Anatoly Alexandrov (physicist)
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2003 Russian stamp commemorating Alexandrov.
|Died||3 February 1994 (aged 90)|
|Alma mater||Kiev University (1930)|
|Awards||Hero of Socialist Labor (1954, 1960, 1973)|
Lenin Prize (1959)
State Stalin Prize (1942, 1949, 1951, 1953)
Kurchatov Medal (1968)
Lomonosov Gold Medal (1978)
|Doctoral advisor||Abram Ioffe|
|Doctoral students||Yuri Semenovich Lazurkin|
Anatoly Petrovich Alexandrov (Russian: Анатолий Петрович Александров, 13 February 1903, Tarashcha – 3 February 1994, Moscow), also known as A.P Alaexandrov, was a Russian physicist, director of the Kurchatov Institute, academician (from 1953) and president of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1975–1986).
Alexandrov became prominent during World War II, when he devised in collaboration with Igor Kurchatov a method of demagnetizing ships to protect them from German naval mines. The method was effective by the end of 1941 and was in active use through the end of the war and afterwards. Both Alexandrov and Kurchatov worked at the Ioffe Institute by that time (their laboratory separated from the Ioffe Institute and moved to Moscow in 1943 for the work on the Soviet atomic bomb project). Alexandrov was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1962.
Described by colleagues as a brilliant scientist and organizer, he was deeply affected by the Chernobyl disaster, the worst nuclear accident in history. It killed at least 32 people and caused widespread radioactive contamination. Tens of thousands of people were evacuated as a result. The accident subsequently prompted the Soviet Government to review and suspend the ambitious nuclear power program. As principal designer of the RBMK reactor that exploded at Cheynobyl, Alexandrov refused to concede that a design flaw contributed to disaster.
Honours and awards
- Hero of Socialist Labour (1954, 1960, 1973)
- Order of Lenin, nine times (1945, 1949, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1960, 1973, 1978, 1983)
- Order of the October Revolution (1971)
- Order of the Red Banner of Labour (1945)
- Medal "For the Defence of Stalingrad" (1945)
- Medal "For the Defence of Sevastopol" (1945)
- Lenin Prize (1959)
- Stalin Prize (1942, 1949, 1951, 1953)
- Diploma of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation (1993)
- Kurchatov Medal (1968)
- Lomonosov Gold Medal (1978)
- Vavilov Gold Medal (1978)
- XXXVIII Mendeleev Reader (4 February 1982)
- Order of Sukhbaatar (Mongolia, 1982)
- Johnson's Russia List.
- Alexandrov, A. P. (1983). "Годы с Курчатовым". Nauka i Zhizn (in Russian). No. 2.
- Koptev, Y. I. (2008). Виза безопасности (in Russian). Saint Petersburg: Polytechnic University Press. p. 66.
- Regel, V. P. (1975). "Размагничивание кораблей в годы Великой Отечественной войны". Priroda (in Russian). No. 4.
- Dobbs, Michael (April 27, 1992). "CHERNOBYL'S 'SHAMELESS LIES'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
- "Academician A. P. Aleksandrov". Soviet Atomic Energy. 14 (3): 243–244. 1964. doi:10.1007/BF01118475. ISSN 0038-531X.
- "Russian Scientists – Johnson's Russia List 2-13-03". Archived from the original on 7 August 2009. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
| President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR