Anaphase accounts for approximately 1% of the cell cycle's duration. It begins with the regulated triggering of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Metaphase ends with the destruction of B cyclin. B cyclin is marked with ubiquitin which flags it for destruction by proteasomes, which is required for the function of metaphase cyclin-dependent kinases (M-Cdks). Anaphase starts when the anaphase promoting complex marks an inhibitory chaperone called securin with ubiquitin for destruction. Securin is a protein which inhibits a protease known as separase. The destruction of securin unleashes separase which then breaks down cohesin, a protein responsible for holding sister chromatids together. The centromeres are split, and the new daughter chromosomes are pulled toward the poles. They take on a V-shape or Y-shape as they are pulled back.
Once anaphase is complete, the cell moves into telophase.
- "The Cell Cycle". Kimball's Biology Pages. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
- Hickson, Gilles R X; Arnaud Echard; Patrick H O'Farrell (2006). "Rho-kinase Controls Cell Shape Changes during Cytokinesis". National Center for Biotechnology Information 16 (4): 359–70. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.12.043. PMC 1525334. PMID 16488869.
- Media related to Anaphase at Wikimedia Commons