In Seattle, June 1996
January 16, 1958|
Korkino, Russian SFSR
|Died||December 25, 1997
Annapurna I, Nepal
|Cause of death||Avalanche|
|Education||Bachelor of Science|
|Alma mater||Chelyabinsk University|
|Known for||18 ascents of 8,000 metre peaks|
Anatoli Nikolaevich Boukreev (Russian: Анато́лий Никола́евич Букре́ев; January 16, 1958 – December 25, 1997) was a Russian Kazakh mountaineer who made ascents of 10 of the 14 eight-thousander peaks, i.e., peaks above 8,000 m (26,247 ft), without supplemental oxygen. From 1989 through 1997, he made 18 successful ascents of peaks above 8000 m.
Boukreev had a reputation as an elite mountaineer in international climbing circles, (for summiting K2 in 1993 and Mount Everest via the North Ridge route in 1995), but became more widely known for his role in saving climbers during the deadly 1996 climbing season on Everest.
In 1997, Boukreev was killed in an avalanche during a winter ascent of Annapurna in Nepal. Boukreev's companion, Linda Wylie, edited his memoirs and published them in 2002 under the title, Above the Clouds: The Diaries of a High-Altitude Mountaineer.
Boukreev was born in Korkino, within the Russian SFSR of the Soviet Union (in the present Chelyabinsk Oblast). He came from the narod, the common people, and his parents were both poor. After completing high school in 1975, he attended Chelyabinsk University for Pedagogy, where he majored in physics and earned his Bachelor of Science degree in 1979. At the same time, he also completed a coaching program for cross-country skiing.
After graduation, the 21-year-old dreamed of mountain climbing. Boukreev moved to Alma-Ata, the capital of the neighbouring Kazakh SSR (present day Kazakhstan) located in the Tian Shan mountain range. From 1985 he was part of a Kazakhstani mountaineering team, and he became a citizen of the Kazakhstan Republic in 1991 after the breakup of the Soviet Union.
The major highlights of Boukreev's climbing career are as follows:
- Lenin Peak (7,134 m) – First solo ascent
- April Mount McKinley – Cassin Ridge route
- May Mount McKinley – West Rib route
- May 14 Mount McKinley (6,193 m)
- July 30 K2 (8,611 m) Abruzzi route.
- April 29 Makalu II (8,460 m)
- May 15 Makalu (8,476 m)
Speed ascent of Denali
In May 1990, Boukreev was invited by an American climber to guide several clients to the summit of Mount McKinley in Alaska. McKinley, also known as Denali, has its challenges such as hidden crevasse and unpredictably cold weather due to its proximity to the Arctic Circle and the ocean.
The expedition was a success and the team reached the summit and returned without incident. During the climb there had been somewhat of a language barrier and Boukreev felt the sting of needing to borrow equipment due to his economic circumstances. After the team had returned home, Boukreev decided to attempt a solo speed ascent of McKinley before returning to the Soviet Union.
Boukreev's solo speed ascent of Mt. McKinley in 1990 was completed in 10½ hours from the base to the summit. That season acclimated climbers were normally taking three to four days and five camps to summit — Boukreev's feat was noted by Climbing magazine in a 1990 issue, and commented on by Denali Park rangers who described it as "unreal".
In 1993, Boukreev reached the summit of K2 via the Abruzzi Spur, where he shared the peak with team members Peter Metzger of Germany and Andy Locke of Australia. The other team members were German climbers Reinmar Joswig (the team leader) and Ernst Eberhardt. With a peak elevation of 8,611 metres (28,251 ft), K2 is the second-highest mountain on Earth after Mount Everest.
As part of the Karakoram range, K2 is located on the border between Pakistan and China. K2 is referred to as the "Savage Mountain" — notable for its steep pyramidal relief, dropping quickly in almost all directions, and the inherent danger in climbing it. The danger facing Boukreev on K2 is that the summit felt like the finish line. Boukreev would later write that he did not feel the emotions of victory in that moment on top of K2's peak because he was physically and emotionally spent. Boukreev found himself in a dangerous position. He had expended too much energy placing fixed lines along a narrow, steep portion earlier that day. But since the team wanted to push on to the summit that same afternoon, rather than return to their tents to sleep and make a summit bid the next morning, Boukreev acquiesced. Boukreev would later write:
During my years of training as a ski racer, and then as a mountaineer, I had learned how to wring out the last of my energy for a finish. But this is dangerous in mountaineering, because the summit is not the finish of your competition with a great mountain. To survive you must be able to get down from the forbidden zone.
Boukreev later described feeling like a "squeezed lemon". When Boukreev and the other two climbers began their descent just after sundown they met Reinmar Joswig ascending and near the peak. Relying heavily on intuition and his previous mountaineering experiences, Boukreev slowly made his way down the steep rock and ice of the mountain. A crampon kept coming off of his boot, and another moment he had to use his ice axe to arrest falling and sliding into the abyss. Eventually he made his way to the tents at the highest elevation camp. Teammates Peter Metzger and Reinmar Joswig never appeared however, each having fallen to their death during the descent.
Boukreev became widely known as the lead climbing guide for the Mountain Madness expedition headed by Scott Fischer in May 1996. The expedition was one of several attempting to summit Everest on the same day (May 10). Soon after summiting on May 10 a disastrous blizzard struck, stranding many climbers near the peak overnight, and by May 11, eight climbers from three different expeditions had perished. Boukreev rescued three climbers stranded in the disaster above 8000 m, and all six of the climbing clients on the Mountain Madness expedition survived the ordeal.
Galen Rowell described Boukreev's rescue efforts in the Wall Street Journal as:
|“||One of the most amazing rescues in mountaineering history performed single-handedly a few hours after climbing Everest without oxygen...||”|
However, author Jon Krakauer was generally critical of Boukreev in his book, Into Thin Air. Subsequently, Boukreev was contacted by various media for a response, and also wrote his own account of the events on Everest in The Climb, a book co-written with Gary Weston DeWalt.
The core of the controversy was Boukreev's decision to attempt the summit without supplementary oxygen and to descend to the camp ahead of his clients in the face of approaching darkness and blizzard. He was one of the first to reach the summit on the day of the disaster and stayed at or near the summit for nearly 1.5 hours helping others with their summit efforts, before returning to his tent by 5 pm on May 10, well ahead of the later summiters on his team.
Boukreev's supporters point to the fact that his return to camp allowed him enough rest that, when the blizzard had subsided around midnight, he was able to mount a rescue attempt and to lead several climbers still stranded on the mountain back to the safety of the camp. Boukreev's detractors say that had he simply stayed with the clients, he would have been in better position to assist them down the mountain, though it should be noted that every one of Boukreev's clients survived, including the three (Pittman, Fox, Madsen) that he rescued on May 11 after he had rested and overcome hypoxia. The only client deaths that day were suffered by the Adventure Consultants expedition, led by guide Rob Hall, who lost his own life when he did choose to stay and help a client complete a late summit rather than helping the client descend and replenish.
In a response to Into Thin Air, Simone Moro had the following to say to Jon Krakauer:
|“||You do not understand what kind of person Anatoli really was. You are American, he was Russian. You're a newcomer to the Eight-thousanders, he at this level was the best of all time. You are a normal mountaineer, he was a great athlete and an animal of survival. You have financial security, he has known true hunger .. I think you're like one of those who, after reading a medical book, claims to teach one of the most skilled surgeons in the world how to be a doctor ... if you really want to pass judgment on the decisions taken by Anatoli in 1996, remember this: No client of his expedition died."||”|
Before returning to the States after the events on Everest in 1996, Boukreev climbed the 8,516 metres (27,940 ft) Lhotse, which is in proximity to Everest. He decided on the solo ascent because he hoped that in the process of climbing it he might find some inner clarity to what had just transpired on Everest.
Death on Annapurna 1997
In 1997 Boukreev was the recipient of the David A. Sowles Memorial Award given by the American Alpine Club. It was presented to him by Jim Wickwire, the first American to summit K2. The award is the American Alpine Club's highest award for valor in recognition of his role in rescuing climbers in the 1996 Everest disaster.
Three weeks later, Boukreev was attempting to climb the south face of Annapurna I (8,091 m or 26,545 ft) along with Simone Moro, an accomplished Italian mountaineer. They were accompanied by Dimitri Sobolev, a cinematographer from Kazakhstan who was documenting the attempt.
