Anania Shirakatsi

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Anania Shirakatsi
2014 Erywań, Matenadaran (07).jpg
1963 statue of Anania Shirakatsi holding a globe at the entrance of the Matenadaran
Bornc. 595-610
Diedc. 670-685 (aged around 75)
NationalityArmenian
EraEarly Middle Ages
SchoolHellenizing School
Main interests
Mathematics, astronomy, geography, chronology

Anania Shirakatsi (Armenian: Անանիա Շիրակացի, Anania Širakac’i, anglicized: Ananias of Shirak)[a] was a 7th-century Armenian polymath and natural philosopher.[8][9][10] He is considered the first Armenian mathematician, astronomer,[1][11] and cosmographer.[2] Hence, he is considered the father of the exact and natural sciences in Armenia.

Seen as a part of the Armenian Hellenizing School, he was educated primarily by Tychicus, in Trebizond. He composed science textbooks and the first known geographic work in classical Armenian, which provides detailed information about Greater Armenia, Persia and the Caucasus (Georgia and Caucasian Albania). His extant works cover mathematics, astronomy, geography, chronology, and other fields.

Life[edit]

Background[edit]

Anania Shirakatsi lived in the 7th century.[1][10][12][13] The dates of his birth and death have not been established definitely. Hewsen noted that he is "generally thought" to have been born between 595 and 600,[14] although Hewsen later revised the dates and suggested that Anania was born circa 610 and have died in 685.[15] Hacikyan et al. place his birth in early 600s and his death at c. 685.[10] Mathews and van Lint suggest 610 to 685,[11][2] while Greenwood suggests ca. 600–670.[9] Vardanyan places his death in early 690s.[16]

He is the only classical Armenian scholar to have written an autobiography.[14] It is a brief text, characterized as "somewhat self-congratulatory"[17] and "more a statement of academic pedigree" than autobiography.[18] His Autobiography was probably written as the preface to one of his scholarly works, possibly the K’nnikon.[2] He was the son of John (Yovhannes) and was born in the village of Anania/Aneank’ (Անեանք) or in the town of Shirakavan (Yerazgavors),[19][20][7] in the canton of Shirak (Širak), in the central Armenian province of Ayrarat.[11][14][9][2] Aneank’ may be connected to the later city of Ani, the Bagratid Armenian capital.[9][21][22] He probably came from a noble family.[2] Since his name is sometimes spelled as "Shirakuni" (Շիրակունի), Hewsen argued that he may have belonged to the house of the Kamsarakan or Arsharuni princes of Shirak and Aršarunik’, respectively.[14] Greenwood suggests that it is more likely that he came from the lesser nobility in Shirak, who served the house of Kamsarakan.[23] Broutian describes his father as a "minor Armenian nobleman."[6] Vardanyan believes he either came from the Kamsarakan family or was sponsored by them.[5]

He is traditionally thought to have been buried in the village of Anavank’, which Mathews considers more likely to be "etymology for the name of the village."[11]

Education[edit]

Anania received initial education at the local Armenian schools, possibly at Dprevank monastery,[20] where he studied sacred texts and earlier Armenian authors.[14][24] Due to the lack of teachers and books in Armenia, he decided to travel to the Byzantine Empire (the "land of the Greeks") to advance his knowledge of mathematics.[9][24] He first traveled to Theodosiopolis, then to the Byzantine-controlled province of Fourth Armenia, where he studied under Christosatur for six months. He then left in searches for a better teacher and learned about Tychicus,[b] who was based at the monastery/martyrium of Saint Eugenios in Trebizond.[14][9] Greenwood has speculated that Tychicus, not mentioned elsewhere, may be identified as Stephanus of Alexandria.[8]

A 19th century artist's impression of Anania Shirakatsi

Anania devoted a significant part of his autobiography to Tychicus (born c. 560), with whom he spent 8 years in the 620s or 630s.[25][26][27] Tychicus had learned Armenian language and literature while serving in the Byzantine army stationed in Armenia.[17][25] Wounded by the Persians, he retired from the military and later studied in Alexandria, Rome, and Constantinople.[17][25] He later returned to his native Trebizond, where he established a school c. 615.[25] Tychicus taught many students from Constantinople (including from the imperial court) and was renowned among Byzantine kings.[28][9] He provided Anania special attention and taught him a "perfect knowledge of mathematics," in his own words.[10] Tychicus had a large library where Anania found sacred and secular Greek authors, including works on the sciences, medicine, chronology, and history.[25][9][29] Anania considered Tychicus to have been "predestined by God for the introduction of science into Armenia."[25]

Educator and scientist[edit]

Anania established a school in Armenia upon his return from Trebizond.[10] The school, the first in Armenia to teach quadrivium, is presumed to have been located in his native Shirak.[11][25] He was disappointed with the laziness of his students and their departure after learning the basics.[25] He complained about the Armenians' lack of interest in mathematics[17] and that they "love neither learning, nor knowledge."[29] According to the 12th century chronicler Samuel of Ani some of Shirkatsi's students were Hermon, Trdat, Azaria, Ezekiel, and Kirakos,[11] who are otherwise unknown.[30] Anania financed his research in several fields with the money he earned teaching.[25]

Relationship with the Armenian Church[edit]

Soviet historians represented him as a founder of irreligious and anti-clerical thought in Armenia, who pioneered double-truth theory.[31] Gevorg Khrlopian, in particular, argued that Anania was an enemy of the Armenian Church and fought against its obscurantism.[32] Hewsen opposed this view, suggesting that, instead, he was an "independent thinker of sorts." In fact, Anania may have been a monk in the Armenian Church, but probably in his latter years.[14] This is based on his religious discourses and attempts to date the feasts of the church.[33] On the other hand, Greppin suggests that Anania "probably never took holy orders."[34]

Overall, Anania had a close relationship with the church.[32] Several scholars considered Anania a church ideologist akin to Cosmas Indicopleustes,[32] whom he actually criticized.[35] Hacikyan et al. describe Anania as a "devout Christian and well versed in the Bible" who "made some attempts to reconcile science and Scripture."[36] However, Hewsen believed that some of the "more revolutionary ideas" of Anania were suppressed by the Armenian Church after his death.[37] Greppin noted that Anania, a secular author, had fallen into a "bad clerical odor."[34]

Philosophy[edit]

Anania is considered by modern scholars to be a representative of the Hellenizing School since many of his works were based on classical Greek sources.[38][39] He was the first Armenian scholar to have "imported a set of scientific notions, and examples of their applications, from the Greek-speaking schools" into Armenia.[40] He was well versed in Greek literature,[27] and the influence of the Greek syntax is evident in his works.[41] He was also knowledgeable about native Armenian and Iranian cultural traditions.[9] Several of his works provide important information on late Sassanian Iran.[9]

He accepted the importance of experience and observation, rational practice and theory and was influenced by the ideas of the 5th century Neoplatonist philosopher Davit Anhaght (the Invincible), and Greek philosophers Thales of Miletus, Hippocrates, Democritus, Plato, Aristotle, Zeno of Citium, Epicurus, Ptolemy, Pappus of Alexandria, and Cosmas Indicopleustes.[42] Aristotle's On the Heavens had a significant influence on Anania's thought.[29] Anania was also the first Armenian scholar to quote Philo of Alexandria.[24] According to Gevorg Khrlopian, Anania was heavily influenced by Yeghishe's An Interpretation of Creation, the anonymous Interpretation of the Categories of Aristotle and the works of Davit Anhaght.[43] The latter had established neoplatonism in Armenian thought.[42]

