|Preceded by Prehistory|
|Ancient Near East|
|Followed by the Postclassical Era|
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Postclassical Era. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC.
The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to history in the Old World from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC (First Olympiad). This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece. Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD (the most used), the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD, the coming of Islam or the rise of Charlemagne as the end of ancient and Classical European history.
- 1 Study
- 2 Chronology
- 3 Prominent civilizations
- 3.1 Comparative timeline
- 3.2 Comparison table
- 3.3 Historical ages
- 3.4 Southwest Asia (Near East)
- 3.5 Africa
- 3.6 South Asia
- 3.7 East Asia
- 3.8 Americas
- 3.9 Europe
- 4 Developments
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Historians have two major avenues which they take to better understand the ancient world: archaeology and the study of source texts. Primary sources are those sources closest to the origin of the information or idea under study. Primary sources have been distinguished from secondary sources, which often cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources.
Reasons that an area undergoes an archaeological field survey.
Archaeology is the excavation and study of artefacts in an effort to interpret and reconstruct past human behavior. Archaeologists excavate the ruins of ancient cities looking for clues as to how the people of the time period lived. Some important discoveries by archaeologists studying ancient history include:
- The Egyptian pyramids: giant tombs built by the ancient Egyptians beginning about 2600 BC as the final resting places of their royalty.
- The study of the ancient cities of Harappa (Pakistan), Mohenjo-daro (Pakistan), and Lothal in India (South Asia).
- The city of Pompeii: an ancient Roman city preserved by the eruption of a volcano in AD 79. Its state of preservation is so great that it is a valuable window into Roman culture and provided insight into the cultures of the Etruscans and the Samnites.
- The Terracotta Army: the mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor in ancient China.
- The discovery of Knossos by Minos Kalokairinos and Sir Arthur Evans.
- The discovery of Troy by Heinrich Schliemann.
Most of what is known of the ancient world comes from the accounts of antiquity's own historians. Although it is important to take into account the bias of each ancient author, their accounts are the basis for our understanding of the ancient past. Some of the more notable ancient writers include Herodotus, Thucydides, Arrian, Plutarch, Polybius, Sima Qian, Sallust, Livy, Josephus, Suetonius, and Tacitus.
A fundamental difficulty of studying ancient history is that recorded histories cannot document the entirety of human events, and only a fraction of those documents have survived into the present day. Furthermore, the reliability of the information obtained from these surviving records must be considered. Few people were capable of writing histories, as literacy was not widespread in almost any culture until long after the end of ancient history.
The earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, beginning with Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484–c. 425 BC). Thucydides largely eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta, establishing a rationalistic element which set a precedent for subsequent Western historical writings. He was also the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event.
The Roman Empire was one of the ancient world's most literate cultures, but many works by its most widely read historians are lost. For example, Livy, a Roman historian who lived in the 1st century BC, wrote a history of Rome called Ab Urbe Condita (From the Founding of the City) in 144 volumes; only 35 volumes still exist, although short summaries of most of the rest do exist. Indeed, only a minority of the work of any major Roman historian has survived.
Prehistory is the period before written history. The early human migrations in the Lower Paleolithic saw Homo erectus spread across Eurasia 1.8 million years ago. The controlled use of fire occurred 800 thousand years ago in the Middle Paleolithic. 250 thousand years ago, Homo sapiens (modern humans) emerged in Africa. 60–70 thousand years ago, Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa along a coastal route to South and Southeast Asia and reached Australia. 50 thousand years ago, modern humans spread from Asia to the Near East. Europe was first reached by modern humans 40 thousand years ago. Humans migrated to the Americas about 15 thousand years ago in the Upper Paleolithic,
The 10th millennium BC is the earliest given date for the invention of agriculture and the beginning of the ancient era. Göbekli Tepe was erected by hunter-gatherers in the 10th millennium BC (c. 11,500 years ago), before the advent of sedentism. Together with Nevalı Çori, it has revolutionized understanding of the Eurasian Neolithic. In the 7th millennium BC, Jiahu culture began in China. By the 5th millennium BC, the late Neolithic civilizations saw the invention of the wheel and the spread of proto-writing. In the 4th millennium BC, the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the Ukraine-Moldova-Romania region develops. By 3400 BC, "proto-literate" cuneiform is spread in the Middle East. The 30th century BC, referred to as the Early Bronze Age II, saw the beginning of the literate period in Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. Around the 27th century BC, the Old Kingdom of Egypt and the First Dynasty of Uruk are founded, according to the earliest reliable regnal eras.
Timeline of ancient history
Middle to Late Bronze Age
The First Intermediate Period of Egypt of the 22nd century BC was followed by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt between the 21st to 17th centuries BC. The Sumerian Renaissance also developed c. the 21st century BC in Ur. Around the 18th century BC, the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt began.
By 1600 BC, Mycenaean Greece developed. The beginning of the Shang Dynasty emerged in China in this period, and there was evidence of a fully developed Chinese writing system. The beginning of Hittite dominance of the Eastern Mediterranean region is also seen in the 1600s BC. The time from the 16th to the 11th centuries BC around the Nile is called the New Kingdom of Egypt. Between 1550 BC and 1292 BC, the Amarna Period developed in Egypt.
