Ancestry charts of the current British royal family (Saxon and Scottish descent)

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All people are descended via various racial or ethnic lines of the antiquity, but in case of most, records do not exist. The British Royal Family is one of the few families, for whom ancestry can be traced to many notable lineages of the antiquity. They can be traced from Saxon, Scottish (Stuart dynasty), Welsh (Tudor dynasty), Irish, German (Hanover and Windsor), French (Norman and Plantagenet Angevin dynasties), Russian, Frank and perhaps even Byzantine lineages.

Saxon and Scottish descent[edit]

Saxon and Scottish descent (detailed)

The earliest Saxon-cum-Scottish connections were through Matilda of Scotland, whose father was a Scottish king and mother, a Saxon princess. (However, the earliest Saxon connection was through her mother-in-law, Matilda of Flanders, who had descended from Ælfthryth of Wessex, daughter of the Saxon king Alfred the Great.) The general descent through this connection, of the current British royal family, is shown below. Various special descents of members shown in this chart are discussed later.

 Alfred the Great, King of Wessex (849 - 899)  Ealhswith (c. 852 - 905)
 Edward the Elder, King of Wessex (c. 874 - 924)  Eadgifu of Kent (d. 966)    Ælfthryth of Wessex (877 - 929)  Baldwin II, Count of Flanders (c. 865 - 918)
 Edmund I of England (922 - 946)  Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury (d. 944)    Arnulf I, Count of Flanders (c. 890 - 965)  Adela of Vermandois (910 - 960)
 Edgar I, the Peaceful (c. 943 - c. 975)  Ælfthryth (945-1000)    Baldwin III, Count of Flanders (940 - 962)  Mathilde Billung of Saxony (d. 1008)
 Æthelred II, the Unready (c. 968-1016)  Ælfgifu of York (d. c. 1002)    Arnulf II, Count of Flanders (960 - 987)  Rozala of Lombardy (c. 937 - 1003)
 Edmund II, Ironside (c. 988-1016)  Ealdgyth (floruit 1015–1016)    Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders (980 - 1035)  Ogive of Luxembourg (986 - 1030)
 Edward the Exile (1016–1057)  Agatha (before 1030 – after 1070)    Baldwin V, Count of Flanders (1012–1067)  Adèle of France (1009–1079)
 Margaret of Wessex (c. 1045–1093)  Malcolm III of Scots (1031–1093)    Matilda of Flanders (c. 1031 - 1083)  William the Conqueror (c. 1028 - 1087)
 Edith (renamed Matilda) (c. 1080-1118)  Henry I of England (c. 1068-1135)    David I of Scots (1083–1153)  Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon (c. 1074-1131)
 Matilda (c. 1102-1167)  Geoffrey V Plantagenêt, Count of Anjou (1113–1151)    Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Northumberland and 3rd Earl of the Honour of Huntingdon and Northampton (1114–1152)  Ada de Warenne (c. 1120-1178)
 Henry II of England (1133–1189)  Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122–1204)    David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon (c. 1144-1219)  Matilda de Kevelioc of Chester (1171–1233)
 John, King of England (1166–1216)  Isabella, Countess of Angoulême (c. 1188-1246)    Isobel of Huntingdon (1199–1251)  Robert de Brus, 4th Lord of Annandale (c. 1195-1233)
 Henry III (1207–1272)  Eleanor of Provence (c. 1223-1291)    Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale (c. 1210-1295)  Isabella de Clare (1226–1264)
 Edward I (1239–1307)  Eleanor of Castile (1241–1290)    Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale (1243–1304)  Marjorie, 3rd Countess of Carrick (c. 1253-1292)
 Edward II (1284–1327)  Isabella of France (1295–1358)    Robert I of Scots (1274–1329)  Isabella of Mar (c. 1277-1296)
 Edward III (1312–1377)  Philippa of Hainault (1314–1369)    Marjorie Bruce (1296–1316)  Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland (c. 1296-1327)
 John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (Lord of Château de Beaufort) (1340–1399)  Katherine Swynford (1350–1403)    Robert II (1316–1390)  Elizabeth Mure (d. bef. 1355)
 John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (1373–1410)  Margaret Holland (1385–1439)    Robert III (c. 1337-1406)  Anabella Drummond (c. 1350-1401)
 John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset (1403–1444)  Margaret Beauchamp of Bletso (1405–1482)    Joan Beaufort (c. 1404-1445)  James I (1394–1437)
 Margaret Beaufort (1441–1509)  Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (1430–1456)    James II of Scotland (1430–1460)  Mary of Guelders (c. 1434-1463)