He was the first lay scholar in Christian Armenia before Grigor Magistros Pahlavuni (11th century).[14][17] According to Hacikyan et al., he advocated rationalism in studying nature and attacked superstitious beliefs and astrology as the "babblings of the foolish."[44][45] He adopted the classical theory of four elements, which considered all matter to be composed of four elements: fire, air, water, and earth. He believed that God has directly created these elements, but does not interfere with the "natural course of the development of things." He asserted that the creation, existence, and decay of natural bodies and phenomena occurred through the union of these elements—without the interference of God.[46] Both living and non-living matter came into existence from a synthesis of the four elements.[46]

Anania accepted the spherical Earth theory, describing it as "being like an egg with a spherical yolk (the globe) surrounded by a layer of white (the atmosphere) and covered with a hard shell (the sky)."[32] He accurately explained the solar and lunar eclipses, the phases of the moon, and the structure of the Milky Way.[44] He described the latter as a "mass of dense but faintly luminous stars."[32] He also correctly attributed tides to the influence of the moon.[37][45] He described the topmost sphere as the aether (arp’i), which is the source of light and heat (through the sun).[47]

Works[edit]

Some 40 works of various sciences have been attributed to Anania. Only half of those are now extant. His works included studies and translations on mathematics, astronomy, cosmology, geography, chronology, and meteorology.[11] Many of his works are believed to have been part of K’nnikon (Քննիկոն, from "canon", Greek: Kanonikon), completed circa 666,[11][48] and used as the standard textbook for science in Armenia.[2][49] According to Greenwood the K’nnikon was a "fluid compilation, whose contents fluctuated over time, reflecting the interests and resources of different teachers and practitioners."[50]

Modern scholars have praised Anania's style as concise, simple, to the point, retaining reader's attention and citing examples to illustrate his point.[44][42]

Mathematical[edit]

Shirakatsi manuscript.JPG

Anania was primarily devoted to mathematics,[2] which he considered to be the "mother of all knowledge."[14][11] His mathematical books were used as textbooks in Armenia.[17]

He authored several mathematical works, the most important of which is the book/manual of arithmetic (Համարողութիւն, Hamaroghut’iun or Թւաբանութիւն, T’vabanut’iun).[51] It is a comprehensive collection of tables on the four basic operations.[44] It is the earliest extant known work of its kind.[11][52] The operations reach up to a total of 80 million, which is the highest number.[52] A possible theoretical part is believed to be lost.[44]

Another work, a collection of 24 arithmetical problems and their solutions titled Problems and Solutions (alternatively translated as On Questions and Answers) is based on the application of fractions.[44][53] The earliest such work in Armenian literature, many of the problems deal with real life situations; 6 with the princely house of Shirak, the Kamsarakans,[52] and at least 3 deal with Iran.[9] Greenwood argues that the problems "constitute a rich source for seventh-century history whose value has not been sufficiently recognized."[54]

The third work, probably an appendix of the book of arithmetic is titled Խրախճանականք, Xraxc’anakank’, literally "things for festal occasions". It has been translated into English as Mathematical Pastimes,[51] Fun with Arithmetic or Problems for Amusement. It also contains 24 problems "intended for mathematical entertainment in social gatherings."[44] According to Mathews this may be the oldest extant text of its kind.[53]

Numerical notation[edit]

For his mathematical works, Anania developed a unique numerical notation. His system is based on twelve letters of the Armenian alphabet. For the units, he used the first nine letters of the Armenian script (Ա, Բ, Գ, Դ, Ե, Զ, Է, Ը, Թ), similar to the standard traditional Armenian numerical system. The letters used for 10, 100, and 1000 were also identical to the traditional Armenian system (Ժ, Ճ, Ռ), but all other numbers up to 10,000 were written using these 12 letters. For instance, 50 would be written ԵԺ (5×10) and not Ծ as in the standard system. Thus, the notation is multiplicative-additive as opposed to the ciphered-additive standard system and requires knowing 12 instead of 36 letters to write numbers less than 10,000. Numbers greater than that could be written using multiplicative combinations of just 2 or 3 signs, but using the 36 letters of the alphabet.[55]

