Anaximenes of Miletus
|Anaximenes of Miletus|
Anaximenes of Miletus
|Born||c. 585 BC|
|Died||c. 528 BC|
|School||Ionian/Milesian school, Naturalism|
|Air is the arche|
Anaximenes of Miletus (//; Greek: Ἀναξιμένης; c. 585 – c. 528 BCE) was an Ancient Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher active in the latter half of the 6th century BC. One of the three Milesian philosophers, he is identified as a younger friend or student of Anaximander. Anaximenes, like others in his school of thought, practiced material monism. This tendency to identify one specific underlying reality made up of a material thing is what Anaximenes is principally known for today.
Anaximenes and the Arche
While his predecessors Thales and Anaximander proposed that the archai (singular: arche, meaning the underlying material of the world) were water and the ambiguous substance apeiron, respectively, Anaximenes asserted that air was this primary substance of which all other things are made (it should be noted that Anaximenes' idea of air, or aer, is more like a dense mist that what we think of as air, which is ideally transparent). The choice of air may seem arbitrary, but Anaximenes based his conclusion on naturally observable phenomena in the processes of rarefaction and condensation. When air condenses it becomes visible, as mist and then rain and other forms of precipitation. As the condensed air cools Anaximenes supposed that it went on to form earth and ultimately stones. In contrast, water evaporates into air, which ignites and produces flame when further rarefied. While other philosophers also recognized such transitions in states of matter, Anaximenes was the first to associate the quality pairs hot/dry and cold/wet with the density of a single material and add a quantitative dimension to the Milesian monistic system.
The origin of the Cosmos
Having concluded that everything in the world is composed of air, Anaximenes used his theory to devise a scheme that explains the origins and nature of the earth and the surrounding celestial bodies. Air felted to create the flat disk of the earth, which he said was table-like and behaved like a leaf floating on air. In keeping with the prevailing view of celestial bodies as balls of fire in the sky, Anaximenes proposed that the earth let out an exhalation of air that rarefied, ignited and became the stars. While the sun is similarly described as being aflame, it is not composed of rarefied air like the stars, but rather of earth like the moon; its burning comes not from its composition but rather from its rapid motion. Similarly, he considered the moon and sun to be flat and floating on streams of air. In his theory, when the sun sets it does not pass under the earth, but is merely obscured by higher parts of the earth as it circles around and becomes more distant. Anaximenes likens the motion of the sun and the other celestial bodies around the earth to the way that a cap may be turned around the head.
Anaximenes used his observations and reasoning to provide causes for other natural phenomena on the earth as well. Earthquakes, he asserted, were the result either of lack of moisture, which causes the earth to break apart because of how parched it is, or of superabundance of water, which also causes cracks in the earth. In either case the earth becomes weakened by its cracks, so that hills collapse and cause earthquakes. Lightning is similarly caused by the violent separation of clouds by the wind, creating a bright, fire-like flash. Rainbows, on the other hand, are formed when densely compressed air is touched by the rays of the sun. These examples show how Anaximenes, like the other Milesian philosophers, looked for the broader picture in nature. They sought unifying causes for diversely occurring events, rather than treating each one on a case-by-case basis, or attributing them to gods or to a personified nature.
- Lindberg, David C. “The Greeks and the Cosmos.” The Beginnings of Western Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. 28.
- Graham, Daniel W. "Anaximenes". The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 29.10.2009 .
- Kirk, G.S., J.E. Raven, and M. Schofield. "Anaximenes of Miletus." The Presocratic Philosophers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. 143.
- Guthrie, W.K.C. "The Milesians: Anaximenes." A History of Greek Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962. 115.
- Lindberg, David C. "The Greeks and the Cosmos." The Beginnings of Western Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. 29.
- Guthrie, W.K.C. "The Milesians: Anaximenes." A History of Greek Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962. 116.
- Guthrie, W.K.C. "The Milesians: Anaximenes." A History of Greek Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962. 124-126.
- Kirk, G.S., J.E. Raven, and M. Schofield. "Anaximenes of Miletus." The Presocratic Philosophers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. 146.
- Kirk, G.S., J.E. Raven, and M. Schofield. "Anaximenes of Miletus." The Presocratic Philosophers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. 152-153.
- Fairbanks, Arthur. "Anaximenes". The First Philosophers of Greece. K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1898. 20.
- Fairbanks, Arthur. "Anaximenes". The First Philosophers of Greece. K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1898. 18;20-21.
- Barnes, Jonathan (1982). The Presocratic Philosophers. London: Routledge.
- Burnet, John (1920). Early Greek Philosophy (3rd ed.). London: Black.
- Freeman, Kathleen (1978). Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-03500-3.
- Guthrie, W.K.C. (1962). The Earlier Presocratics and the Pythagoreans. A History of Greek Philosophy 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Hurwit, Jeffrey M. (1985). The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100-480 BC. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
- Kirk, G.S.; Raven, J.E. (1983). The Presocratic Philosophers (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Luchte, James (2011). Early Greek Thought: Before the Dawn. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-0567353313.
- Sandywell, Barry (1996). Presocratic Reflexivity: The Construction of Philosophical Discourse, c. 600-450 BC 3. London: Routledge.
- Stokes, M. C. (1971). The One and Many in Presocratic Philosophy. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies with Harvard University Press.
- Sweeney, Leo (1972). Infinity in the Presocratics: A Bibliographical and Philosophical Study. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
- Taran, L. (1970). "Anaximenes of Miletus". Dictionary of Scientific Biography 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 151–152. ISBN 0-684-10114-9.
- Wright, M.R. (1995). Cosmology in Antiquity. London: Routledge.
- Media related to Anaximenes at Wikimedia Commons
- Works written by or about Anaximenes at Wikisource
- Anaximenes at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Laërtius, Diogenes (1925). "Socrates, with predecessors and followers: Anaximenes". Lives of the Eminent Philosophers 1:2. Translated by Hicks, Robert Drew (Two volume ed.). Loeb Classical Library.
- Anaximenes Fragments