Early Iron Age
The Iron Age is the last principal period in the three-age system, preceded by the Bronze Age. Its date and context vary depending on the country or geographical region.
During the 13th to 12th centuries BC, the Ramesside Period occurred in Egypt. Around 1200 BC, the Trojan War was thought to have taken place. By around 1180 BC, the disintegration of the Hittite Empire was under way.
In 1000 BC, the Mannaean Kingdom began in Western Asia. Around the 10th to 7th centuries BC, the Neo-Assyrian Empire developed in Mesopotamia. In 800 BC, the rise of Greek city-states began. In 776 BC, the first recorded Olympic Games were held.
Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered around the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (9th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD), ending in the dissolution of classical culture with the close of Late Antiquity.
Such a wide sampling of history and territory covers many rather disparate cultures and periods. "Classical antiquity" typically refers to an idealized vision of later people, of what was, in Edgar Allan Poe's words, "the glory that was Greece, the grandeur that was Rome!" In the 18th and 19th centuries AD, reverence for classical antiquity was much greater in Europe and the United States than it is today. Respect for the ancients of Greece and Rome affected politics, philosophy, sculpture, literature, theatre, education, and even architecture and sexuality.
In politics, the presence of a Roman Emperor was felt to be desirable long after the empire fell. This tendency reached its peak when Charlemagne was crowned "Roman Emperor" in the year 800, an act which led to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire. The notion that an emperor is a monarch who outranks a mere king dates from this period. In this political ideal, there would always be a Roman Empire, a state whose jurisdiction extended to the entire civilized world.
Epic poetry in Latin continued to be written and circulated well into the 19th century. John Milton and even Arthur Rimbaud received their first poetic educations in Latin. Genres like epic poetry, pastoral verse, and the endless use of characters and themes from Greek mythology left a deep mark on Western literature.
In architecture, there have been several Greek Revivals, (though while apparently more inspired in retrospect by Roman architecture than Greek). Still, one needs only to look at Washington, DC to see a city filled with large marble buildings with façades made out to look like Roman temples, with columns constructed in the classical orders of architecture.
In philosophy, the efforts of St Thomas Aquinas were derived largely from the thought of Aristotle, despite the intervening change in religion from paganism to Christianity. Greek and Roman authorities such as Hippocrates and Galen formed the foundation of the practice of medicine even longer than Greek thought prevailed in philosophy. In the French theatre, tragedians such as Molière and Racine wrote plays on mythological or classical historical subjects and subjected them to the strict rules of the classical unities derived from Aristotle's Poetics. The desire to dance like a latter-day vision of how the ancient Greeks did it moved Isadora Duncan to create her brand of ballet. The Renaissance was partly caused by the rediscovery of classic antiquity.
Early classical ancient history
- 776 BC: First Olympic Games, generally considered the beginning of Classical Antiquity.
- 753 BC: Founding of Rome (traditional date)
- 752 BC: Piye (once transliterated as Piankhi; d. 721 BC) was a Kushite king who conquered Egypt and founded the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt
- 745 BC: Tiglath-Pileser III becomes the new king of Assyria. With time he conquers neighboring countries and turns Assyria into an empire
- 722 BC: Spring and Autumn period begins in China; Zhou Dynasty's power is diminishing; the era of the Hundred Schools of Thought
- c. 750 BC: Breach of the Marib Dam in Arabia Felix. Three new dams were built by the Sabaeans.
- c.615 BC: Rise of the Median Empire.
- 612 BC: Attributed date of the destruction of Nineveh and subsequent fall of Assyria.
- 600 BC: Sixteen Maha Janapadas ("Great Realms" or "Great Kingdoms") emerge. A number of these Maha Janapadas are semi-democratic republics.
- c. 600 BC: Pandyan kingdom in South India
- 599 BC: Mahavira, founder of Jainism is born as a prince at Kundalavana, who ruled Magadha Empire.
- 563 BC: Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha), founder of Buddhism is born as a prince of the Shakya tribe, which ruled parts of Magadha, one of the Maha Janapadas
- 551 BC: Confucius, founder of Confucianism, is born
- 550 BC: The Achaemenid Empire is founded by Cyrus the Great
- 546 BC: Cyrus the Great overthrows Croesus King of Lydia
- 544 BC: Rise of Magadha as the dominant power under Bimbisara.
- 539 BC: The Fall of the Babylonian Empire and liberation of the Jews by Cyrus the Great
- 529 BC: Death of Cyrus the Great
- 525 BC: Cambyses II of Persia conquers Egypt
- c. 512 BC: Darius I (Darius the Great) of Persia, subjugates eastern Thrace, Macedonia submits voluntarily, and annexes Libya, Persian Empire at largest extent
- 509 BC: Expulsion of the last King of Rome, founding of Roman Republic (traditional date)
- 508 BC: Democracy instituted by Cleisthenes at Athens
- c. 500 BC: Panini standardizes the grammar and morphology of Sanskrit in the text Ashtadhyayi. Panini's standardized Sanskrit is known as Classical Sanskrit.
- 500 BC: Pingala develops system ranks of binary patterns.
- 490 BC: Greek city-states defeat Persian invasion at Battle of Marathon
- 480-479 BC: Greek city states decisively defeat the Persians at the Battle of Salamis and the Battle of Plataea, ending once and for all the Persian threat to Greece.