Chrisomalis believes this system was created by Anania since it only occurs in his works and is not found in Greek, Syriac, Hebrew, or any other alphabetic system.[56] Shaw argued that it was just a variant of the Armenian numerals designed specifically for the representation of large numbers.[57] However, no other writer has used it.[56]

Astronomical[edit]

Shirakatsi, 1283.jpg

One of Anania's most significant works is Cosmology (Տիեզերագիտութիւն, Tiezeragitut’iun).[58] Abrahamian's version is composed of ten chapters with an introduction titled In the fulfillment of a promise, which implies a patron.[59] It covers the sun, the moon, celestial spheres, constellations, the Milky Way, and meteorological changes.[44][9][60]

Works used for the parts of the Cosmology include the Bible (mostly from the Pentateuch and Psalms) and works by the Church Fathers. He mentioned, by name, the following people whose works he had used: Basil of Caesarea, Gregory the Illuminator, and Amphiolocus (perhaps, of Iconium).[61] Some chapters of the work, such as On Clouds (also called On the Sky or Concerning the Skies) is largely based on the Hexameron by Basil.[17][11][61] Anania also repeats the classical Greek notions in the fields of astronomy, physics or meteorology.[62] Pambakian wrote about the significance of the Cosmology:

In conclusion, when viewed as a Byzantine text, the Cosmology’s originality may be sought in the way in which pagan and Christian traditions are combined (and often intrinsically intertwined), and much may be learned about the ‘making of science’ in the context of the seventh-century. Within the specific context of Armenian literature, this text deals with many aspect of natural philosophy in unprecedented depth.[63]

Anania authored Tables of the Motions of the Moon (Խորանք ընթացիք լուսոյ, xorank‘ ĕnt‘ac‘ik‘ lusoy),[51] based on the works of Meton of Athens and his personal observations.[64]

Perpetual calendar[edit]

In 667 Anania was invited by Catholicos Anastas I of Akori (r. 661/2–667) to the Armenian Church's central seat at Dvin to establish a fixed calendar of the movable and immovable feasts of the Armenian Church.[17][65] The result was a perpetual calendar based on a 532-year cycle (ՇԼԲ բոլորակ),[2] which is the combination of the solar cycle and the lunar cycle, which coincide every 532 years. It was first proposed by Victorius of Aquitaine in 457 and adopted by the Church of Alexandria.[32] Anania's calendar, however, was not adopted by the Armenian Church.[2][17] According to Hovhannes Draskhanakerttsi it was never implemented because its was not ratified by a church council due to Anastas's death.[66]

Geographical[edit]

Armenia according to Anania's Geography (Ashkharhatsuyts), based on Suren Eremian.

Ashkharhatsuyts[17] or Ašxarhac’oyts’ (Աշխարհացոյց) is an anonymous world map, believed to have been written sometime between 610 and 636.[67] Its authorship has been disputed in the modern period. It was formerly believed to have been authored by Movses Khorenatsi, but most scholars now attribute it to Anania.[68][69][2][53][34] According to Hewsen it is "one of the most valuable works to come down to us from Armenian antiquity."[70]

The Armenian Geography—as it is alternatively known—has been especially important for research into the history and geography of Greater Armenia, Caucasus (Georgia and Caucasian Albania) and the Persian Empire,[9] which are all described in detail.[70][36] The territories are described before the Arab invasions and conquests.[15] The information on Armenia is not found elsewhere in historical sources,[53] as it is the only known Armenian geographical work until the 13th century.[71]

The work has survived in two versions: long and short recensions.[70] According to the scholarly consensus, the long recension was the original.[72] For the description of Europe, North Africa and Asia (all the known world from Spain to China),[53] it largely uses Greek sources, namely the now lost geography of Pappus of Alexandria (4th century), which in turn, is based on the Geography of Ptolemy (2nd century).[2][70][9] According to Hewsen it is the "last work based on ancient geographical knowledge written before the Renaissance."[32]