 Henry VII of England (1457–1509)  Elizabeth of York (1466–1503)    James III of Scotland (1451–1488)  Margaret of Denmark (1456–1486)
 Margaret Tudor (1489–1541)  James IV of Scotland (1473–1513)
 James V of Scotland (1512–1542)  Mary of Guise (1515–1560)
 Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–1587)  Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, 1st Duke of Albany (1545–1567)
 James I of England (1566–1625)  Anne of Denmark (1574–1619)
 Elizabeth of Bohemia (1596–1662)  Frederick V, Elector Palatine (Frederick I of Bohemia) (1596–1632)
 Sophia of Hanover (1630–1714)  Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) (1629–1698)  Clara Elisabeth von Meysenburg, Countess of Platen-Hallermund (1648–1700)
 George I of Great Britain (1660–1727)  Sophia Dorothea of Celle (1666–1726)    Sophia Charlotte von Platen und Hallermund, Countess of Darlington and Leinster (1675–1725)  Johann Adolf, Baron von Kielmansegg (1668–1717)
 George II (1683–1760)  Caroline of Ansbach (1683–1737)    Charlotte von Kielmansegg (1703–1782)  Emanuel Howe, 2nd Viscount Howe (1700–1735)
 Frederick, Prince of Wales (1707–1751)  Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (1719–1772)    Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe (1726–1799)  Mary Hartop
 George III (1738–1820)  Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744–1818)    Sophia Charlotte, Baroness Howe (1762–1835)  Penn Assheton Curzon
 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820)  Princess Marie Luise Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1786–1861)    Richard Curzon-Howe, 1st Earl Howe (1796–1870)  Anne Gore
 Queen Victoria (1819–1901)  Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1819–1861)    Maria Curzon-Howe (1848–1929)  James Hamilton, 2nd Duke of Abercorn (1838–1913)
 Edward VII (1841–1910)  Alexandra of Denmark (1844–1925)    Princess Alice of the United Kingdom (1843–1878)  Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse (1837–1892)    James Hamilton, 3rd Duke of Abercorn (1869–1953)  Rosalind Bingham (1869–1958)
 George V (1865–1936)  Mary of Teck (1867–1953)    Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine (1863–1950)  Prince Louis of Battenberg (Louis Mountbatten, 1st Marquess of Milford Haven) (1854–1921)    Cynthia Hamilton (1897–1972)  Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer (1892–1975)
 George VI (1895–1952)  Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (1900–2002)    Alice of Battenberg (1885–1969)  Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark (1882–1944)    John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer (1924–1992)  Frances Ruth Roche (1936–2004)
 Elizabeth II (born 1926)  Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh (born 1921)          
 Charles, Prince of Wales (born 1948)  Diana Spencer (1961–1997)
 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge (born 1982)  Catherine Middleton (b. 1982)    Prince Harry (born 1984)
  • Note: Biologically, the senior line of descent from Edward III was through the Clarence-March line (shown below under Ancestry of Diana Spencer and Catherine Middleton). The general descent shown above uses the Lancaster-Somerset line because King Henry VII claimed the throne by right of conquest and got crowned before his marriage.
  • The above chart is not exhaustive for Saxon descent. It can be shown in other ways too. For example, the Byzantine descent shown later through Irene Angelina is also valid for Saxon descent through her husband Philip of Swabia. His Saxon descent is as under:
 Alfred the Great  Ealhswith
 Edward the Elder  Ælfflæd
 Eadgifu of Wessex  Charles the Simple    Eadgyth  Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
 Louis IV of France  Gerberga of Saxony    Liutgarde  Conrad, Duke of Lorraine
 Matilda of France  Conrad I of Burgundy    Otto I, Duke of Carinthia  Judith
 Gerberga of Burgundy  Herman II, Duke of Swabia    Henry of Speyer  Adelaide of Alsace
 Gisela of Swabia  Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor
 Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor  Agnes of Poitou
 Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor  Bertha of Savoy
 Agnes of Germany  Frederick I, Duke of Swabia
 Frederick II, Duke of Swabia  Judith of Bavaria, Duchess of Swabia
 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor  Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy
 Philip of Swabia