|Anatoly E. Sharpenak|
Moscow, Russian Empire
Moscow, Soviet Union
Moscow Stomatological Institute (MSI) (current name – Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry); Institute of Nutrition, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences;City Clinical Hospital named after S.P. Botkin
Anatoly Ernestovich Sharpenak (Russian: Шарпенак, Анатолий Эрнестович; 1895, Moscow, Russia – 1969, Moscow, Russia) was a Russian and Soviet biochemistry scientist; Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor. Author of one of the dental caries theories named after him.
A. E. Sharpenak was born into a family of Baltic Germans settled in Russia. In addition to Anatoly, the family had two daughters: Helen (married name - Abarbanel) and elder sister of the mother's first marriage. The family was quite wealthy. The children have graduated from a good private schools and then university. They lived in the area of German settlement - German Quarter.
In 1920 A. E. Sharpenak worked under the direction of Alexei N. Bach (ru:Бах, Алексей Николаевич) in the newly created Biochemical Institute.
In 1939, A. E. Sharpenak organized a biochemical department at the Moscow Stomatological Institute (MSI) (current name – Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry). He was the chair of this department until 1969.
While heading the department at the Moscow Stomatological Institute, he also held positions:
- From 1945 to 1969, Head of the Laboratory of Protein Metabolism Institute of Nutrition, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (now - Laboratory metabolism and energy of the Federal government agency "Scientific Research Institute of Nutrition," Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Abbreviation "Institute of Nutrition ").
- And from 1959 to 1969, Head of the Biochemical Laboratory at the City Clinical Hospital named after S.P. Botkin (Botkin Hospital).
A. E. Sharpenak died in January 1969 of complications from influenza. He was buried at the Preobrazhenskoye Cemetery in Moscow.
Sharpenak’s sister - Helen Ernestovna Abarbanel, Professor, Basman Hospital radiologist. ( - 1974 ). She was buried in the Preobrazhenskoye Cemetery in Moscow. Wife (divorced) - Emilya Danilovna Tsapenko. ( 13 January 1896, the - 1 September 1975). The surgical nurse. She was buried in the cemetery of the Gagarin Air Force Academy in Monino. Daughter - Tamara Anatolievna Tsapenko. (13 January 1922 . - 12 April 1987, the). X-ray technician. She was buried in the cemetery of the Gagarin Air Force Academy in Monino.
One of the first works of the Biochemical Institute, under the leadership of A.N. Bach in 1920, was the creation of a new method for determination of enzyme levels. Lack of accurate microscopic method, which only can work with minimal amounts of blood at the time made it impossible to systematically explore the work of enzymes in normal and pathological condition of the body. A method which was created and later has received the name of the Bach-Zubkova, allowed to work with one cubic millimeter of blood (a drop of blood, approximately, with a small pin head). At the request of the Institute ten special calorimeters were built, which are provided to hospitals for systematic studies. According to Professor Yaroslav S. Przheborovsky (Demidov Lyceum - Yaroslavl State University):
Employee of the Institute, Doctor A.E. Sharpenak, studies the work of a blood enzyme on himself, depending on the diet.— Y. S. Przheborovsky, Progress of Chemistry during World War II. Article I. Chemistry in Russia during the period from 1918 - 1921, The Red New Era (Kranaya Nov'). -1922. -N 1. -C. 301-309 http://www.ruthenia.ru/sovlit/j/196.html
While working at the Institute of Nutrition, A.E. Sharpenak, who studied protein metabolism, has contributed to the study of some indispensable amino acids and their optimum balance. Sharpenak’s long-term studies of protein metabolism have received worldwide recognition.
A.E. Sharpenak pointed out that the diet should take into account not only the total protein content, but also the content of individual amino acids. Effect of protein quality of the diet on the body depends not only on the absolute content of individual amino acids in the diet, but also on the balance between them. 
Sharpenak A.E. authored more than 150 scientific papers, including university textbooks on organic and biological chemistry. Professor A.E. Sharpenaka supervised 11 Ph.D. theses.
Sharpenak’s theory of dental caries
As head of the Department of Biochemistry at Moscow Stomatological Institute, Professor A.E. Sharpenak tackled one of the major problems of dentistry, namely, the etiology and pathogenesis of dental caries.
Throughout the 1940s, under his leadership (V.R. Bobyleva, L.A. Gorozhankina, E.V. Aleksandrova, N.P. Dzichkovskaya, N.V. Nikolaeva, I.I. Grachev) a large amount of experimental work was carried out on the etiology of dental caries.   In 1949, after numerous experiments, Professor A.E. Sharpenak proposed the theory of dental caries due to lack of income in the organs and tissues protein, B vitamins and an excess of carbohydrates.
The novelty, the validity and relevance of research findings of A.E. Sharpenak received scientific recognition and entered into the history of Russian dentistry under the name of the author - the theory of dental caries of A.E. Sherpenak.
Some works of A.E. Sharpenak.
Sharpenak A.E. Organic chemistry: a textbook for students of medical and dental institutions / ed. - 2nd, rev. and add. - M.: 1966. - 360 p.