It was one of the earliest secular Armenian works to be published; in 1668 by Voskan Yerevantsi.[73] It has been translated to four languages: English, Latin (both 1736), French (1819), and Russian (1877).[74] It was Kerovbe Patkanian in 1877 who first attributed it to Anania as the most probable author.[75]

Another geographical work of Anania is The Itinerary (Մղոնաչափք, Mghonachap’k’ or Młonača’k’), which may have been a part of Ashkharhatsuyts. It presents six routs from Dvin, Armenia's capital, to different directions and distances to the major settlements in miles (մղոն, mghon). According to Hakob Manandian, the mile referred to the Arabic mile of 1,917.6 meters.[76]

Chronology[edit]

Anania authored chronological works, namely the Chronicle, in which important events were listed in order of their occurrence.[17] Written between 686 and 690, it is composed of two parts: 1) a universal chronicle, utilizing the lost works of Annianus of Alexandria and the lost Roman imperial sequence from Eusebius's Chronographia 2) an ecclesiastical history from a miaphysite perspective, which records the six ecumenical councils.[77]

Another chronological work, known as the Tomar (Calendar), included texts and tables about the calendars of 15 peoples: Armenians, Hebrews, Arabs, Macedonians, Romans, Syrians, Greeks, Egyptians, Ethiopians, Athenians, Bythanians, Cappadocians, Georgians, Caucasian Albanians, and Persians.[78][79] The calendars of the Armenians, Romans, Hebrews, Syrians, Greeks and Egyptians contain texts, while those of other peoples only have the names of months and their length.[80]

Other[edit]

Anania wrote several books on weights and measures. He extensively used the work on the topic by Epiphanius of Salamis to present the system of weights used by the Greeks, Jews, and Syrians, and his own knowledge and other sources for those used by Armenians and Persians.[81][53] Anania wrote several works on gems/precious stones,[33] music, and the known languages of the world.[53] Anania wrote discourses on Christmas/Epiphany and Easter, which are discussions on the date of the two feasts. In the first he uses a lost work he ascribes to Polycarp of Smyrna and insists that the Armenian celebration of Christmas and the Epiphany on the same date is more valid than celebrating them separately as elsewhere.[33][51]

Legacy[edit]

2009 statue of Anania in Gyumri.

Influence in the Middle Ages[edit]

Anania laid the foundations of the exact sciences in Armenia and, thus, greatly influenced Armenian scholars that came after him.[36] Many later scholars, especially those who were concerned with the sciences, were influenced by Anania and his works. They include Hovhannes Draskhanakerttsi (d. 925),[36] Anania of Narek (d. 980s),[53] Grigor Magistros (d. 1058),[53] Stepanos Asoghik (11th century),[36] Hovhannes Kozern (11th century),[53] Hovhannes Imastaser /Sarkavag/ (d. 1129),[82][42][53][36] Nerses Shnorhali (d. 1173),[82] Samuel Anetsi (12th century),[82][53] Vanakan (d. 1250),[42] Kirakos Gandzaketsi (d. 1271),[36] Hovhannes Erznkatsi (d. 1293),[82][53] Grigor Tatevatsi (d. 1410),[53] and Hakob Ghrimetsi (d. 1426).[82]

Hovhannes Imastaser (Hovhannes Sarkavag) and other medieval scholars extensively cited and incorporated Anania's works.[42] In a 1037 letter, Grigor Magistros, a scholar from the Pahlavuni noble family, asked Catholicos Petros Getadardz for Anania's manuscripts of his K’nnikon, which were apparently locked up at the catholicosate for centuries.[83][84] Grigor used it as a textbook at his school at the Sanahin Monastery.[85]

Reemergence in the modern period[edit]

Shirakatsi's statue at the Yerevan State University.

