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Anarchism

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Anarchism is an anti-authoritarian political and social philosophy[1] that rejects hierarchy as unjust and advocates its replacement with self-managed, self-governed societies based on voluntary, cooperative institutions. These institutions are often described as stateless societies,[2] although several authors have defined them more specifically as distinct institutions based on non-hierarchical or free associations.[3] Anarchism's central disagreement with other ideologies is that it holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful.[4]

Anarchism is usually placed on the far-left of the political spectrum,[5] and much of its economics and legal philosophy reflect anti-authoritarian interpretations of communism, collectivism, syndicalism, mutualism, or participatory economics.[6] As anarchism does not offer a fixed body of doctrine from a single particular worldview,[7] many anarchist types and traditions exist and varieties of anarchy diverge widely.[8] Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism.[9] Strains of anarchism have often been divided into the categories of social and individualist anarchism, or similar dual classifications.[10]

Etymology, terminology, and definition[edit]

The etymological origin of the word anarchism is from the ancient Greek word anarkhia, meaning "without a ruler", composed of the prefix a- (i.e. "without") and the word arkhos (i.e. "leader" or "ruler"). The suffix -ism denotes the ideological current that favours anarchy.[11] The word anarchism appears in English from 1642[12] as anarchisme[13] and the word anarchy from 1539.[14] Various factions within the French Revolution labelled their opponents as anarchists, although few such accused shared many views with later anarchists. Many revolutionaries of the 19th century such as William Godwin (1756–1836) and Wilhelm Weitling (1808–1871) would contribute to the anarchist doctrines of the next generation, but they did not use the word anarchist or anarchism in describing themselves or their beliefs.[15]

The first political philosopher to call himself an anarchist (French: anarchiste) was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809–1865), marking the formal birth of anarchism in the mid-19th century. Since the 1890s and beginning in France,[16] the term libertarianism has often been used as a synonym for anarchism[17] and its use as a synonym is still common outside the United States.[18] On the other hand, some use libertarianism to refer to individualistic free-market philosophy only, referring to free-market anarchism as libertarian anarchism.[19]

While opposition to the state is central to anarchist thought, defining anarchism is not an easy task as there is a lot of talk among scholars and anarchists on the matter and various currents perceive anarchism slightly differently.[20] Hence, it might be true to say that anarchism is a cluster of political philosophies opposing authority and hierarchical organization (including the state, capitalism, nationalism and all associated institutions) in the conduct of all human relations in favour of a society based on voluntary association, on freedom and on decentralisation, but this definition has the same shortcomings as the definition based on etymology (which is simply a negation of a ruler), or based on anti-statism (anarchism is much more than that) or even the anti-authoritarian (which is an a posteriori conclusion).[21] Nonetheless, major elements of the definition of anarchism include the following:[22]

  1. The will for a non-coercive society.
  2. The rejection of the state apparatus.
  3. The belief that human nature allows humans to exist in or progress toward such a non-coercive society.
  4. A suggestion on how to act to pursue the ideal of anarchy.

History[edit]

Pre-modern era[edit]

Zeno of Citium (c. 334 – c. 262 BC), whose Republic inspired Peter Kropotkin[23]

During the prehistoric era of mankind, an established authority did not exist. It was after the creation of towns and cities that institutions of authority were established and anarchistic ideas espoused as a reaction.[24] Most notable precursors to anarchism in the ancient world were in China and Greece. In China, philosophical anarchism was delineated by Taoist philosophers Zhuangzi and Lao Tzu.[25] Likewise in Greece, anarchic attitudes were articulated by tragedians and philosophers. Aeschylus and Sophocles used the myth of Antigone to illustrate the conflict between rules set by the state and personal autonomy. Socrates questioned Athenian authorities constantly and insisted to the right of individual freedom of consciousness. Cynics dismissed human law (nomos) and associated authorities while trying to live according to nature (physis). Stoics were supportive of a society based on unofficial and friendly relations among its citizens without the presence of a state.[26]

During the Middle Ages, there was no anarchistic activity except some ascetic religious movements in the Islamic world or in Christian Europe. This kind of tradition later gave birth to religious anarchism. In Persia, Mazdak called for an egalitarian society and the abolition of monarchy, only to be soon executed by the king.[27] In Basra, religious sects preached against the state. In Europe, various sects developed anti-state and libertarian tendencies. Libertarian ideas further emerged during the Renaissance with the spread of reasoning and humanism through Europe. Novelists fictionalised ideal societies that were based not on coercion but voluntarism. The Enlightenment further pushed towards anarchism with the optimism for social progress.[28]