Sharpenak A.E., Kosenko S.A. Workshop on organic chemistry textbook for medical students / - Moscow, 1965. - 171 p.
Sharpenak A.E. Prophylaxis of dental caries. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 1972 Dec;73(8):643-54. French. PMID 4514930. PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE
Sharpenak A.E., Bobyleva V.R., Gorozhankina L.A., Komnova Z.D. The role of protein and lysine in preventing dental caries. Vopr Pitan. 1971 Jul-Aug;30(4):3-7. Russian. PMID 5141599.
Sharpenak A.E. The etiology and prevention of dental caries. N Y State Dent J. 1967 Dec;33(10):592-600. PMID 5234447
Sharpenak A.E. The problem of dental caries prevention. Vopr Med Khim. 1964 Nov-Dec;10:563-75. PMID 14335702.
Sharpenak AE, Bobyleva VR, Gorozhankina LA. Role of protein, lysine, certain mineral substances and vitamins a and d in prevention of dental caries. Fed Proc Transl Suppl. 1964 Mar-Apr;23:423-6. PMID 14145693.
Sharpenak A.E., Shishova O.A., Gorozhankina L.A. Effect of ionizing radiations in animals fed food containing various levels of histidine. Med Radiol (Mosk). 1959 Jun;4(6):37-41. PMID 13673816.
Sharpenak AE. Quantitative human requirement for proteins and individual amino acids. Vopr Pitan. 1959 Jan-Feb;18(1):73-83. PMID 13648245.
Sharpenak A.E. Human requirement for individual amino acids. Vopr Pitan. 1957 Nov-Dec;16(6):9-17. PMID 13544198.
Sharpenak A.E. Material for quantitative calculation of amino acid content of proteins in nutrition in normal and pathological conditions. Vopr Pitan. 1955 Sep-Oct;14(5):48-53. PMID 13299891.
- Петровский К. С. Гигиена питания. 2-е изд. Москва. Медицина. -1975. -С. 16.(Petrovsky, K.S. Food Hygiene)
- [sno-mgmsu.narod.ru/files/53_programm.doc Островская И.Г., Жилкина О.Е. Шарпенак Анатолий Эрнестович – создатель концепции рационального питания в годы Великой Отечественной войны (1941-45 г.г.)(Zhilina, O.E. "Sharpenak - creator of the rational nutrition concept during world war II"). 20-й межвузовский симпозиум "Актуальные Проблемы Хирургии"]
- Терапевтическая стоматология. Под редакцией Е.В. Боровского. 2-е изд. -Москва. - Медицинское информационное агенство. 2004. -С.10.[permanent dead link]
- Пашков К. А. Стоматология и зубоврачевание. Выдающиеся ученые: Шарпенак Анатолий Эрнестович.
- Пашков К.А. Краткая история Московского государственного медико-стоматологического университета. Учебно-методическое пособие к семинарским занятиям по истории медицины. Mосква. - 2005.
- Вавилова Т.П., Островская И.Г. История формирования курса стоматологической биохимии. История стоматологии. 1-я Всероссийская конференция. Московский государственный медико-стоматологический университет. - 2007.
- Schatz A., Martin J.J., Schatz V. The implications of Soviet research on caries. An introduction to the work of Sharpenak. N Y State Dent J. 1967 Dec;33(10):587-91. PMID 5234446.
- Fitzpatrick, W. H. Soviet research in nutrition. Issue 4 of Monographs in Soviet medical sciences. Institute of Contemporary Russian Studies, Fordham University, 1963 Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized 30 Jul 2008. -111 pages.
- Rimington, C. The Chemistry of the Proteins and Amino Acids. Annual Review of Biochemistry. Vol. 5: 117-158 (Volume publication date July 1936). doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.05.070136.001001
- Outstanding Scientists of Russia. Sharpenak Ernestovich Anatoly (1895-1969). Stomfak.ru - Dental Information Portal. Выдающиеся ученые России. Шарпенак Анатолий Эрнестович (1895-1969). Stomfak.ru - Стоматологический информационный портал.
- History of Medicine. Encyclopedia. Physicians. Sharpenak Anatoly Ernestovich. Department of the History of Medicine, Moscow State Medical and Dental University. История медицины. Энциклопедия. Медики. Шарпенак Анатолий Эрнестович. Кафедра истории медицины Московского государственного медико-стоматологического университета.
- In memory of Anatolii Ernestovich Sharpenaka / / Nutrition. - 1969. March-28 April (2): 93. Памяти Анатолия Эрнестовича Шарпенака // Вопросы питания. - 1969. Март-Апрель 28(2):93.
- Site of Biological Chemistry Department, Moscow State Medical and Dental University. Сайт кафедры биологической химии Московский государственный медико-стоматологический университет|Московского государственного медико-стоматологического университета
- Site of the Energy Metabolism Laboratory of the Institute of Nutrition. Сайт лаборатории обмена веществ и энергии Института питания РАМН
- Site of the City Clinical Hospital named after S.P. Botkin. Сайт Городской клинической больницы имени С. П. Боткина.