In the age of printing, passing references to Anania were made as early as 1742 (by Paghtasar Dpir), but it was not until the later half of the 19th century that Anania and his work became a subject of study.[86] In 1877 Armenian linguist and philologist Kerovbe Patkanian published a collection of Anania's works in the original classical Armenian at Saint Petersburg University.[87] Titled Sundry Studies (Մնացորդք բանից, Mnatsordk’ banits),[88] it is the first ever publication of his works.[36] Galust Ter-Mkrtchian published a number of Anania's works in 1896.[87] Joseph Orbeli, an Armenian member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, published a Russian translation of Anania's Problems and Solutions in 1918.[87]

However, it was not until the Soviet period that a systematic study and publication of his works took place.[87] The scholar Ashot G. Abrahamian began his research at the Matenadaran in the 1930s. He first published one of Anania's arithmetical texts in 1939.[87] A complete compilation of Anania's work was published by him in 1944.[89] However, Abrahamian's work was not received with universal acclaim. One critic downgraded his 1944 compilation for attributing Anania works that were of disputed authorship.[90] An updated edition was published by Abrahamian and Garegin Petrosian in 1979.[91] This edition, too, received some criticism. Varag Arakelian noted a number of errors in translations from classical Armenian and concluded that a new translation of Anania's works is needed.[92] Another Soviet scholar, Suren T. Eremian, studied the Geography. He insisted on Anania's authorship and published his research in 1963.[93]

The first translation into a Western language was done by the British Orientalist Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, who translated into English Anania's On Christmas, in 1896, and On Easter and Anania's autobiography, in 1897.[94][87] Lemerle noted that Conybeare translated the autobiography from a Russian translation and it is filled with serious errors.[95] Renewed interest in Anania's work emerged in the West in the 1960s. A French translation of his autobiography appeared in 1964 by Haïg Berbérian.[96] Robert H. Hewsen authored an introductory article on Anania's life and scholarship in 1968.[97]

Greenwood argues that studying Anania and his works "resonated with twentieth-century political beliefs and offered a suitable subject for academic research in ways that works on medieval theology or Biblical exegesis did not. Anania came to be projected as a national hero from the distant Armenian past, linking and affirming past and present identities."[98]

2005 stamp of Armenia depicting Shirakatsi.

Modern assessment[edit]

Anania has been styled by modern scholars as the "father of the exact sciences in Armenia."[24][11][1][95] Modern Armenian historians have recognized him as the greatest scientist of medieval Armenia[1][6] and the founder of the natural sciences in the country.[31] He was the first classical Armenian scholar to study mathematics and several scientific subjects, such as cosmography and chronology.[13][95] Hacikyan et al. wrote in The Heritage of Armenian Literature:

Shirakatsi was an educator and an organizer of ideas and materials rather than an original thinker. He was often in the forefront of scientific thinking, but at other times he repeated the accepted theories of his time.[36]

Shirakatsi was one of the six scholars whose statue was erected in front of the Matenadaran, the museum-institute of Armenian manuscripts in Yerevan in the 1960s.[99] Another statue was erected in the front yard of the Yerevan State University in 1999.

A crater on the Moon was named after Shirakatsi in 1979.[c]