- 480 BC King Leonidas of Sparta died 10 August
- 475 BC: Warring States period begins in China as the Zhou king became a mere figurehead; China is annexed by regional warlords.
- c. 469 BC: Birth of Socrates
- 465 BC: Murder of Xerxes I of Persia
- 460 BC: First Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta
- 449 BC: End of the Greco-Persian Wars. Macedonia, Thrace and Ionia gain independence from Achaemenid Persia.
- 447 BC: Building of the Parthenon at Athens started
- 424 BC: Nanda dynasty comes to power.
- 404 BC: End of Peloponnesian War between the Greek city-states
- 399 BC: February 15—The Greek philosopher Socrates is sentenced to death by Athenian authorities in Athens, condemned for impiety and the corruption of youth. He refuses to flee into exile and is sentenced to death by drinking hemlock.
- c. 385 BC: The Greek philosopher Plato, a former disciple of Socrates, founds a philosophical school at the Akademia, from land purchased from Akademus, in Athens – later famously known as the Academy. There, Plato, and the later heads of the school, called scholarchs, taught many of the brilliant minds of the day, including the famous Greek philosopher Aristotle
- 335 BC: The Greek philosopher Aristotle founds his philosophical school – known then as the Lyceum (named because it was located near the site of the Lyceum gymnasium in Athens) – and begins teaching there.
- 331 BC: Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela
- 326 BC: Alexander the Great defeats Indian king Porus in the Battle of the Hydaspes River.
- 323 BC: Death of Alexander the Great at Babylon
- 321 BC: Chandragupta Maurya overthrows the Nanda Dynasty of Magadha.
- 307 BC: The Greek philosopher Epicurus founds his philosophical school, the Garden of Epicurus, outside the walls of Athens.
- 305 BC: Chandragupta Maurya seizes the satrapies of Paropanisadai (Kabul), Aria (Herat), Arachosia (Qanadahar) and Gedrosia (Baluchistan) from Seleucus I Nicator, the Macedonian satrap of Babylonia, in return for 500 elephants.
- c. 302 BC: Pandyan dynasty, Chola dynasty, and Chera dynasty rule separate areas in South India
- 294 BC: Zeno of Citium founds the philosophy of Stoicism in Athens (the philosophy derives its namesake from the fact that Zeno and his followers would regularly meet near the Stoa Poikile ("Painted Porch") of the Athenian agora.)
- c. 252 BC: Ashoka the Great becomes the emperor of the Mauryan Empire
- c. 252 BC: Thục Dynasty takes over Việt Nam (then Kingdom of Âu Lạc)
- c. 249 BC: Rise of Parthia (Ashkâniân), the third native dynasty of ancient Persia
- c. 233 BC: Death of Emperor Ashoka the Great; Decline of the Mauryan Empire
- 221 BC: Construction of the Great Wall begins.
- c. 220 BC: Qin Shi Huang, ruler of the Qin Dynasty, unifies China (end of Warring States period)
- c. 220 BC: Simuka, founder of the Satavahanas dynasty, rules area in South India
- 209 BC: Kingdom of Nan Yueh is established by Tch'ao T'o (Trieu Dynasty)
- 208 BC: The Xiongnu replaces the Mongolic Donghu as the dominant tribe of the Mongolian steppe and then five years later defeats the Yuezhi in Gansu, making a cup out of the skull of their leader.
- c. 206 BC: Lew Pang is proclaimed emperor (Kaou-te) and the Han Dynasty is established.
- 202 BC: Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal at Battle of Zama
- 189 BC: Artaxiad Dynasty in Armenia is founded
- c. 184 BC: Shunga Empire founded.
- 149 BC–146: Third and final Punic War; destruction of Carthage by Rome
- 146 BC: Corinth in Greece was destroyed by Rome and Roman authority became supreme throughout Greece.
- 140 BC: The first system of imperial examinations was officially instituted in China by the Han Dynasty emperor Han Wu Di.
- c. 127 BC: Chang-Kien finds the western lands of civilisation and trading opens on routes of the Silk Road.
- 111 BC: The Nam Viet Kingdom (Triệu Dynasty) is destroyed by the first Chinese domination of Viet Nam.
- 95-55 BC: Tigranes the Great reigns in Armenian empire.
- 53 BC: Led by General Surena, the Parthians decisively defeat a Roman invasion at the Battle of Carrhae
- 49 BC: Conflict between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great lead to the Roman Civil War.
Mid-classical ancient history
- 44 BC: Julius Caesar murdered by Marcus Brutus and others; the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire.
- 27 BC: Octavian is proclaimed princeps (emperor) by the Roman Senate and adopts the title Augustus (lit. "the august one").
- 6 BC: Earliest estimated date for birth of Jesus of Nazareth
- 5 BC: Birth of Jesus Christ (Ussher chronology)
- 9: Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, the Imperial Roman Army's bloodiest defeat.
- 14: Death of Emperor Augustus (Octavian), ascension of his adopted son Tiberius to the throne
- 29: Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
- 69: Year of the four emperors in Rome
- 70: Destruction of Jerusalem by the armies of Titus.
- 3rd century: The Buddhist Srivijaya Empire established in the Malay Archipelago.
