Anandabhairavi

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Anandabhairavi
ArohanamS G₂ R₂ G₂ M₁ P D₂ P 
Avarohanam N₂ D₂ P M₁ G₂ R₂ S

Anandabhairavi or Ananda Bhairavi (pronounced ānandabhairavi) is a very old melodious rāgam (musical scale) of Carnatic music (South Indian classical music). This rāgam also used in Indian traditional and regional musics. Ānandam (Sanskrit) means happiness and the rāgam brings a happy mood to the listener.

It is a janya rāgam (derived scale) of the 20th Melakarta rāgam Natabhairavi

Structure and Lakshana[edit]

Parent scale Natabhairavi with shadjam at C

Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on the notations used):

Arohanam Avarohanam for Ananda Bhairavi

(chathusruthi rishabham, sadharana gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, Chatusruthi dhaivatham, kaishiki nishadham)

It is a sampoorna rāgam – rāgam having all 7 swarams, but it is not a melakarta rāgam, as it has vakra prayogam (zig-zag notes in scale) and uses anya swaram (external note) in comparison with its parent rāgam. The anya swaram is the usage of shuddha dhaivatham (D1) in some phrases of the rāgam.[1] Anandabhairavi ragam is also a bhashanga rāgam, since it uses more than one anya swaram. Anya swaram of a rāgam is the swaram which does not belong to the arohana or avarohana of its melakarta (parent rāgam), but it is sung in prayogams (phrases used in raga alapana, kalpanaswarams). It is also classified as a "rakti" raga(a raga of high melodic content).

Swara phrases[edit]

The three anya swarams of Anandabhairavi are antara gandharam (G3), suddha dhaivatam (D1) and kakali nishadham (N3).[1] All of these anya swaras occur only in prayogas (not in arohana avarohana). "G3" occurs in "ma pa ma ga ga ma", and "D1" occurs in "ga ma pa da". Subtler than the first two, "N3" occurs in "sa da ni sa."

It is said that Tyagaraja and Muthuswami Dikshitar do not use any of the anya swarams in their compositions.[citation needed]

Anandabhairavi also has unique swara patterns both in manodharma (impromptu improvisations by performer) and in its compositions. The popular patterns are "sa ga ga ma", "sa pa", and "sa ga ma pa". The musician isn't allowed to stay long on nishadam, this characteristic distinguishes it from Reetigowla. Few allied ragas (similar) to this are Reetigowla and Huseni.

Popular compositions[edit]

Anandabhairavi is one of the favourite ragams of Syama Sastri. He is said to have made this a popular rāgam and also to have given the present form for this rāgam.[1] More or less Anandabhairavi's synonym is "Marivere gati" by Syama Sastri. In "Mariverae" and in "O jagadhamba" Syama Sastri uses the anya swara "ga(2)".A very life changing incident is said to have happened in Thyagaraja's life. Once he is said to have attended a Kuchipudi bhagavata artists dance-drama recital,a ballad between mythological characters Radha and Krishna, and he is said to have highly praised their performance, especially a particular song Mathura Nagarilo, which was again set in Ananda Bhairavi. Thyagaraja wanting to acknowledge them offered to give them a gift, of anything that they may desire, that he could possibly give. After much thought they demanded him the Ragam Ananda Bhairavi itself as a gift ( meaning that he would accept to never sing in that ragam ever again in his life),so that when someone in the near future spoke of Thyagaraja or Ananda Bhairavi's legacy they would also remember the Kuchipudi dancers too.

Film Songs[edit]

Language:Tamil[edit]

Song Movie Composer Singer
Poi Vaa Magale Karnan Viswanathan–Ramamoorthy Soolamangalam Rajalakshmi
Sri Janakidevi Semmantham Missiamma S. Rajeswara Rao P. Leela, P. Susheela
Aagaya Pandhalile

(Ragamalika:Anandhabhairavi, Kharaharapriya, Shree, Mathyamavathi)

Ponnunjal M. S. Viswanathan T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela
Nalvazhvu Naamkaana Veettuku Veedu P. Susheela
Naan Atchi Seithuvarum Aathi Parasakthi K. V. Mahadevan
Chittu Pole Muthu Pole Iniya Uravu Poothathu Illayaraja K.S. Chitra
Paarthale Theriyaatha Sri Raghavendrar Manorama
Thevai Indha Paavai(Charanam only) Andha Oru Nimidam S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. P. Sailaja
Thangamey Enga Kongunattuku Madurai Veeran Enga Saami K. S. Chithra, Arunmozhi
Ponnu Velayara Periya Marudhu K. S. Chithra, Mano
Karava madu moonu(last Charanam only) Magalir Mattum S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, S. Janaki
Senguruvi Senguruvi Thirumoorthy Deva
Konjanaal poru Thalaiva Aasai Hariharan
Kalyaanam Kalyaanam Vaidehi Kalyanam Sunanda
Vannakkolu Paaru Karayai Thodatha Alaigal Chandrabose Vani Jairam
Mettu Podu Duet A. R. Rahman S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Anbendra Mazhaiyile Minsara Kanavu Anuradha Sriram
Nadhiye Nadhiye Rhythm Unni Menon
Mel Isaiyae Mr. Romeo Unni Menon, Swarnalatha, Srinivas, Sujatha
Telephone Manipol(Charanam only) Indian Hariharan, Harini
Kallori Salai(starting portion only) Kadhal Desam Hariharan, A. R. Rahman,Aslam Mustafa
Kanne Kannaana Kanna Pennukku Yar Kaval Ramesh Naidu S. Janaki
Chudithar Aninthu Poovellam Kettuppar Yuvan Shankar Raja Hariharan, Sadhana Sargam
Devathai Vamsam Snegithiye Vidyasagar K.S. Chitra
Chinna Chinna Kannukulle Kamarasu S. A. Rajkumar P. Unnikrishnan, K.S. Chitra
Partha Muthalnale Vettaiyaadu Vilaiyaadu Harris Jayaraj Unni Menon, Bombay Jayashree
Pudichirukku Saamy Hariharan, Mahathi,Komal Ramesh
Kummiyadi Chellamae Sandhya
Azhiyilae Dhaam Dhoom Haricharan
Naanaga Naan Gambeeram Mani Sharma Vijay Yesudas, Sujatha Mohan
Neeye En Thaaye Maraikkayar: Arabikadalin Singam Ronnie Raphael Sreekanth Hariharan, Reshma Raghavendra

Album[edit]

Song Album Composer Singer
Yaadhum Ure Anthem Sandham Rajan Somasundaram Karthik, Bombay Jayashri

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani: S  R  M P D P 
    • Western: C E D E F G A G C
  2. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani:   D P M  R S
    • Western: C B A G F E D C

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications