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For other uses, see Anas (disambiguation).
Female mallard nest - natures pics edit2.jpg
Female mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) with brood of young
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Anseriformes
Family: Anatidae
Subfamily: Anatinae
Genus: Anas
Linnaeus, 1758
Type species
Anas platyrhynchos
Linnaeus, 1758

40–50, see text

Anas is a genus of dabbling ducks. The genus name is the Latin for "duck".[1] It includes mallards, wigeons, teals, pintails and shovelers in a number of subgenera. Some authorities prefer to elevate the subgenera to genus rank.[2] Indeed, as the moa-nalos are very close to this clade and may have evolved later than some of these lineages, it is rather the absence of a thorough review than lack of necessity that this genus is rather over-lumped. However, there are 42 species verified by ITIS,[3] and the IUCN recognizes 46 species.[4]


The phylogeny of this genus is one of the most confounded ones of all living birds. Research is hampered by the fact the radiation of the two major groups of Anas – the teals and mallard groups – took place in a very short time and fairly recently, roughly in the mid-late Pleistocene. Furthermore, hybridization may have long played a major role in Anas evolution, with within-subgenus hybrids regularly and between-subgenus hybrids not infrequently being fully fertile.[2] The relationships between species are much obscured by this fact, and mtDNA sequence data is of dubious value in resolving their relationships;[5] on the other hand, nuclear DNA sequences evolve too slowly to resolve the phylogeny of the subgenus Anas for example.

Some major clades can be discerned. For example, that the traditional subgenus Anas, the mallard group, forms a monophyletic (in the loose sense, i.e. non-holophyletic) group has never been seriously questioned by modern science and is as good as confirmed (but see below). On the other hand, the phylogeny of the teals is very confusing.

For these reasons, the dabbling duck lineages more distantly related to mallard group (which includes the type species of Anas) than the wigeons should arguably be separated in their own genera. These would include the Baikal teal, the Garganey, the spotted black-capped Punanetta group, and the shovelers and other blue-winged species. Whether the wigeons, which are very distinct in morphology[6] and behavior,[7] but much less so in mtDNA cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 sequences,[8] should also be considered a distinct genus Mareca (including the gadwall and falcated duck) is essentially the one remaining point of dispute as regards the question which taxa should remain in this genus and which ones should not.


The following arrangement is based on current morphological,[6] molecular,[8][9] and behavioral[7] characters and presents apparent major evolutionary groupings compared to the subgenera the species were placed in at one time or another.

Baikal teal, Anas formosa

Probable genus Sibirionetta – Baikal teal

Probable genus Querquedula – Garganey (may include Punanetta)

Probable genus Punanetta

Red shoveler, Anas platalea

Probable genus Spatula – blue-winged ducks/shovelers and allies (polyphyletic?[citation needed])

American wigeon, Anas americana

Possible genus Marecawigeons (may include Chaulelasmus and Eunetta)

Subgenus Chaulelasmus – gadwall

Subgenus Eunetta – falcated duck

Northern pintail, Anas acuta

Subgenus Dafila – pintails

Subgenus Nettion – teals (paraphyletic)

Green-winged teal, Anas carolinensis

Subgenus Melananas – African black duck

Yellow-billed duck, Anas undulata

Subgenus Anas – mallard and relatives (may include Melananas)

The last male Mariana mallard, ca. 1980
  • American clade
    • Mottled duck, Anas fulvigula – sometimes included in Anas platyrhynchos
      • Florida duck, Anas fulvigula fulvigula – sometimes included in Anas platyrhynchos
    • American black duck, Anas rubripes – sometimes included in Anas platyrhynchos
    • Mexican duck, Anas diazi – sometimes included in Anas platyrhynchos
  • Pacific clade – the moa-nalos might be derived from this group.
Spot-billed duck, Anas poecilorhyncha

Formerly placed in Anas:


Based on the Taxonomy in Flux from John Boyd's website.[11]


Lophonetta specularioides (King 1828) Riley 1914 (Crested ducks)

Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin 1789) von Boetticher 1929 (Brazilian teals)