In independent Armenia, Anania Shirakatsi has been commemorated in various ways. In 1993 the Medal of Anania Shirakatsi, a state award, was established. It is awarded for "significant activities, inventions and discoveries in the spheres of economy, engineering, architecture, science and technology." In 2005 the Central Bank of Armenia issued an commemorative coin, while HayPost a stamp dedicated to Anania Shirakatsi.[d]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ His name is usually anglicized as Ananias of Shirak/Širak.[1][2] Anania is the Armenian variant of the biblical name Ananias, itself the Greek version of the Hebrew Hananiah.[3] The second part of his name denotes his place of origin, the region of Shirak (Širak),[1] though it may had become sort of a last name.[4] In some manuscripts, he is called Shirakuni (Շիրակունի) and Shirakavantsi (Շիրակաւանցի).[4][5][6][7]
  2. ^ or Tukhikos[11] Greek: Τύχικος, Classical Armenian: Տիւքիկոս
  3. ^ Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature 1994 (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. 1995. p. 78.
  4. ^ "Republic of Armenia: Medal of Anania Shirakatsi". medals.org.uk. Medals of the World.
    "The Medal of Anania Shirakatsi". president.am. The Office to the President of the Republic of Armenia.
    "Collector Coins: 2005 - Anania Shirakatsi". cba.am. Central Bank of Armenia.
    "2005 – Armenian Stamps Stamps of Armenia Հայկական նամականիշեր". armenianstamps.org.
Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e f Hewsen 1968, p. 32.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l van Lint 2018, p. 68.
  3. ^ Acharian 1942, p. 148.
  4. ^ a b Hayrapetian 1941, p. 3.
  5. ^ a b Vardanyan 2013, p. 9.
  6. ^ a b c Broutian 2009, p. 2.
  7. ^ a b Abeghian 1944, p. 374.
  8. ^ a b Pambakian 2018, p. 11.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Greenwood 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d e Hacikyan et al. 2002, p. 56.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Mathews, Jr. 2008a, p. 70.
  12. ^ Sarafian 1930, p. 99.
  13. ^ a b Thomson 1997, p. 220.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hewsen 1968, p. 34.
  15. ^ a b Hewsen 1992, p. 15.
  16. ^ Vardanyan 2013, p. 17.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Thomson 1997, p. 221.
  18. ^ Greenwood 2011, p. 142.
  19. ^ Acharian 1942, p. 149.
  20. ^ a b Tumanian et al. 1974, p. 362.
  21. ^ Greenwood 2011, p. 144.
  22. ^ Hayrapetian 1941, p. 4.
  23. ^ Greenwood 2011, p. 145.
  24. ^ a b c d Terian 1980, p. 180.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hewsen 1968, p. 35.
  26. ^ Greenwood 2011, p. 179.
  27. ^ a b Vasiliev 1945, p. 492.
  28. ^ Hewsen 1968, pp. 34-35.
  29. ^ a b c Terian 1980, p. 181.
  30. ^ Greenwood 2011, p. 157.
  31. ^ a b Tumanian et al. 1974, p. 364.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g Hewsen 1968, p. 36.
  33. ^ a b c Hewsen 1968, p. 45.
  34. ^ a b c Greppin 1995, p. 679.
  35. ^ Hewsen 1968, pp. 36-37.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hacikyan et al. 2002, p. 58.
  37. ^ a b Hewsen 1968, p. 38.
  38. ^ Mathews, Jr. 2008b, p. 365.
  39. ^ Adontz 1970, p. 163.
  40. ^ Pambakian 2018, p. 9.
  41. ^ Terian 1980, p. 182.
  42. ^ a b c d e f Hewsen 1968, p. 40.
  43. ^ Khrlopian 1964, p. 178.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h Hacikyan et al. 2002, p. 57.
  45. ^ a b Jeu 1973, p. 252.
  46. ^ a b Hewsen 1968, p. 37.
  47. ^ Hewsen 1968, p. 37-38.
  48. ^ Hewsen 1992, p. 14.
  49. ^ Broutian 2009, p. 4.
  50. ^ Greenwood 2011, p. 136.
  51. ^ a b c d Pambakian 2018, p. 13.
  52. ^ a b c Hewsen 1968, p. 42.
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Mathews, Jr. 2008a, p. 71.
  54. ^ Greenwood 2011, p. 177.
  55. ^ Chrisomalis 2010, pp. 175-176.
  56. ^ a b Chrisomalis 2010, p. 177.
  57. ^ Shaw 1939.
  58. ^ Pambakian 2018, p. 10.
  59. ^ Pambakian 2018, p. 14.
  60. ^ Pambakian 2018, p. 15.
  61. ^ a b Pambakian 2018, p. 16.
  62. ^ Pambakian 2018, p. 17.
  63. ^ Pambakian 2018, p. 22.
  64. ^ Hewsen 1968, p. 41.
  65. ^ Hewsen 1968, pp. 35-36.
  66. ^ Greenwood 2011, p. 131.
  67. ^ Hewsen 1992, p. 13.
  68. ^ Hewsen 1992.
  69. ^ Pambakian 2018, p. 12.
  70. ^ a b c d Hewsen 1992, p. 1.
  71. ^ Thomson 1997, p. 222.
  72. ^ Greppin 1995, pp. 679-680.
  73. ^ Hewsen 1992, p. 4.
  74. ^ Hewsen 1992, pp. 4-5.
  75. ^ Hewsen 1992, p. 8.
  76. ^ Hewsen 1968, p. 44.
  77. ^ Greenwood 2008, p. 197.
  78. ^ Broutian 2009, p. 5.
  79. ^ Hewsen 1968, pp. 44-45.
  80. ^ Broutian 2009, pp. 8-9.
  81. ^ Hewsen 1968, pp. 43-44.
  82. ^ a b c d e Abrahamian & Petrosian 1979, p. 23.
  83. ^ Matevosian 1994, pp. 17-18.
  84. ^ Greenwood 2011, p. 133.
  85. ^ Matevosian 1994, p. 21.
  86. ^ Gyulumyan 2012, pp. 6, 9.
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  88. ^ Patkanian 1877.
  89. ^ Abrahamian 1944.
  90. ^ Simyonov 1947, pp. 97-100.
  91. ^ Abrahamian & Petrosian 1979.
  92. ^ Arakelian 1981, p. 300.
  93. ^ Eremian 1963.
  94. ^ Conybeare 1897.
  95. ^ a b c Lemerle 2017, p. 90.
  96. ^ Berbérian 1964.
  97. ^ Hewsen 1968.
  98. ^ Greenwood 2011, p. 134.
  99. ^ Greenwood 2011, p. 135.