Modern era[edit]

During the French Revolution, the partisan groups of Enragés and sans-culottes saw a turning point in the fermentation of anti-state and federalist sentiments.[29] The first anarchist currents developed thoughout the 18th century—William Godwin espoused philosophical anarchism in England, morally delegitimizing the state, Max Stirner's thinking paved the way to individualism, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's theory of mutualism found fertile soil in France.[30] This era of classical anarchism lasted until the end of the Spanish Civil War of 1936 and is considered the golden age of anarchism. [30]

Anarchist Mikhail Bakunin opposed the Marxist aim of dictatorship of the proletariat and allied himself with the federalists in the First International before his expulsion by the Marxists

Drawing from mutualism, Mikhail Bakunin founded collectivist anarchism and entered the International Workingmen's Association, a class worker union later known as the First International that formed in 1864 to unite diverse revolutionary currents. The International became a significant political force, and Karl Marx a leading figure and a member of its General Council. Bakunin's faction, the Jura Federation and Proudhon's followers, the mutualists, opposed Marxist state socialism, advocating political abstentionism and small property holdings.[31] After bitter disputes the Bakuninists were expelled from the International by the Marxists at the 1872 Hague Congress.[32] Bakunin famously predicted that if revolutionaries gained power by Marxist's terms, they would end up the new tyrants of workers. After being expelled, anarchists formed the St. Imier International. Under the influence of Peter Kropotkin, a Russian philosopher and scientist, anarcho-communism overlapped with collectivism.[33] Anarcho-communists, who drew inspiration from the 1871 Paris Commune, advocated for free federation and distribution of goods according to one's needs.[34]

At the turning of the century, anarchism had spread all over the world.[35] In China, small groups of students imported the humanistic pro-science version of anarcho-communism.[36] Tokyo was a hotspot for rebellious youth from countries of the far east, pouring into the Japanese capital to study.[37] In Latin America, São Paulo was a stronghold for anarcho-syndicalism where it became the most prominent left-wing ideology.[38] During this time, a minority of anarchists adopted tactics of revolutionary political violence. This strategy became known as propaganda of the deed.[39] The dismemberment of the French socialist movement into many groups and the execution and exile of many Communards to penal colonies following the suppression of the Paris Commune favoured individualist political expression and acts.[40] Even though many anarchists distanced themselves from these terrorist acts, infamy came upon the movement.[39] Illegalism was another strategy which some anarchists adopted these same years.[41]

Anarchists enthusiastically participated in the Russian Revolution—despite concerns—in opposition to the Whites. However, they met harsh suppression after the Bolshevik government was stabilized. Several anarchists from Petrograd and Moscow fled to Ukraine,[42] notably leading to the Kronstadt rebellion and Nestor Makhno's struggle in the Free Territory. With the anarchists being crushed in Russia, two new antithetical currents emerged, namely platformism and synthesis anarchism. The former sought to create a coherent group that would push for the revolution while the latter were against anything that would resemble a political party. Seeing the victories of the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution and the resulting Russian Civil War, many workers and activists turned to communist parties which grew at the expense of anarchism and other socialist movements. In France and the United States, members of major syndicalist movements, the General Confederation of Labour and Industrial Workers of the World, left their organisations and joined the Communist International.[43]

In the Spanish Civil War, anarchists and syndicalists (CNT and FAI) once again allied themselves with various currents of leftists. A long tradition of Spanish anarchism led to anarchists playing a pivotal role in the war. In response to the army rebellion, an anarchist-inspired movement of peasants and workers, supported by armed militias, took control of Barcelona and of large areas of rural Spain where they collectivised the land.[44] The Soviet Union provided some limited assistance at the beginning of the war, but the result was a bitter fight among communists and anarchists at a series of events named May Days as Joseph Stalin tried to seize control of the Republicans.[45]

Post-war era[edit]

Rojava is supporting efforts for workers to form cooperatives, such as this sewing cooperative

