Anatoly Lukyanov

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Anatoly Lukyanov
Анатолий Лукьянов
Anatoliy Lukjanov foto.jpg
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union
In office
15 March 1990 – 22 August 1991
President Mikhail Gorbachev
Preceded by Mikhail Gorbachev
Succeeded by Office abolished
First Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union
In office
1 October 1988 – 15 March 1990
President Mikhail Gorbachev
Preceded by Pyotr Demichev
Succeeded by Gennady Yanayev (as vice president)
Head of the General Department of the Central Committee
In office
24 May 1985 – 17 January 1987
Preceded by Klavdii Bogolyubov
Succeeded by Valery Boldin
Candidate member of the 27th Politburo
In office
30 September 1988 – 14 July 1990
Member of the 27th Secretariat
In office
28 January 1987 – 30 September 1988
Personal details
Born (1930-05-07) 7 May 1930 (age 86)
Smolensk, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Nationality Soviet and Russian
Political party Communist Party of the Russian Federation
Other political
affiliations
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Profession Civil servant
Fragment of the interview recorded at 08.06.2012 by "Oral History Foundation"

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Anatoly Ivanovich Lukyanov (Russian: Анатолий Иванович Лукьянов) (born 7 May 1930 in Smolensk) is a Russian Communist politician who was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR between 15 March 1990 and 22 August 1991. One of the founders of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF) in 1993, he is described by its leader Gennady Zyuganov as the "Deng Xiaoping" of the party.[1] He published books of poetry under his own name and under the pseudonyms Osenev (Осенев) and Dneprov (Днепров).

Lukyanov was an early political ally of Mikhail Gorbachev, supporting his efforts in issues such as the fight against corruption and the start of reforms in the economy; however, beginning in 1987-88, he increasingly sympathized with the party establishment, correctly foreseeing that Gorbachev's policies unleashed forces that would destroy the USSR.

Biography[edit]

Lukyanov was born in Smolensk on 7 May 1930, the son of a Red Army officer who was later killed in action during World War II.[2] He graduated from the Law School of the Moscow State University in 1953, while also being a member of the Communist Youth League (Komsomol). During his years in law school, he befriended Mikhail Gorbachev, who was also studying there at the time, becoming an early political ally.[3] He went on to earn a post-graduate degree in Constitutional Law and a PhD in Public Law.

From 1956 to 1961 Lukyanov worked as a legal adviser at the Legal Commission of the Soviet Council of Ministers, and later was an adviser on legislation-drafting at the Supreme Soviet and worked on constitutional law issues at the Central Committee. He also served as a consitutional adviser to the governments of the People's Republic of Poland and the Hungarian People's Republic.

His work in these positions gave him the opportunity to acquaint himself with the governmental and party elite from a young age. He also benefited from being constantly based in Moscow, at the center of government.[4]

Lukyanov's background in constitutional law made him stand out among his generation of Soviet officials; most of his contemporaries in the Soviet leadership had studied engineering, economics or physics.

In 1975-77 he worked on drafting the 1977 Soviet Constitution, which replaced the 1936 Soviet Constitution. From 1977 till 1983 he was Chief of the Secretariat of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. He was also a leading member of the powerful Central Auditing Commission. Lukyanov was a secretary of the CPSU Central Committee from January 1987 and a candidate member of the Politburo from September 1988.[5]

Lukyanov was elected vice-chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union in March 1989, and chairman the following year.[6] In 1991, Ivan Silayev accused him of being the leading force behind the Soviet coup attempt of 1991.[7] Lukyanov was arrested on 29 August 1991, and held for fifteen months on charges of conspiracy.[8] Throughout the investigation, Lukyanov denied complicity.[9]

Lukyanov has been the Chairman of the Central Advisory Council of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, and the senior adviser to party leader Gennady Zyuganov, since co-founding the party in 1993.[10]

He is also a member of the Union of Writers of Russia.

Member of the State Duma[edit]

Lukyanov was elected as a deputy to the first three State Dumas of the Russian Federation (1993, 1995 and 1999). His last political position was as Chairman of the Duma Committee on Constitutional Law ( Председатель Комитета ГД по конституционному законодательству и государственному строительству). He did not participate in the elections of 2003 and instead became a board member of the company OEG Petroservis.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gardels, Nathan (1997). The Changing Global Order: World Leaders Reflect. Blackwell Publishing. p. 112. ISBN 1-57718-072-0. 
  2. ^ http://constitution.garant.ru/about/sovet/lukjanov/
  3. ^ The Deal Is Already Done For Gorbachev's Coup Book, The New York Times, 4 October 1991 p. 1D
  4. ^ The Deal Is Already Done For Gorbachev's Coup Book, The New York Times, 4 October 1991 p. 1D
  5. ^ A. I. Luk'ianov, V vodovorote rossiiskoi smuty (Moscow: Kniga i Biznes, 1999), 3.
  6. ^ Luk'ianov, V vodovorote rossiiskoi smuty, 3.
  7. ^ Soviet Turmoil; The Soviet Coup and Its Aftermath: A Recap, in The New York Times, 25 August 1991, p. 16
  8. ^ Russia Coup Trial Is Yielding A Maze, in The New York Times, 21 August 1992, p. 3
  9. ^ Luk'ianov, V vodovorote rossiiskoi smuty, 4.
  10. ^ Muse of Anti-Yeltsin Forces: He Is Feared, Never Ignored, in The New York Times, 2 May 1996
  11. ^ Lukyanov's page on the OEG Petroservis website (Russian)

External links[edit]