Speculanas specularis (King 1828) von Boetticher 1929 (Bronze-winged ducks)


T. brachypterus (Latham 1790) (Falkland steamer duck)

T. pteneres (Forster 1844) (Fuegian steamer duck)

T. patachonicus (King 1831) (Flying steamer duck)

T. leucocephalus Humphrey & Thompson 1981 (Chubut steamer duck)

Sibirionetta formosa (Georgi 1775) (Baikal teals)



S. querquedula (Linnaeus 1758) (Garganey)


S. hottentota (Eyton 1838) (Hottentot teal)

S. puna (Lichtenstein) Tschudi 1844 (Puna teal)

S. versicolor Vieillot 1816 (Silver teal)


S. platalea Vieillot 1816 (Red shoveler)

S. discors Linnaeus 1766 (Blue-winged teal)

S. cyanoptera Vieillot 1816 (Cinnamon teal)

S. smithii (Hartert 1891) (Cape shoveler)

S. clypeata (Linnaeus 1758) (Northern shoveler)

S. rhynchotis Latham 1801 (Australasian shoveler)


A. falcata Georgi 1775 (Falcated duck)

A. strepera Linnaeus 1758 (Gadwall)

?†A. marecula Olson & Jouventin 1996 (Amsterdam Island widgeon, ?Saint Paul Island duck)

A. penelope Linnaeus 1758 (Eurasian wigeon)

A. sibilatrix Poeppig 1829 (Chiloe wigeon)

A. americana Gmelin 1789 (American wigeon)


A. sparsa Eyton 1838 (African black duck)

A. melleri Sclater 1865 (Meller's duck)

A. undulata Dubois 1839 (Yellow-billed duck)

A. laysanensis Rothschild 1892 (Laysan duck)

A. wyvilliana Sclater 1878 (Hawaiian duck)

A. luzonica Fraser 1839 (Philippine duck)

A. superciliosa Gmelin 1789 (Pacific black duck)

A. poecilorhyncha Forster 1781 (Indian spot-billed duck)

A. platyrhynchos Linnaeus 1758 (Mallard)

A. zonorhyncha Swinhoe 1866 (Eastern spot-billed duck)

A. rubripes Brewster 1902 (American black duck)

A. diazi Ridgway 1886 (Mexican mallard)

A. fulvigula Ridgway 1874 (Mottled duck)


A. crecca Linnaeus 1758 (Eurasian teal)

A. carolinensis Gmelin 1789 (Green-winged teal)

A. flavirostris Vieillot 1816 (Yellow-billed teal)

A. andium (Sclater & Salvin 1873) (Andean teal)


A. capensis Gmelin 1789 (Cape teal)

A. erythrorhyncha Gmelin 1789 (Red-billed teal)

A. bahamensis Linnaeus 1758 (White-cheeked pintail)

A. georgica Gmelin 1789 (Yellow-billed pintail)

A. acuta Linnaeus 1758 (Northern pintail)

A. eatoni (Sharpe 1875) (Eaton's pintail)


A. castanea (Eyton 1838) (Chestnut teal)

?A. albogularis (Hume 1873) (Andaman teal)

?A. gibberifrons Müller 1842 (Sunda/Indonesian teal)

A. gracilis Buller 1869 (Grey teal)


?†A. theodori Newton & Gadow 1893 (Mascarenes/Sauzier’s teal, Mauritian duck)

A. bernieri (Hartlaub 1860) (Madagacan/Bernier’s teal)

A. chathamica (Oliver 1955) (Chatham Island duck/teal)

A. chlorotis Gray 1845 (Brown teal)

A. aucklandica (Gray 1844) (Auckland teal)

A. nesiotis (Fleming 1935) (Campbell teal)

Fossil record[edit]

Anas blanchardi fossil

A number of fossil species of Anas have been described. Their relationships are often undetermined:

  • Anas sp. (Late Miocene of China)
  • Anas sp. (mid-sized species from the Late Miocene of Rudabánya, Hungary)[12]
  • Anas greeni (Brodkorb 1964) (Ash Hollow Late Miocene?/Early Pliocene of South Dakota, USA) – Nettion red-and-green head clade (doubtful)?
  • Anas ogallalae (Brodkorb 1962) (Ogalalla Late Miocene?/Early Pliocene of Kansas, USA) – Nettion red-and-green head clade (doubtful)?[13]
  • Anas pullulans (Juntura Late Miocene?/Early Pliocene of Juntura, Malheur County, Oregon, USA) – Punanetta?
  • Anas cheuen Agnolín 2006 (Early-Middle Pleistocene of Argentina) – Dafila?
  • Anas bunkeri (Wetmore 1944) (Early -? Middle Pliocene – Early Pleistocene of WC USA) – Nettion red-and-green head clade?[14]
  • Bermuda Islands flightless duckAnas pachyscelus Wetmore 1960 (Shore Hills Late Pleistocene of Bermuda, W Atlantic)
  • Anas schneideri Emslie 1985 (Late Pleistocene of Little Box Elder Cave, USA)[15]
  • Anas elapsum (Chinchilla Late Pleistocene of Condamine River, Australia) ("Nettion")
  • Anas gracilipes (Late Pleistocene of Australia) ("Nettion")
  • Anas moldovica (Late Pliocene of Tchichmiknaia, Moldovia?Georgia?)
  • Anas sansaniensis Milne-Edwards 1868 [Dendrocygna sansaniensis (Milne-Edwards 1868) Mlíkovský 1988]
  • Anas strenuum (Late Pleistocene of Patteramordu, Australia) ("Nettion")
  • Anas itchtucknee McCoy 1963
  • Anas kisatibiensis [Anser kisatibiensis] (Early Pliocene of Kisatibi, Georgia)
  • Anas kurochkini Zelenkov & Panteleyev 2015
  • Anas lambrechti [Archaeoquerquedula lambrechti Stephens; Querquedula lambrechti; Archeoquerquedula Spillman 1942]

Several prehistoric waterfowl supposedly part of the Anas assemblage are nowadays not placed in this genus anymore, at least not with certainty:

  • "Anas" basaltica (Late Oligocene of "Warnsdorf", Czech Republic) is apparently an indeterminate heron.[16]
  • "Anas" blanchardi, "A." consobrina, "A." natator are now in Mionetta
  • "Anas" creccoides (Early-mid Oligocene of Belgium), "A." risgoviensis (Late Miocene of Bavaria, Germany) and "A." skalicensis (Early Miocene of "Skalitz", Czech Republic), though possibly anseriform, cannot be placed with any certainty among modern birds at all.[16][17]
  • "Anas" albae (Late Miocene of Polgárdi, Hungary), "A." eppelsheimensis (Early Pliocene of Eppelsheim, Germany),[14] "A." isarensis (Late Miocene of Aumeister, Germany) and "A." luederitzensis (Kalahari Early Miocene of Lüderitzbucht, Namibia) are apparently Anatidae of unclear affiliations; the first might be a seaduck.[16]
  • "Anas" integra and "A." oligocaena are now in Dendrochen.
  • "Anas" lignitifila from the Late Miocene of Tuscana has been moved to its own genus, Bambolinetta, being a highly unusual marine waterfowl.
  • "Anas" robusta is now tentatively placed in Anserobranta.
  • "Anas" velox (Middle – Late? Miocene of C Europe) and "A." meyerii (Middle Miocene of Öhningen, Germany; possibly the same species) do not seem to belong Anas, and they may be ancestral dabbling ducks.[16]

Highly problematic, albeit in a theoretical sense, is the placement of the moa-nalos. These are in may be derived from a common ancestor of the Pacific black duck, the Laysan duck, and the mallard, and an unknown amount of other lineages. Phylogenetically, they may even form a clade within the traditional genus Anas.[18] However, as opposed to these species – which are well representative of dabbling ducks in general – the moa-nalos are the most radical departure from the anseriform bauplan known to science. This illustrates that in a truly evolutionary sense, a strictly phylogenetic taxonomy may be difficult to apply.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4. 
  2. ^ a b Carboneras, Carles (1992). "Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese and Swans)". In del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi. Handbook of Birds of the World, Volume 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 536–629. ISBN 84-87334-10-5. 
  3. ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page: Genus Anas Linnaeus, 1758". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 20 December 2012. 
  4. ^ IUCN, (2012). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <>. Downloaded on 20 December 2012.
  5. ^ Kulikova, Irina V.; Drovetski, Sergei V.; Gibson, Daniel D.; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Rohwer, Sievert; Sorenson, Michael D.; Winker, Kevin; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.; McCracken, Kevin G. (2005). "Phylogeography of the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos): Hybridization, dispersal, and lineage sorting contribute to complex geographic structure". Auk. 122 (3): 949–965. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2005)122[0949:POTMAP]2.0.CO;2. 
  6. ^ a b Livezey, B. C. (1991). "A phylogenetic analysis and classification of recent dabbling ducks (Tribe Anatini) based on comparative morphology" (PDF). Auk. 108 (3): 471–507. doi:10.2307/4088089. JSTOR 4088089. 
  7. ^ a b Johnson, Kevin P.; McKinney, Frank; Wilson, Robert; Sorenson, Michael D. (2000). "The evolution of postcopulatory displays in dabbling ducks (Anatini): a phylogenetic perspective" (PDF). Animal Behaviour. 59 (5): 953–963. doi:10.1006/anbe.1999.1399. PMID 10860522. 
  8. ^ a b Johnson, Kevin P.; Sorenson, Michael D. (1999). "Phylogeny and biogeography of dabbling ducks (genus Anas): a comparison of molecular and morphological evidence" (PDF). Auk. 116 (3): 792–805. doi:10.2307/4089339. JSTOR 4089339. 
  9. ^ McCracken, Kevin G.; Johnson, William P.; Sheldon, Frederick H. (2001). "Molecular population genetics, phylogeography, and conservation biology of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula)" (PDF). Conservation Genetics. 2 (2): 87–102. doi:10.1023/A:1011858312115. 
  10. ^ Olson, Storrs L.; Jouventin, Pierre (1996). "A New Species of Small Flightless Duck From Amsterdam Island, Southern Indian Ocean (Anatidae: Anas)". Condor. 98 (1): 1–9. doi:10.2307/1369501. 
  11. ^ Taxonomy in Flux [1] Boyd, John (2007). "Anatini" (PDF). Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
  12. ^ Bernor, R.L.; Kordos, L.; Rook, L. "Recent Advances on Multidisciplinary Research at Rudabánya, Late Miocene (MN9), Hungary: A compendium" (PDF). Paleontographica Italiana. 89: 3–36. 
  13. ^ Wilson, R. L. (1968). "Systematics and faunal analysis of a Lower Pliocene vertebrate assemblage from Trego County, Kansas". Contrib. Mus. Paleontol. Univ. Mich. 22 (7): 75–126. 
  14. ^ a b Brodkorb, Pierce (1958). "Birds From the Middle Pliocene of Mckay, Oregon". Condor. 60 (4): 252–255. doi:10.2307/1365194. 
  15. ^ Emslie, Steven D. "A New Species of Teal From the Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) of Wyoming". Auk. 102: 201–205. doi:10.2307/4086849. 
  16. ^ a b c d Worthy, T. H.; Tennyson, A. J. D.; Jones, C.; McNamara, J. A.; Douglas, B. J. (2007). "Miocene waterfowl and other birds from central Otago, New Zealand". J. Syst. Paleontol. 5 (1): 1–39. doi:10.1017/S1477201906001957. 
  17. ^ Brodkorb, Pierce (1962). "The Systematic Position of Two Oligocene Birds From Belgium". Auk. 79 (4): 706–707. doi:10.2307/4082652. 
  18. ^ Sorenson, M. D.; Cooper, A.; Paxinos, E. E.; Quinn, T. W.; James, H. F.; Olson, S. L.; Fleischer, R. C. (1999). "Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA". Proceedings. Biological sciences / the Royal Society. 266 (1434): 2187–93. doi:10.1098/rspb.1999.0907. PMC 1690346free to read. PMID 10649633. 

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Anas at Wikimedia Commons
  • Data related to Anas at Wikispecies