- 220: Three Kingdoms period begins in China after the fall of Han Dynasty.
- 226: Fall of the Parthian Empire and Rise of the Sassanian Empire
- 238: Defeat of Gordian III (238–244), Philip the Arab (244–249), and Valerian (253–260), by Shapur I of Persia, and Valerian is captured
- 280: Emperor Wu established Jin Dynasty providing a temporary unity of China after the devastating Three Kingdoms period.
Late classical ancient history
- 313: Edict of Milan legalized Christianity throughout the Roman Empire, and thus ended the previous state-sanctioned persecution of Christians there
- 335: Samudragupta becomes the emperor of the Gupta empire
- 378: Battle of Adrianople, Roman army under Eastern Roman Emperor Valens is defeated by the Germanic tribes
- 395: Roman Emperor Theodosius I outlaws all pagan religions in favour of Christianity
- 410: Alaric I sacks Rome for the first time since 390 BC
- c. 455: Skandagupta repels an Indo-Hephthalite attack on India.
- 476: Romulus Augustus, last Western Roman Emperor is forced to abdicate by Odoacer, a half Hunnish and half Scirian chieftain of the Germanic Heruli; Odoacer returns the imperial regalia to Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno in Constantinople in return for the title of dux of Italy; traditionally, the most frequently cited date for the end of the Roman Empire (although the Eastern Roman Empire, based in Constantinople, would still continue to exist until 1453)
- 529 The Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I ordered the prominent philosophical schools of antiquity throughout the Eastern Roman Empire (including the famous Academy in Athens, among others) to close down—allegedly, because Justinian frowned upon the pagan nature of these schools
Classical ancient history end
- 293: reforms of Roman Emperor Diocletian
- 395: the division of Roman Empire into the Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire
- 476: the fall of Western Roman Empire
- 529: closure of Platonic Academy in Athens by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I
- 610: the rise of Islam
The beginning of the post-classical age (known generally as the Middle Ages) is a period in the history of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from AD 500 to 1000. Aspects of continuity with the earlier classical period are discussed in greater detail under the heading "Late Antiquity". Late Antiquity is the transitional centuries from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world: generally from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the 3rd century (c. 284) to the Islamic conquests and the re-organization of the Byzantine Empire under Heraclius.
|Mesopotamian||3300 – 750 BC||Sumer, Babylonia, Assyric Highlands||Cuneiform||Polytheistic|
|Ancient India||3000 – 500 BC||South Asia||Pictographic||Hinduism|
|Egyptian||3000 – 30 BC||North Eastern Africa along River Nile||Hieroglyphic||Polytheistic|
|Nubian||3000 – 350 BC||North Eastern Africa along River Nile||Hieroglyphic||Polytheistic|
|Mayan||2000 BC – 1200 AD||Mexico, Central America||Hieroglyphic||Polytheistic|
|Chinese||2100 BC – 1 AD||China||Chinese||Polytheistic|
|Persian||730 BC||Greater Persia||Cuneiform, Pahlavi||Zoroastrianism|
|Greek||2700 BC - 1500 BC (Cycladic and Minoan civilization), 1600 BC – 1100 BC (Mycenaean Greece), 800 BC (Ancient Greece)||Greece (Peloponnese, Epirus, Central Greece, Western Greece, Macedon), later Alexandria||Greek||Polytheistic|
|Roman||600 BC – 400 AD||Italy||Latin||Polytheistic|
|Aztec||1325 AD – 1519 AD||Mexico||
Agriculture, smelting, metalworking
|Inca||1300 AD – 1532 AD||Ecuador, Peru, Chile||–||Polytheistic|
Southwest Asia (Near East)
The Ancient Near East is considered the cradle of civilization. It was the first to practice intensive year-round agriculture; created the first coherent writing system, invented the potter's wheel and then the vehicular- and mill wheel, created the first centralized governments, law codes and empires, as well as introducing social stratification, slavery and organized warfare, and it laid the foundation for the fields of astronomy and mathematics.
Mesopotamia is the site of some of the earliest known civilizations in the world. Early settlement of the alluvial plain lasted from the Ubaid period (late 6th millennium BC) through the Uruk period (4th millennium BC) and the Dynastic periods (3rd millennium BC) until the rise of Babylon in the early 2nd millennium BC. The surplus of storable foodstuffs created by this economy allowed the population to settle in one place instead of migrating after crops and herds. It also allowed for a much greater population density, and in turn required an extensive labor force and division of labor. This organization led to the necessity of record keeping and the development of writing (c. 3500 BC).
Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq), with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged when Hammurabi (fl. c. 1728–1686 BC, according to the short chronology) created an empire out of the territories of the former kingdoms of Sumer and Akkad. The Amorites being ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Babylonia adopted the written Akkadian language for official use; they retained the Sumerian language for religious use, which by that time was no longer a spoken language. The Akkadian and Sumerian cultures played a major role in later Babylonian culture, and the region would remain an important cultural center, even under outside rule. The earliest mention of the city of Babylon can be found in a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad, dating back to the 23rd century BC.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire, or Chaldea, was Babylonia under the rule of the 11th ("Chaldean") dynasty, from the revolt of Nabopolassar in 626 BC until the invasion of Cyrus the Great in 539 BC. Notably, it included the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II, who conquered the Kingdom of Judah and Jerusalem.