On December 25 around noon, Boukreev and Moro were fixing ropes in a couloir at around the 5,700 m (18,700 ft) level. Suddenly, an enormous cornice broke loose from the heights of Annapurna's Western Wall and rumbled down the 800 m (2,600 ft) long couloir. The avalanche knocked Moro down the mountain where he landed just above their tent at Camp I 5,200 m (17,100 ft). Fortuitously, Moro had somehow stayed near the top of the avalanche debris and managed to dig himself out after a few minutes.
Unable to see or hear any signs of Boukreev or Sobolev (whom Moro had witnessed disappearing beneath "car-sized blocks of ice"), Moro descended to Annapurna base camp where he was flown by helicopter back to Kathmandu for surgery on his hands, which had been ripped down to the tendons during the fall.
News of the accident reached New Mexico on December 26. Linda Wylie, Boukreev's girlfriend, left for Nepal on December 28. Several attempts were made to reach the avalanche site by helicopter but inclement weather in late December prevented search teams from reaching Camp I. On January 3, 1998, searchers were finally able to reach Camp I and an empty tent. Linda Wylie subsequently issued a somber statement from Kathmandu:
This is the end... there are no hopes of finding him alive.
Boukreev had dreamt in detail of dying in an avalanche nine months before his death. The only thing missing was the name of the mountain. When Anatoli's companion tried to convince him to take a different path in life to avoid a fate that Boukreev was convinced of, he responded, "Mountains are my life...my work. It is too late for me to take up another road."
"Mountains are not stadiums where I satisfy my ambition to achieve, they are the cathedrals where I practice my religion."
Icelandic actor Ingvar Eggert Sigurðsson portrays Boukreev in the upcoming Baltasar Kormákur film, Everest, about the 1996 Everest disaster. The film is scheduled for release on September 18, 2015, and stars Keira Knightley, Jake Gyllenhaal, Sam Worthington, Josh Brolin and Robin Wright.
- List of climbers
- 1996 Everest disaster
- List of Mount Everest summiters by number of times to the summit
- Lene Gammelgaard; Press Seal (20 June 2000). Climbing High: A Woman's Account of Surviving the Everest Tragedy. HarperCollins. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-06-095361-4. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Boukreev, Anatoli; Wylie, Linda. Above the Clouds. p. 7. ISBN 0312269706.
- Boukreev, Anatoli; Wylie, Linda (ed.) (December 2002). Above the Clouds: The Diaries of a High-Altitude Mountaineer. New York: Macmillan. pp. 38–43. ISBN 978-0-312-29137-2. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- Anatoli Boukreev (20 December 2002). Above the Clouds: The Diaries of a High-Altitude Mountaineer. Macmillan. pp. 44–47. ISBN 978-0-312-29137-2. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- Jerome Taylor (2008-08-05). "The Big Question: What makes K2 the most perilous challenge a mountaineer can face?". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 18 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
- Boukreev; Wylie; Above the Clouds pp. 92–95.
- Boukreev; Wylie; Above the Clouds p. 96.
- "Andrew Lock: life in the death zone". Australian Geographic. 2009-12-18.
- Galen Rowell, Wall Street Journal, May 29, 1997
- Deegan, Paul (1998). "Review of The Climb" (PDF).
- "Lopsang Jangbu Sherpa's response to Krakauer's article". Outsideonline.com. Retrieved 2010-12-05.
- Boukreev, Anatoli; Wylie, Linda. Above the Clouds. pp. 165–169. ISBN 0312269706.
- "David A. Sowles Memorial Award". The American Alpine Club. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Boukreev; Wylie; Above the Clouds pp. 226–227.
- Boukreev; Wylie; Above the Clouds p. 1
- Boukreev; Wylie; Above the Clouds p. 31.
- The Climb: Tragic Ambitions on Everest by Anatoli Boukreev and Gary Weston DeWalt, published by St. Martins Paperbacks, 1997, ISBN 0-312-96533-8.
- Above the Clouds: The Diaries of a High-Altitude Mountaineer, written by Anatoli Boukreev. Collected and edited by Linda Wylie; published by St. Martin's Griffin, 2002, ISBN 0-312-29137-X.
- Anatoli Boukreev Memorial Fund
- Photo of Anatoli Boukreev (left) and Martin Adams with Kazakhstan state flag on Everest 1996
- Everest at the Internet Movie Database