Bibliography[edit]

Books on Anania[edit]

General books cited in the article[edit]

Book chapters on Anania[edit]

  • Mathews, Jr., Edward G. (2008a). "Anania of Shirak". In Keyser, Paul T.; Irby-Massie, Georgia L. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Ancient Natural Scientists: The Greek Tradition and its Many Heirs. Routledge. pp. 70-71. ISBN 9781134298020.
  • Hacikyan, Agop Jack; Basmajian, Gabriel; Franchuk, Edward S.; Ouzounian, Nourhan (2002). "Anania Shirakatsi (Anania of Shirak)". The Heritage of Armenian Literature: From the sixth to the eighteenth century. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. pp. 56-80. ISBN 9780814330234.
  • Thomson, Robert W. (1997). "Armenian Literary Culture Through the Eleventh Century". In Hovannisian, Richard G. (ed.). The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times: Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 199–240.
  • van Lint, Theo (2018). "Ananias of Shirak (Anania Shirakats'i)". In Nicholson, Oliver (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity. Oxford University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-19-881624-9.
  • Chrisomalis, Stephen (2010). "Shirakatsi's Notation". Numerical Notation: A Comparative History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 175-177. ISBN 9780521878180.
  • Mathews, Jr., Edward G. (2008b). "Hellenizing School (Arm. Yunaban Drpoc; ca 570 - ca 730)". In Keyser, Paul T.; Irby-Massie, Georgia L. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Ancient Natural Scientists: The Greek Tradition and its Many Heirs. Routledge. ISBN 9781134298020.
  • Terian, Abraham (1980). "The Hellenizing School: Its Time, Place, and Scope of Activities Reconsidered". In Nina Garsoïan, Thomas F. Mathews, Robert W. Thomson (eds.). East of Byzantium: Syria and Armenia in the Formative Period. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks. pp. 175-186.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  • Abeghian, Manuk (1944). "Անանիա Շիրակացի [Anania Shirakatsi]". Հայոց Հին Գրականության Պատմություն [History of Ancient Armenian Literature] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Armenian SSR Academy of Sciences. pp. 373-387.

Encyclopedia articles[edit]

Journal articles[edit]