Akkad was a city and its surrounding region in central Mesopotamia. Akkad also became the capital of the Akkadian Empire. The city was probably situated on the west bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (in present-day Iraq, about 50 km (31 mi) southwest of the center of Baghdad). Despite an extensive search, the precise site has never been found. Akkad reached the height of its power between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests of king Sargon of Akkad. Because of the policies of the Akkadian Empire toward linguistic assimilation, Akkad also gave its name to the predominant Semitic dialect: the Akkadian language, reflecting use of akkadû ("in the language of Akkad") in the Old Babylonian period to denote the Semitic version of a Sumerian text.
Assyria was originally (in the Middle Bronze Age) a region on the Upper Tigris, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur. Later, as a nation and empire that came to control all of the Fertile Crescent, Egypt and much of Anatolia, the term "Assyria proper" referred to roughly the northern half of Mesopotamia (the southern half being Babylonia), with Nineveh as its capital. The Assyrian kings controlled a large kingdom at three different times in history. These are called the Old (20th to 15th centuries BC), Middle (15th to 10th centuries BC), and Neo-Assyrian (911–612 BC) kingdoms, or periods, of which the last is the most well known and best documented. Assyrians invented excavation to undermine city walls, battering rams to knock down gates, as well as the concept of a corps of engineers, who bridged rivers with pontoons or provided soldiers with inflatable skins for swimming.
Mitanni was an Indo-Iranian empire in northern Mesopotamia from c. 1500 BC. At the height of Mitanni power, during the 14th century BC, it encompassed what is today southeastern Turkey, northern Syria and northern Iraq, centered around its capital, Washukanni, whose precise location has not been determined by archaeologists.
Elam is the name of an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Archaeological evidence associated with Elam has been dated to before 5000 BC. According to available written records, it is known to have existed from around 3200 BC – making it among the world's oldest historical civilizations – and to have endured up until 539 BC. Its culture played a crucial role in the Gutian Empire, especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it, when the Elamite language remained among those in official use. The Elamite period is considered a starting point for the history of Iran.
The Medes were an ancient Iranian people. They had established their own empire by the 6th century BC, having defeated the Neo-Assyrian Empire with the Chaldeans. They overthrew Urartu later on as well. The Medes are credited with the foundation of the first Iranian empire, the largest of its day until Cyrus the Great established a unified Iranian empire of the Medes and Persian, often referred to as the Achaemenid Persian Empire, by defeating his grandfather and overlord, Astyages the king of Media.
The Achaemenid Empire was the largest and most significant of the Persian Empires, and followed the Median Empire as the second great empire of the Iranians. It is noted in western history as the foe of the Greek city states in the Greco-Persian Wars, for freeing the Israelites from their Babylonian captivity, for its successful model of a centralized bureaucratic administration, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World), and for instituting Aramaic as the empire's official language. Because of the Empire's vast extent and long endurance, Persian influence upon the language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law and government of nations around the world lasts to this day. At the height of its power, the Achaemenid dynasty encompassed approximately 8.0 million square kilometers, held the greatest percentage of world population to date, stretched three continents (Europe, Asia and Africa) and was territorially the largest empire of classical antiquity.
Parthia was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran. Their power was based on a combination of the guerrilla warfare of a mounted nomadic tribe, with organizational skills to build and administer a vast empire – even though it never matched in power and extent the Persian empires that preceded and followed it. The Parthian Empire was led by the Arsacid dynasty, which reunited and ruled over significant portions of the Near East and beyond, after defeating and disposing the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, beginning in the late 3rd century BC. It was the third native dynasty of ancient Iran (after the Median and the Achaemenid dynasties). Parthia had many wars with the Roman Republic (and subsequently the Roman Empire), which marked the start of what would be over 700 years of frequent Roman-Persian Wars.
The Sassanid Empire, lasting the length of the Late Antiquity period, is considered to be one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods. In many ways the Sassanid period witnessed the highest achievements of Persian civilization and constituted the last great Iranian Empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. During Sassanid times, Persia influenced Roman civilization considerably, and the Romans reserved for the Sassanid Persians alone the status of equals. Sassanid cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China, and India, playing a role, for example, in the formation of both European and Asiatic medieval art.
The early history of the Hittite empire is known through tablets that may first have been written in the 17th century BC but survived only as copies made in the 14th and 13th centuries BC. These tablets, known collectively as the Anitta text, begin by telling how Pithana the king of Kussara or Kussar (a small city-state yet to be identified by archaeologists) conquered the neighbouring city of Neša (Kanesh). However, the real subject of these tablets is Pithana's son Anitta, who conquered several neighbouring cities, including Hattusa and Zalpuwa (Zalpa).
Assyrian inscriptions of Shalmaneser I (c. 1270 BC) first mention Uruartri as one of the states of Nairi – a loose confederation of small kingdoms and tribal states in the Armenian Highland from the 13th to 11th centuries BC. Uruartri itself was in the region around Lake Van. The Nairi states were repeatedly subjected to attacks by the Assyrians, especially under Tukulti-Ninurta I (c. 1240 BC), Tiglath-Pileser I (c. 1100 BC), Ashur-bel-kala (c. 1070 BC), Adad-nirari II (c. 900), Tukulti-Ninurta II (c. 890), and Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 BC).
