Anatoly Alexandrov (physicist)

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Anatoly Alexandrov
2003. Марка России 0818 hi.jpg
2003 Russian stamp commemorating Alexandrov.
Born(1903-02-13)13 February 1903
Died3 February 1994(1994-02-03) (aged 90)
NationalitySoviet, Russian
Alma materKiev University (1930)
AwardsHero of Socialist Labor (1954, 1960, 1973)
Lenin Prize (1959)
State Stalin Prize (1942, 1949, 1951, 1953)
Kurchatov Medal (1968)
Lomonosov Gold Medal (1978)
Scientific career
FieldsPhysics
Doctoral advisorAbram Ioffe
Doctoral studentsYuri Semenovich Lazurkin

Anatoly Petrovich Alexandrov (Russian: Анатолий Петрович Александров, 13 February 1903, Tarashcha – 3 February 1994, Moscow), also known as A.P Alaexandrov, was a Russian physicist, director of the Kurchatov Institute, academician (from 1953) and president of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1975–1986).

Anatoly Alexandrov was born on 13 February 1903 into the family of a prominent judge in the town of Tarashcha, Kiev Governorate, Russian Empire (now located in modern-day Ukraine).

After his graduation in 1930, he was invited by Abram Ioffe to join him in Leningrad.[1]

Alexandrov became prominent during World War II, when he devised in collaboration with Igor Kurchatov a method of demagnetizing ships to protect them from German naval mines. The method was effective by the end of 1941 and was in active use through the end of the war and afterwards. Both Alexandrov and Kurchatov worked at the Ioffe Institute by that time (their laboratory separated from the Ioffe Institute and moved to Moscow in 1943 for the work on the Soviet atomic bomb project).[2][3][4] Alexandrov was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1962.

Described by colleagues as a brilliant scientist and organizer, he was deeply affected[citation needed] by the Chernobyl disaster, the worst nuclear accident in history. It killed at least 32 people and caused widespread radioactive contamination. Tens of thousands of people were evacuated as a result. The accident subsequently prompted the Soviet Government to review and suspend the ambitious nuclear power program. As principal designer of the RBMK reactor that exploded at Cheynobyl, Alexandrov refused to concede that a design flaw contributed to disaster.[5]

Alexandrov died of cardiac arrest on 3 February 1994 in Moscow.

Honours and awards[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Johnson's Russia List.
  2. ^ Alexandrov, A. P. (1983). "Годы с Курчатовым". Nauka i Zhizn (in Russian). No. 2.
  3. ^ Koptev, Y. I. (2008). Виза безопасности (in Russian). Saint Petersburg: Polytechnic University Press. p. 66.
  4. ^ Regel, V. P. (1975). "Размагничивание кораблей в годы Великой Отечественной войны". Priroda (in Russian). No. 4.
  5. ^ Dobbs, Michael (April 27, 1992). "CHERNOBYL'S 'SHAMELESS LIES'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2019-11-15.

External links[edit]

Academic offices
Preceded by
Mstislav Keldysh
President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR
1975–1986
Succeeded by
Gury Marchuk