At the end of World War II, the anarchist movement was severely weakened.[46] However, the 1960s witnessed a revival of anarchism likely caused by a perceived failure of Marxism–Leninism and tensions built by the Cold War.[47] During this time, anarchism took root in other movements critical to both the state and capitalism such as the anti-nuclear, environmental and pacifist movements, the New Left, and the counterculture of the 1960s.[48] Anarchism became associated with punk subculture as exemplified by bands such as Crass and the Sex Pistols,[49] and the established feminist tendencies of anarcha-feminism returned with vigour during the second wave of feminism.[50]

Around the turn of the 21st century, anarchism grew in popularity and influence within anti-war, anti-capitalist and anti-globalisation movements.[51] Anarchists became known for their involvement in protests against the World Trade Organization, Group of Eight and World Economic Forum. During the protests, ad hoc leaderless anonymous cadres known as black blocs engaged in rioting, property destruction and violent confrontations with the police. Other organisational tactics pioneered in this time include security culture, affinity groups and the use of decentralised technologies such as the internet. A significant event of this period was the confrontations at the WTO conference in Seattle in 1999.[51] Anarchist ideas have been influential in the development of the Zapatistas in Mexico, and the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, more commonly known as Rojava, a de facto autonomous region in northern Syria.[52]

Schools of thought[edit]

Anarchist schools of thought have been generally grouped in two main historical traditions, social anarchism and individualist anarchism, owing to their different origins, values and evolution.[53] The individualist current emphasises negative liberty, in opposing restraints upon the free individual, while the social current emphasises positive liberty, in aiming to achieve the free potential of society through equality and social ownership.[54] In a chronological sense, anarchism can be segmented by the classical currents of the late 19th century, and the post-classical currents (such as anarchafeminism, green anarchism and postanarchism) developed thereafter.[55]

Beyond the specific factions of anarchist thought is philosophical anarchism which holds that the state lacks moral legitimacy, without accepting the imperative of revolution to eliminate it. A component especially of individualist anarchism,[56] philosophical anarchism may tolerate the existence of a minimal state, but argues that citizens have no moral obligation to obey government when it conflicts with individual autonomy.[57]

One reaction against sectarianism within the anarchist milieu was anarchism without adjectives, a call for toleration and unity among anarchists first adopted by Fernando Tarrida del Mármol in 1889 in response to the bitter debates of anarchist theory at the time.[58] Despite separation, the various anarchist schools of thought are not seen as distinct entities, but as tendencies that intermingle.[59]

Classical[edit]

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon was the primary proponent of anarcho-mutualism and influenced many future individualist anarchist and social anarchist thinkers

Mutualism and individualism were inceptive among classical anarchist currents, followed by the major collectivist, communist and syndicalist currents of social anarchism. Social anarchist theory rejects private property, seeing it separate from personal property as a source of social inequality, and emphasises cooperation and mutual aid.[60] Major currents within classical anarchism include:

  • Mutualism is an 18th century economic theory that was developed into anarchist theory by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.[61] Its aims include reciprocity, free association, voluntary contract, federation, and credit and currency reform. According to the American mutualist William Batchelder Greene, each worker in the mutualist system would receive "just and exact pay for his work; services equivalent in cost being exchangeable for services equivalent in cost, without profit or discount".[62] Mutualism has been retrospectively characterised as ideologically situated between individualist and collectivist forms of anarchism.[63] Proudhon first characterised his goal as a "third form of society, the synthesis of communism and property".[64]
  • Anarcho-syndicalism, also referred to as revolutionary syndicalism, is a branch of anarchism that views labour syndicates as a potential force for revolutionary social change, replacing capitalism and the state with a new society democratically self-managed by workers. The basic principles of anarcho-syndicalism are workers' solidarity, direct action and workers' self-management. Anarcho-syndicalists believe that only direct action—that is, action concentrated on directly attaining a goal as opposed to indirect action such as electing a representative to a government position—will allow workers to liberate themselves.[75]

Post-classical and contemporary[edit]

Lawrence Jarach (left) and John Zerzan (right), two prominent contemporary anarchist authors, with Zerzan being a prominent voice within anarcho-primitivism and Jarach a noted advocate of post-left anarchy