The Kingdom of Armenia was an independent kingdom from 190 BC to 387 АD, and a client state of the Roman and Persian empires until 428. Between 95 BC - 55 BC under the rule of King Tigranes the Great, the kingdom of Armenia became a large and powerful empire stretching from the Caspian to the Mediterranean Seas. During this short time it was considered to be the most powerful state in the Roman East.
The history of Pre-Islamic Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s is not known in great detail. Archaeological exploration in the Arabian peninsula has been sparse; indigenous written sources are limited to the many inscriptions and coins from southern Arabia. Existing material consists primarily of written sources from other traditions (such as Egyptians, Greeks, Persians, Romans, etc.) and oral traditions later recorded by Islamic scholars.
The first known inscriptions of the Kingdom of Hadhramaut are known from the 8th century BC. It was first referenced by an outside civilization in an Old Sabaic inscription of Karab'il Watar from the early 7th century BC, in which the King of Hadramaut, Yada`'il, is mentioned as being one of his allies.
Dilmun appears first in Sumerian cuneiform clay tablets dated to the end of 4th millennium BC, found in the temple of goddess Inanna, in the city of Uruk. The adjective Dilmun refers to a type of axe and one specific official; in addition, there are lists of rations of wool issued to people connected with Dilmun.
The Sabaeans were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in what is today Yemen, in south west Arabian Peninsula; from 2000 BC to the 8th century BC. Some Sabaeans also lived in D'mt, located in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, due to their hegemony over the Red Sea. They lasted from the early 2nd millennium to the 1st century BC. In the 1st century BC it was conquered by the Himyarites, but after the disintegration of the first Himyarite empire of the Kings of Saba' and dhu-Raydan the Middle Sabaean Kingdom reappeared in the early 2nd century. It was finally conquered by the Himyarites in the late 3rd century.
The ancient Kingdom of Awsan with a capital at Hagar Yahirr in the wadi Markha, to the south of the wadi Bayhan, is now marked by a tell or artificial mound, which is locally named Hagar Asfal. Once it was one of the most important small kingdoms of South Arabia. The city seems to have been destroyed in the 7th century BC by the king and mukarrib of Saba Karib'il Watar, according to a Sabaean text that reports the victory in terms that attest to its significance for the Sabaeans.
The Himyar was a state in ancient South Arabia dating from 110 BC. It conquered neighbouring Saba (Sheba) in c. 25 BC, Qataban in c. 200 AD and Hadramaut c. 300 AD. Its political fortunes relative to Saba changed frequently until it finally conquered the Sabaean Kingdom around 280 AD. It was the dominant state in Arabia until 525 AD. The economy was based on agriculture.
Foreign trade was based on the export of frankincense and myrrh. For many years it was also the major intermediary linking East Africa and the Mediterranean world. This trade largely consisted of exporting ivory from Africa to be sold in the Roman Empire. Ships from Himyar regularly traveled the East African coast, and the state also exerted a considerable amount of political control of the trading cities of East Africa.
The Nabataean origins remain obscure. On the similarity of sounds, Jerome suggested a connection with the tribe Nebaioth mentioned in Genesis, but modern historians are cautious about an early Nabatean history. The Babylonian captivity that began in 586 BC opened a power vacuum in Judah, and as Edomites moved into Judaean grazing lands, Nabataean inscriptions began to be left in Edomite territory (earlier than 312 BC, when they were attacked at Petra without success by Antigonus I). The first definite appearance was in 312 BC, when Hieronymus of Cardia, a Seleucid officer, mentioned the Nabateans in a battle report. In 50 BC, the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus cited Hieronymus in his report, and added the following: "Just as the Seleucids had tried to subdue them, so the Romans made several attempts to get their hands on that lucrative trade."
Petra or Sela was the ancient capital of Edom; the Nabataeans must have occupied the old Edomite country, and succeeded to its commerce, after the Edomites took advantage of the Babylonian captivity to press forward into southern Judaea. This migration, the date of which cannot be determined, also made them masters of the shores of the Gulf of Aqaba and the important harbor of Elath. Here, according to Agatharchides, they were for a time very troublesome, as wreckers and pirates, to the reopened commerce between Egypt and the East, until they were chastised by the Ptolemaic rulers of Alexandria.
The Lakhmid Kingdom was founded by the Lakhum tribe that immigrated out of Yemen in the 2nd century and ruled by the Banu Lakhm, hence the name given it. It was formed of a group of Arab Christians who lived in Southern Iraq, and made al-Hirah their capital in (266). The founder of the dynasty was 'Amr and the son Imru' al-Qais converted to Christianity. Gradually the whole city converted to that faith. Imru' al-Qais dreamt of a unified and independent Arab kingdom and, following that dream, he seized many cities in Arabia.
