
  77. ^ "Broadcasting Digitization Schedule". DPA: The Association for Promotion of Digital Broadcasting. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
  78. ^
  79. ^ 경상북도 울진군, 오늘부터 '디지털 송출' 시작 (in Korean). 2010-01-20. Retrieved 2013-06-11. 
  80. ^ "South Korea to continue analog TV near border". North Korea Tech. 2012-12-27. Retrieved 2013-06-11. 
  81. ^ "News". DVB. Retrieved 2014-01-13. 
  82. ^ "When is my area going digital? - Going Digital". New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Archived from the original on 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  83. ^ [5]
  84. ^
  85. ^
  86. ^
  87. ^ Cassia, Fernando (2007-12-02). "Brazil starts HDTV transmissions". The Enquirer. p. 1. Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  88. ^ "Conheça os planos das emissoras para a TV digital" (in Portuguese). G1. 2007-11-13. p. 1. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  89. ^ Cronograma de desligamento da TV analógica no Brasil Teleco. Accessed on July 15, 2014.
  90. ^
  91. ^ El Diario de Hoy, El Salvador prepara el salto a la TV Digital, 11 July 2010
  92. ^ "Digital TV". Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 2007-06-04. 
  93. ^ "analog television switch-off working target deferred to end 2015". Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 2011-06-23. 
  94. ^ "تلویزیون دیجیتال - 40 درصد از جمعيت كشور تحت پوشش سامانه تلويزيون ديجيتال قرار دارند - صفحه اصلی". Archived from the original on 2011-09-25. Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  95. ^ "تلویزیون دیجیتال - مشروح مصاحبه دکتر علی‌عسکری، معاون توسعه و فناوری رسانه، در برنامه پارک ملت (پنجشنبه 13 مرداد 1390) - صفحه اصلی". Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  96. ^ "تلویزیون دیجیتال - تهیه طرح جامع گذار از آنالوگ به دیجیتال در رسانه ملی - صفحه اصلی". Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  97. ^ "".  External link in |title= (help)
  98. ^ KCTV launches HD satellite broadcasts North Korean Tech ( 19 January 2015. Retrieved on 6 June 2015.
  99. ^ KCTV’s slow move to high-definition, what’s taking so long? North Korean Tech ( 15 May 2015. Retrieved on 6 June 2015.
  100. ^ "Philippines to start digital TV shift in 2019". NexTV Asia-Pacific. Retrieved 2014-10-27. 
  101. ^ "MCI's Addendum to the President's Address". Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  102. ^ Granma, Las cajas decodificadoras y el apagón analógico, 17 Dec. 2014
  103. ^
  104. ^
  105. ^ "What is a set-top converter box?". Digital TV Facts. 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 

Further reading

External links