Anarchist principles undergird contemporary radical social movements of the left. Interest in the anarchist movement developed alongside momentum in the anti-globalization movement,[82] whose leading activist networks were anarchist in orientation.[83] As the movement shaped 21st century radicalism, wider embrace of anarchist principles signaled a revival of interest.[83] Contemporary news coverage which emphasizes black bloc demonstrations has reinforced anarchism's historical association with chaos and violence, though its publicity has also led more scholars to engage with the anarchist movement.[82] Anarchism has continued to generate many philosophies and movements—at times eclectic, drawing upon various sources, and syncretic, combining disparate concepts to create new philosophical approaches.[84] The anti-capitalist tradition of classical anarchism has remained prominent within contemporary currents.[85]

Various anarchist groups, tendencies and schools of thought exist today, making it difficult to describe contemporary anarchist movement.[86] While theorists and activists have established "relatively stable constellations of anarchist principles", there is no consensus on which principles are core. As a result, commentators describe multiple "anarchisms" (rather than a singular "anarchism") in which common principles are shared between schools of anarchism while each group prioritizes those principles differently. For example, gender equality can be a common principle but ranks as a higher priority to anarcha-feminists than anarchist communists.[87] Anarchists are generally committed against coercive authority in the following forms: "all centralized and hierarchical forms of government (e.g., monarchy, representative democracy, state socialism, etc.), economic class systems (e.g., capitalism, Bolshevism, feudalism, slavery, etc.), autocratic religions (e.g., fundamentalist Islam, Roman Catholicism, etc.), patriarchy, heterosexism, white supremacy, and imperialism".[88] Anarchist schools, however, disagree on the methods by which these forms should be opposed.[89]

Tactics[edit]

Anarchists' tactics take various forms but in general serve two major goals—first, to oppose the establishment; and second, to promote anarchist ethics and reflect an anarchist vision of society, illustrating the unity of means and ends.[90] A broad categorization can be made between aims to destroy oppressive states and institutions by revolutionary means, and aims to change society through evolutionary means. [91] Evolutionary tactics reject violence and take a gradual approach to anarchist aims, though there is significant overlap between the two.[92]

Anarchist tactics have shifted during the course of the last century. Anarchists during the early 20th century focused more on strikes and militancy, while contemporary anarchists use a broader array of approaches.[93]

Classical era tactics[edit]

The relationship between anarchism and violence is a controversial subject among anarchists. Pictured is Leon Czolgosz assassinating U.S. President William McKinley.

During the classical era, anarchists had a militant tendency. Not only did they confront state armed forces (as in Spain and Ukraine) but some also employed terrorism as propaganda of the deed. Assasination attempts were made against heads of state, some being successful. Anarchists also took part in revolutions.[94] Anarchist perspectives towards violence have always been perplexing and controversial.[95] On one hand, anarcho-pacifists point out the unity of means and ends.[96] On the other hand, other anarchist groups are for direct action that can include sabotage or even terrorism. This attitude was quite prominent a century ago; seeing the state as a tyrant, some anarchists saw every right to oppose its oppression by any mean possible.[97] Emma Goldman and Errico Malatesta, who were proponents of limited use of violence, argued that violence is merely a reaction to state violence as a necessary evil.[98]

Anarchists took an active role in strikes, though they tended to be antipathetic to formal syndicalism, seeing it as reformist. They saw it as a part of overthrowing state and capitalism.[99] Anarchists also reinforced their propaganda within the arts, some practicing nudism. They were also building communities based on friendship. They were also involved in the press.[100]

Revolutionary tactics[edit]

In the current era, Italian anarchist Alfredo Bonanno, a proponent of insurrectionary anarchism, has reinstated the debate on violence by rejecting the nonviolence tactic adopted since the late 19th century by Kropotkin and other prominent anarchists afterwards. Both Bonanno and the French group The Invisible Committee advocate for small, informal affiliation groups, where each member is responsible for their own actions but works together to bring down oppression utilizing sabotage and other violent means against state, capitalism and other enemies. Members of The Invisible Committee were arrested in 2008 on various charges, terrorism included.[101]

Overall though, today's anarchists are much less violent and militant than their ideological ancestors. Mostly they engage in confronting the police during demonstrations and riots, especially in countries like Canada, Mexico or Greece. Μilitant black bloc protest groups are known for clashing with the police.[102] But Anarchists not only clash with state operators, they also engage in the struggle against fascists and racists, taking antifa action and mobilizing to prevent hate rallies from happening.[103]

Evolutionary tactics[edit]

Anarchists commonly employ direct action, which can take the form of disrupting and protesting against unjust hierarchies, or the form of self-managing their lives through the creation of counterinstitutions such as communes and non-hierarchical collectives.[91] Often decision-making is handled in an anti-authoritarian way, with everyone having equal say in each decision, an approach known as horizontalism.[104] Contemporary-era anarchists have been engaging with various grass root movements that are not explicitly anarchist but are more or less based on horizontalism, respecting personal autonomy and participating in mass activism such as strikes and demonstrations. The newly coined term "small-a anarchism," in contrast with "big-A anarchism" of the classical era, signals their tendency not to base their thoughts and actions on classical-era anarchism or to refer to Kropotkin or Proudhon to justify their opinions. They would rather base their thought and praxis on their own experience, which they will later theorize.[105]

The decision-making process of small affinity anarchist groups play a significant tactical role.[106] Anarchists have employed various methods in order to build a rough consensus among members of their group, without the need of a leader or a leading group. One way is for an individual from the group to play the role of facilitator to help achieve a consensus without taking part in the discussion themselves or promoting a specific point. Minorities usually accept rough consensus, except when they feel the proposal contradicts anarchist goals, values or ethics. Anarchists usually form small groups (5–20 individuals) to enhance autonomy and friendships among their members. These kind of groups more often than not interconnect with each other, forming larger networks. Anarchists still support and participate in strikes, especially wildcat strikes- these are leaderless strikes not organised centrally by a syndicate.[107]

Anarchists have gone online to spread their message. As in the past, newspapers and journals are used, but because of distributional and other difficulties, anarchists have found it easier to create websites, hosting electronic libraries and other portals.[108] Anarchists were also involved in developing various softwares that are available for free. The way these hacktivists work to develop and distribute resembles the anarchist ideals, especially when it comes to preserving user's privacy from state surveillance.[109]

Anarchists organize themselves to squat and reclaim public spaces. During important events such as protests and when spaces are being occupied, they are often called Temporary Autonomous Zones (TAZ), spaces where surrealism, poetry and art are blended to display the anarchist ideal. [110][111][112] Squatting, as seen by anarchists is a way to regain urban space that capitalist market, serving pragmatical needs and is also seen an exemplary direct action.[113][114] Acquiring space enables anarchists to experiment with their ideas and build social bonds.[115]

Key issues[edit]

As anarchism is a philosophy that embodies many diverse attitudes, tendencies and schools of thought and disagreement over questions of values, ideology and tactics is common, its diversity has led to widely different use of identical terms among different anarchist traditions which has led to many definitional concerns in anarchist theory. For instance, the compatibility of capitalism,[116][117][118][119][120] nationalism and religion with anarchism is widely disputed. Similarly, anarchism enjoys complex relationships with ideologies such as Marxism, communism, collectivism and trade unionism. Anarchists may be motivated by humanism, divine authority, enlightened self-interest, veganism, or any number of alternative ethical doctrines. Phenomena such as civilisation, technology (e.g. within anarcho-primitivism) and the democratic process may be sharply criticised within some anarchist tendencies and simultaneously lauded in others.[121]

Gender, sexuality and free love[edit]

French individualist anarchist Émile Armand propounded the virtues of free love in the Parisian anarchist milieu of the early 20th century

Gender and sexuality carry along them dynamics of hierrarchy, anarchism is obliged to address, analyse and oposse the suppression of one's autonomy because of the dynamics that gender roles traditionally impose.[122]

A historical current that arose and flourished during 1890 and 1920 within anarchism was free love, and in an way it still survives as tendency supporting polyamory and queer anarchism.[123][124] Free love advocates were against marriage which saw as a way of men imposing authority over women because of marriage laws giving the upper hand to males. The notion of free love though was much broader, it was a critique to the whole established order that limited women from sexual freedom and pleasure.[124] This movement became close to reality as there have been various household that hosted many comrades sharing a common bed.[125] Free love had roots both in Europe and the USA. Some anarchists soon found out that free love wasn't without adverse effects as jealously arose.[126] Anarchist feminists were advocates of free love, against marriage, pro-choice (utilizing a contemporary term) and had a likewise agenda. Anarchist and non anarchist feminists differed on suffrage, but still they were supportive of each other. [127].

During the second half of the 20th century, anarchism intermingled with the second wave of anarchism, radicalizing some currents of the feminist movement-and got influenced as well. By the latest decades of the 20th century, anarchist and feminists were advocating for rights and autonomy of women, gays, queers and other marginalized groups with some feminist thinkers suggesting the fusion of the two currents. [128] With the third wave of anarchism sexual identity and compulsory heterosexuality were put under the anarchist’s microscope and yielded a post-structuralist critique of sexual normality. [129] Though, few anarchists distanced themselves from this line of thinking, suggesting it is leaning towards individualism and therefore dropping the cause of social liberation.[130]

Anarchism and education[edit]

English anarchist William Godwin considered education an important aspect. He was against state education as he considered those schools as a way of the state to replicate privileges of the ruling class.[131] Godwin thought that education was the way to change the world. In his Political Justice, he criticises state sponsored schooling and advocates for child's protection from coercion.[132] Max Stirner wrote in 1842 a long essay on education called The False Principle of our Education in which Stirner was advocating for child's autonomy.[133]

In 1901, Catalan anarchist and free thinker Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia established modern or progressive schools in Barcelona in defiance of an educational system controlled by the Catholic Church.[134] Ferrer's approach was secular, rejecting both the state and church involvement in the educational process and gave pupils plenty of autonomy (i.e. on setting the curriculum). Ferrer was aiming to educate the working class. The school closed after constant harassment by the state and Ferrer was later on arrested.[135] Ferrer's ideas generally formed the inspiration for a series of modern schools in the United States.[134]

Russian Christian anarchist Leo Tolstoy established a school for peasant children on his estate.[136] Tolstoy's educational experiments were short-lived due to harassment by the Tsarist secret police.[137] Tolstoy established a conceptual difference between education and culture.[136] He thought that "[e]ducation is the tendency of one man to make another just like himself. [...] Education is culture under restraint, culture is free. [Education is] when the teaching is forced upon the pupil, and when then instruction is exclusive, that is when only those subjects are taught which the educator regards as necessary".[136] For him, "without compulsion, education was transformed into culture".[136]

A more recent libertarian tradition on education is that of unschooling and the free school in which child-led activity replaces pedagogic approaches. Experiments in Germany led to A. S. Neill founding what became Summerhill School in 1921.[138] Summerhill is often cited as an example of anarchism in practice.[139] However, although Summerhill and other free schools are radically libertarian, they differ in principle from those of Ferrer by not advocating an overtly political class struggle-approach.[140] In addition to organising schools according to libertarian principles, anarchists have also questioned the concept of schooling per se. The term deschooling was popularised by Ivan Illich, who argued that the school as an institution is dysfunctional for self-determined learning and serves the creation of a consumer society instead.[141]

Anarchism and the state[edit]

Objection to the state and its institutions is sine qua non of anarchism.[142] Anarchists consider the state as a tool of domination and it is illegitimate regardless of political tendencies. Instead of people being able to control the aspects of their life, major decisions are taken by a small elite. Authority ultimately rests solely on power regardless if it is open or transparent as it still has the ability to coerce people. Another anarchist argument against states is that some people constituting a government, even the most altruistic among officials, will unavoidably seek to gain more power, leading to corruption. Anarchists consider the argument that the state is the collective will of people as a fairy tale since the ruling class is distinct from the rest of the society.[143]

Criticism[edit]

Moral and pragmatic criticism of anarchism includes allegations of utopianism, tacit authoritarianism and vandalism towards feats of civilisation.

Allegation of utopianism[edit]

Anarchism is evaluated as unfeasible or utopian by its critics, often in general and formal debate. European history professor Carl Landauer argued that social anarchism is unrealistic and that government is a "lesser evil" than a society without "repressive force". He also argued that "ill intentions will cease if repressive force disappears" is an "absurdity".[144] However, An Anarchist FAQ states the following: "Anarchy is not a utopia, [and] anarchists make no such claims about human perfection. [...] Remaining disputes would be solved by reasonable methods, for example, the use of juries, mutual third parties, or community and workplace assemblies". It also states that "some sort of 'court' system would still be necessary to deal with the remaining crimes and to adjudicate disputes between citizens".[145]

Industrial civilisation[edit]

In his essay On Authority, Friedrich Engels claimed that radical decentralisation promoted by anarchists would destroy modern industrial civilisation, citing an example of railways and making the following point:[146]

Here too the co-operation of an infinite number of individuals is absolutely necessary, and this co-operation must be practised during precisely fixed hours so that no accidents may happen. Here, too, the first condition of the job is a dominant will that settles all subordinate questions, whether this will is represented by a single delegate or a committee charged with the execution of the resolutions of the majority of persona interested. In either case there is a very pronounced authority. Moreover, what would happen to the first train dispatched if the authority of the railway employees over the Hon. passengers were abolished?

In the end, it is argued that authority in any form is a natural occurrence which should not be abolished.[147]

Tacit authoritarianism[edit]

The anarchist tendency known as platformism has been criticised by Situationists,[148] insurrectionaries, synthesis anarchists and others of preserving tacitly statist, authoritarian or bureaucratic tendencies.[149]

List of anarchist societies[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Flint 2009, p. 27.
  2. ^ Sheehan 2003, p. 85; Craig 2005, p. 14.
  3. ^ Suissa 2006, p. 7.
  4. ^ McLean & McMillan 2003; Craig 2005, p. 14.
  5. ^ Brooks 1994, p. xi; Kahn 2000; Moynihan 2007.
  6. ^ Guerin 1970, p. 35, Critique of authoritarian socialism.
  7. ^ Marshall 1993, pp. 14–17.
  8. ^ Sylvan 2007, p. 262.
  9. ^ McLean & McMillan 2003, Anarchism.
  10. ^ Fowler 1972; Kropotkin 2002, p. 5; Ostergaard 2009, p. 14, Anarchism.
  11. ^ Bates 2017, p. 128; Long 2013, p. 217.
  12. ^ Definition of Anarchism by Merriam-Webster 2019.
  13. ^ "anarchism". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  14. ^ "anarchy". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  15. ^ Joll 1964, pp. 27–37.
  16. ^ Nettlau 1996, p. 162.
  17. ^ Guerin 1970, The Basic Ideas of Anarchism.
  18. ^ Ward 2004, p. 62; Goodway 2006, p. 4; Skirda 2002, p. 183; Fernández 2009, p. 9.
  19. ^ Morris 2002, p. 61.
  20. ^ Long 2013, p. 217.
  21. ^ McLaughlin 2007, pp. 25–29; Long 2013, pp. 217.
  22. ^ McLaughlin 2007, pp. 25–26.
  23. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 70.
  24. ^ Graham 2005, pp. xi–xiv.
  25. ^ Coutinho 2016; Marshall 1993, p. 54.
  26. ^ Marshall 1993, pp. 4, 66–73.
  27. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 86.
  28. ^ Adams, Matthew (14 January 2014). "The Possibilities of Anarchist History: Rethinking the Canon and Writing History". Anarchist Developments in Cultural Studies. 2013.1: Blasting the Canon: 33–63. Retrieved 17 December 2019 – via University of Victoria Libraries.
  29. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 4.
  30. ^ a b Marshall 1993, pp. 4–5.
  31. ^ Dodson 2002, p. 312; Thomas 1985, p. 187; Chaliand & Blin 2007, p. 116.
  32. ^ Graham 2019, pp. 334–336; Marshall 1993, p. 24.
  33. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 5.
  34. ^ Graham 2005, p. xii.
  35. ^ Moya 2015, p. 327.
  36. ^ Marshall 1993, pp. 519–521.
  37. ^ Dirlik 1991, p. 133; Ramnath 2019, pp. 681–682.
  38. ^ Levy 2011, p. 23; Laursen 2019, p. 157; Marshall 1993, pp. 504–508.
  39. ^ a b Marshall 1993, pp. 633–636.
  40. ^ Anderson 2004.
  41. ^ Bantman 2019, p. 374.
  42. ^ Avrich 2006, p. 204.
  43. ^ Nomad 1966, p. 88.
  44. ^ Bolloten 1984, p. 1107.
  45. ^ Marshall 1993, pp. xi, 466.
  46. ^ Marshall 1993, p. xi.
  47. ^ Marshall 1993, p. 539.
  48. ^ Marshall 1993, pp. xi & 539.
  49. ^ Marshall 1993, pp. 493–494.
  50. ^ Marshall 1993, pp. 556–557.
  51. ^ a b Rupert 2006, p. 66.
  52. ^ Ramnath 2019, p. 691.
  53. ^ McLean & McMillan 2003, Anarchism; Ostergaard 2003, p. 14, Anarchism.
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  55. ^ Levy 2019, p. 9.
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Sources[edit]

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