Anapidae

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Anapidae
Conoculus.lyugadinus.female.-.tanikawa.jpg
female Conculus lyugadinus from Okinawa
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Family: Anapidae
Simon, 1895
Genera

See text.

Diversity[1]
57 genera, 220 species
Distribution.anapidae.1.png

Anapidae is a family of rather small spiders with 220 described species in 57 genera.[1] It includes the former family Micropholcommatidae as the subfamily Micropholcommatinae.[2] Most species are less than 2 mm long.[3]

In some species (such as Pseudanapis parocula) the pedipalps of the female are reduced to coxal stumps.[3]

Anapidae generally live in leaf litter and moss on the floor of rain forest. Many build orb webs with a diameter of less than 3 cm.[3]

Description[edit]

Spiders of this family are very small, usually less than two millimeters long, and lack a cribellum. They can have either six or eight eyes, the rear median eyes either reduced or missing. The carapace is modified so that the eyes are raised higher than usual. Color can range from reddish brown to yellowish brown. Both margins of chelicerae have teeth. The legs are short and spineless. The labium has a spur that extends between the chelicerae and can be seen when the chelicerae are spread.[4]

Systematics[edit]

The family Micropholcommatidae was synonymized with this family by Schütt in 2003[5] and by Lopa et al. in 2011,[6][2] a change that has been accepted by the World Spider Catalog.[7]

Genera[edit]

male Conoculus lyugadinus

As of March 2017, the World Spider Catalog accepted the following genera:[7]

Distribution[edit]

Anapidae are found worldwide, particularly in South America, Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand. Few genera occur in North America or Europe. Only Comaroma simoni and the three species of Zangherella are found in Europe; Gertschanapis shantzi and Comaroma mendocino are found in the United States.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Currently valid spider genera and species". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Archived from the original on 2015-11-03. Retrieved 2017-03-03. 
  2. ^ a b Hormiga, Gustavo & Griswold, Charles E. (2014). "Systematics, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Orb-Weaving Spiders". Annual Review of Entomology. 59 (1): 487–512. PMID 24160416. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-011613-162046. 
  3. ^ a b c Murphy & Murphy 2000
  4. ^ Song, D.X.; Zhu, M.S.; Chen, J. (1999). The Spiders of China. Hebei University of Science and Technology, Publishing House, Shijiazhuang. p. 149. 
  5. ^ Schütt, K. (2003), "Phylogeny of Symphytognathidae", Zoologica Scripta, 32: 129–151 
  6. ^ Lopardo, L.; Giribet, G. & Hormiga, G. (2011), "Morphology to the rescue: molecular data and the signal of morphological characters in combined phylogenetic analyses — a case study from mysmenid spiders (Araneae, Mysmenidae), with comments on the evolution of web architecture", Cladistics, 27 (3): 278–330, doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2010.00332.x 
  7. ^ a b c "Family: Anapidae Simon, 1895". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2017-03-03. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ramirez, M.J. & Platnick, N.I. (1999). "On Sofanapis antillanca (Araneae, Anapidae) as a kleptoparasite of austrochiline spiders (Araneae, Austrochilidae)". Journal of Arachnology 27(2): 547-549. PDF
  • Murphy, Frances & Murphy, John (2000). An Introduction to the Spiders of South East Asia. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Nature Society.