The Ghassanids were a group of South Arabian Christian tribes that emigrated in the early 3rd century from Yemen to the Hauran in southern Syria, Jordan and the Holy Land where they intermarried with Hellenized Roman settlers and Greek-speaking Early Christian communities. The Ghassanid emigration has been passed down in the rich oral tradition of southern Syria. It is said that the Ghassanids came from the city of Ma'rib in Yemen. There was a dam in this city, however one year there was so much rain that the dam was carried away by the ensuing flood. Thus the people there had to leave. The inhabitants emigrated seeking to live in less arid lands and became scattered far and wide. The proverb "They were scattered like the people of Saba" refers to that exodus in history. The emigrants were from the southern Arab tribe of Azd of the Kahlan branch of Qahtani tribes.
Though the Ugaritic site is thought to have been inhabited earlier, Neolithic Ugarit was already important enough to be fortified with a wall early on. The first written evidence mentioning the city comes from the nearby city of Ebla, c. 1800 BC. Ugarit passed into the sphere of influence of Egypt, which deeply influenced its art.
Israel and Judah were related Iron Age kingdoms of the ancient Levant and had existed during the Iron Ages and the Neo-Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic periods. The name Israel first appears in the stele of the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah c. 1209 BC, "Israel is laid waste and his seed is no more." This "Israel" was a cultural and probably political entity of the central highlands, well enough established to be perceived by the Egyptians as a possible challenge to their hegemony, but an ethnic group rather than an organised state; Archaeologist Paula McNutt says: "It is probably ... during Iron Age I [that] a population began to identify itself as 'Israelite'," differentiating itself from its neighbours via prohibitions on intermarriage, an emphasis on family history and genealogy, and religion.
Israel had emerged by the middle of the 9th century BC, when the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III names "Ahab the Israelite" among his enemies at the battle of Qarqar (853). Judah emerged somewhat later than Israel, probably during the 9th century BC, but the subject is one of considerable controversy. Israel came into increasing conflict with the expanding neo-Assyrian empire, which first split its territory into several smaller units and then destroyed its capital, Samaria (722). A series of campaigns by the Neo-Babylonian Empire between 597 and 582 led to the destruction of Judah.
Followed by the fall of Babylon to the Persian empire, Jews were allowed, by Cyrus the Great, to return to Judea. The Hasmonean Kingdom (followed by the Maccabean revolt) had existed during the Hellenistic period and then the Herodian kingdom during the Roman period.
Phoenicia was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal regions of modern-day Lebanon, Syria and Israel. Phoenician civilization was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean between the period of 1550 to 300 BC.
A written reference, Herodotus's account (written c. 440 BC) refers to a memory from 800 years earlier, which may be subject to question in the fullness of genetic results. (History, I:1). This is a legendary introduction to Herodotus' brief retelling of some mythical Hellene-Phoenician interactions. Though few modern archaeologists would confuse this myth with history, a grain of truth may yet lie therein.
Ancient Egypt was a long-lived civilization geographically located in north-eastern Africa. It was concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River reaching its greatest extension during the 2nd millennium BC, which is referred to as the New Kingdom period. It reached broadly from the Nile Delta in the north, as far south as Jebel Barkal at the Fourth Cataract of the Nile. Extensions to the geographical range of ancient Egyptian civilization included, at different times, areas of the southern Levant, the Eastern Desert and the Red Sea coastline, the Sinai Peninsula and the Western Desert (focused on the several oases).
Ancient Egypt developed over at least three and a half millennia. It began with the incipient unification of Nile Valley polities around 3500 BC and is conventionally thought to have ended in 30 BC when the early Roman Empire conquered and absorbed Ptolemaic Egypt as a province. (Though this last did not represent the first period of foreign domination, the Roman period was to witness a marked, if gradual transformation in the political and religious life of the Nile Valley, effectively marking the termination of independent civilisational development).
The civilization of ancient Egypt was based on a finely balanced control of natural and human resources, characterised primarily by controlled irrigation of the fertile Nile Valley; the mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions; the early development of an independent writing system and literature; the organisation of collective projects; trade with surrounding regions in east / central Africa and the eastern Mediterranean; finally, military ventures that exhibited strong characteristics of imperial hegemony and territorial domination of neighbouring cultures at different periods. Motivating and organizing these activities were a socio-political and economic elite that achieved social consensus by means of an elaborate system of religious belief under the figure of a (semi)-divine ruler (usually male) from a succession of ruling dynasties and which related to the larger world by means of polytheistic beliefs.
The Kushite state was formed before a period of Egyptian incursion into the area. The Kushite civilization has also been referred to as Nubia. The first cultures arose in Sudan before the time of a unified Egypt, and the most widespread is known as the Kerma civilization. It is through Egyptian, Hebrew, Roman and Greek records that most of our knowledge of Kush (Cush) comes.
It is also referred to as Ethiopia in ancient Greek and Roman records. According to Josephus and other classical writers, the Kushite Empire covered all of Africa, and some parts of Asia and Europe at one time or another. The Kushites are also famous for having buried their monarchs along with all their courtiers in mass graves. The Kushites also built burial mounds and pyramids, and shared some of the same gods worshipped in Egypt, especially Amon and Isis.
The Axumite Empire was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from the proto-Aksumite period c. 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD. Its ancient capital is found in northern Ethiopia, the Kingdom used the name "Ethiopia" as early as the 4th century. Aksum is mentioned in the 1st century AD Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as an important market place for ivory, which was exported throughout the ancient world, and states that the ruler of Aksum in the 1st century AD was Zoscales, who, besides ruling in Aksum also controlled two harbours on the Red Sea: Adulis (near Massawa) and Avalites (Assab). He is also said to have been familiar with Greek literature. It is also an alleged resting place of the Ark of the Covenant and home of the Queen of Sheba. Aksum was also one of the first major empires to convert to Christianity.
