Anatomical Theatre of Padua
|Anatomical Theatre of Padua|
Teatro Anatomico di Padova
|Architectural style||XVI century|
|Location||Palazzo del Bò|
|Address||Via VIII Febbraio, 2, 35122 Padova PD|
|Town or city||Padua|
|Current tenants||Università degli Studi di Padova|
|Material||Stone and wood|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Paolo Sarpi and Dario Varotari|
The Anatomical Theatre of Padua, Northern Italy, is the first permanent anatomical theatre in the World. Still preserved in the Palazzo del Bo, it was inaugurated in 1595 by Girolamo Fabrici of Acquapendente, according to the project of Paolo Sarpi and Dario Varotari. This theatre constituted the model for the anatomical theatres built during the seventeenth century in the main universities of Europe: all would have been based on the Paduan archetype. It is the emblem of a great successful period for Padua's University, and it is considered one of the most important achievements for the study of Anatomy during the sixteenth century.
The foundation: Padua and the tradition of dissections
This caption attests the foundation date, traditionally accepted for the origins of the University of Padua.
The events that led to the construction of the Theatre could be dated back to the thirteenth century, when Pietro d'Abano performed the first autopsy we have records for in Padua.
Pietro d'Abano (c.1250- c.1315), was called to Padua from Paris as a teacher of Medicine, Philosophy and Judicial astrology. His early studies in Constantinople allowed him to translate some of Galen's works from Greek to Latin: thanks to his work, the fame of the Studium spread rapidly throughout Italy.
It is worth noting that in Padua already existed a well established practice of dissection since the end of the thirteenth century. In fact, a traditional legend hands down the story of avaricious man's heart found in a basket by St. Anthony; the heart is described in a scientific way, and that shows how the direct observation of the corpses was already considered essential.
In the fifteenth century, the Padua Studium, like others, had three fundamental chairs of medicine: Theoretical medicine, Practical medicine, and Surgery. Albeit the Surgery teacher was expected to act as incisor in the anatomical demonstrations, only in the late sixteenth century he was formally charged with the teaching of Anatomy.
The first European public dissection
Moritz Roth, the great Vesalius Scholar, observes:
"If we think that the first dissection undertaken in Vienna was carried out by a professor from Padua, we have the impression that in the fifteenth century Padua at least reached the level of Bologna, if not actually overtaking it."
Alessandro Benedetti and his temporary theatre
The turning point would have happened thanks to the contribution of Alessandro Benedetti, an Italian anatomist: in 1514, Anatomice sive historia corporis humani, the main of his works, was reprinted in Paris. This allowed the spread of his directives for the construction and the organization of a temporary wooden anatomical theatre, which Benedetti himself used and supported. According to him, anatomy should have been able to make medicine a more evincible science. In fact, direct observation was becoming even more important than theoretical studies.
From Vesalius to the Anatomical theatre
In this stimulating atmosphere Andreas Vesalius, a Flemish anatomist, came to Padua (1537–38) and wrote De humani corporis fabrica libri septem, in which he introduced the demonstrative method in Medicine. This implied an active involvement in studying anatomy, now based on the direct observation and verification of theories: henceforward, it became a habit for students not only to read books, but also to approach the subjects physically.
Since the late 1530s, when Vesalius got the chair of Surgery, dissections were carried out on corpses of dead criminals, but also on monkeys and dogs, in a temporary wooden anatomical theatre. Moreover, Vesalius published his first Tabulae anatomicae, drawn together with a scholar of Titian. In this way, the De humani corporis fabrica, already mentioned, became a real piece of art, in which text was enriched with detailed depictions of dissected bodies. According to the ancient tradition just described, it seems almost natural that the first permanent anatomical theatre was built in Padua.
It is also important to point out that its construction is linked to Fabrici d'Acquapendente, an Italian physiologist, who held the chair of surgery and anatomy in the Padua Studium for fifty years. Fabrici in fact, in continuity with his predecessors, such as Benedetti and Vesalius, strongly supported the practical approach to anatomy as a means of effectiveness in the study of the subject.
Architecture and main renovations
The architecture of the theatre reminds a funnel: it is an inverted cone inserted in a cylinder, arranged in steps to welcome the students.
In 1739, Charles de Brosses observed that the theatre
"was built as a well, where up to five hundred students could seat to attend the lesson."
This idea of a well, probably too tight, was taken again in 1827, when in different archival documents it was suggested that lessons for Medicine's student and Surgery's ones should have been separated.
In origin, the theatre was built on two overlapping floors, and the entrance was on the first one, which was an open gallery. In 1822, the first intervention involved the building of a new room and the endowment of a new equipment. In the same period, renovations concerned also the construction of a different roof with a five-meters skylight, in order to adapt the room to daylight. In fact, previously the theatre was not enlightened by the eight windows on the walls, because of the numerous flights of stairs that obscured the sunlight.
Furthermore, in 1841 the president of University required an improvement in the corpses' storage: within a year, it was transformed in a wooden terrace, used to put bones. In the following years, professor Francesco Cortese hinted small changes, such as floor rise, whitening of the railings and installation of a new desk, provided with a simple raising mechanism.
In 1845, fundamental details remained to fix: they essentially related to the ventilation, a problem clearly linked to the presence of corpses, the smell of which made the air unbreathable. Speaking of this, the University president wrote also about the temperature situation: "sunbeams heats the theatre, so as to make it impossible to stay". Due to wind, "the roof let the rain fall abundantly". Finally, February 13, 1848 was the official date of the end of the works.
However, on 1872, the theatre lost its function because the medical school was transferred to St. Mattia's former convent. In this situation, the theatre changed also part of its aspect: for example, the roof was demolished for security reasons and rebuilt without the skylight, which now is no longer useful for lessons.
The survival in last century
Since the beginning of last century, the problem linked to a possible reorganization of the theatre was very much present in the academic debate. Different projects were proposed, but the current arrangement has been realized by works of the architect Fagiuoli and the engineer Ronca. Moreover, it is important to underline that the architect Giò Ponti has the merit of restructuring of interior spaces, thus giving the present appearance to the building.
Finally, it is worth noting that nowadays the theatre keep its original funnel shape, with reference to its real function.
Value and Symbolism
It is known that dissections were carried out by professors in their private houses or in the ones of their students until the eighteenth century, even after the introduction of anatomical theatres. This shows that the increase of students more than the necessity of cutting-edge equipment lead to the construction of the theatre.
Anatomy's lessons were a matter of pride for the University. The possibility to observe and have experience of a real dissection made the students elated. They could not take notes but only learn by watching. The typical funnel shape had the function to use practical experience as a mean to discover man. In fact, it seems that its shape projects the students' look towards the deepest aspects of human anatomy. Moreover, it is interesting that in the theatre the ones who held the chair were bound to be below the students, working near them, and not on a desk impending over them.
Furthermore, anatomy's lessons were the only practice ones in the study of Medicine, and the theatre made them look like a real ceremony. The theatre is also linked to the number seven. Its rings, seven in number, could be reattached to the seven skies of Empireum, or the seven pits of Hell of Dante's Comedy.
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