Land of Punt
The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet, or Pwene by the ancient Egyptians, was a trading partner known for producing and exporting gold, aromatic resins, African blackwood, ebony, ivory, slaves and wild animals. Information about Punt has been found in ancient Egyptian records of trade missions to this region. The exact location of Punt remains a mystery. The mainstream view is that Punt was located to the south-east of Egypt, most likely on the coast of the Horn of Africa. The earliest recorded Egyptian expedition to Punt was organized by Pharaoh Sahure of the Fifth Dynasty (25th century BC) although gold from Punt is recorded as having been in Egypt in the time of king Khufu of the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt. Subsequently, there were more expeditions to Punt in the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt, the Eleventh dynasty of Egypt, the Twelfth dynasty of Egypt and the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. In the Twelfth dynasty of Egypt, trade with Punt was celebrated in popular literature in "Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor".
The Nok culture appeared in Nigeria around 1000 BC and mysteriously vanished around 200 AD. The civilization’s social system is thought to have been highly advanced. The Nok civilization was considered to be the earliest sub-Saharan producer of life-sized Terracotta which have been discovered by archaeologists. A Nok sculpture resident at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, portrays a sitting dignitary wearing a "Shepherds Crook" on the right arm, and a "hinged flail" on the left. These are symbols of authority associated with ancient Egyptian pharaohs, and the god Osiris, which suggests that an ancient Egyptian style of social structure, and perhaps religion, existed in the area of modern Nigeria during the late Pharonic period. (Informational excerpt copied from Nigeria and Nok culture articles)
Carthage was founded in 814 BC by Phoenician settlers from the city of Tyre, bringing with them the city-god Melqart. Ancient Carthage was an informal hegemony of Phoenician city-states throughout North Africa and modern Spain from 575 BC until 146 BC. It was more or less under the control of the city-state of Carthage after the fall of Tyre to Babylonian forces. At the height of the city's influence, its empire included most of the western Mediterranean. The empire was in a constant state of struggle with the Roman Republic, which led to a series of conflicts known as the Punic Wars. After the third and final Punic War, Carthage was destroyed then occupied by Roman forces. Nearly all of the territory held by Carthage fell into Roman hands.
The earliest evidence of human civilization in South Asia is from the Mehrgarh region (7000 BC to 3200 BC) of Pakistan. Located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River valley and between the present-day Pakistani cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi, Mehrgarh was discovered in 1974 by an archaeological team directed by French archaeologist Jean-François Jarrige, and was excavated continuously between 1974 and 1986. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh—in the northeast corner of the 495 acres (2.00 km2) site—was a small farming village dated between 7000 BC–5500 BC. Early Mehrgarh residents lived in mud brick houses, stored their grain in granaries, fashioned tools with local copper ore, and lined their large basket containers with bitumen. They cultivated six-row barley, einkorn and emmer wheat, jujubes and dates, and herded sheep, goats and cattle. Residents of the later period (5500 BC to 2600 BC) put much effort into crafts, including flint knapping, tanning, bead production, and metal working. The site was occupied continuously until about 2600 BC.
In April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest evidence in human history for the drilling of teeth in vivo (i.e. in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh. Mehrgarh is sometimes cited as the earliest known farming settlement in South Asia, based on archaeological excavations from 1974 (Jarrige et al.). The earliest evidence of settlement dates from 7000 BC. It is also cited for the earliest evidence of pottery in South Asia. Archaeologists divide the occupation at the site into several periods. Mehrgarh is now seen as a precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization.
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300–1700 BC, flourished 2600–1900 BC), abbreviated IVC, was an ancient civilization that flourished in the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys primarily in what is now Pakistan, although settlements linked to this ancient civilization have been found in eastern Afghanistan, and western India. Minor scattered sites have been found as far away as Turkmenistan. Another name for this civilization is the Harappan Civilization, after the first of its cities to be excavated, Harappa in the Pakistani province of Punjab. The IVC might have been known to the Sumerians as the Meluhha, and other trade contacts may have included Egypt, Africa, however the modern world discovered it only in the 1920s as a result of archaeological excavations and rail road building. Prominent historians of Ancient India would include Ram Sharan Sharma and Romila Thapar.
The births of Mahavira and Buddha in the 6th century BC mark the beginning of well-recorded history in the region. Around the 5th century BC, the ancient region of Pakistan was invaded by the Achaemenid Empire under Darius in 522 BC forming the easternmost satraps of the Persian Empire. The provinces of Sindh and Panjab were said to be the richest satraps of the Persian Empire and contributed many soldiers to various Persian expeditions. It is known that an Indian contingent fought in Xerxes' army on his expedition to Greece. Herodotus mentions that the Indus satrapy supplied cavalry and chariots to the Persian army. He also mentions that the Indus people were clad in armaments made of cotton, carried bows and arrows of cane covered with iron. Herodotus states that in 517 BC Darius sent an expedition under Scylax to explore the Indus. Under Persian rule, much irrigation and commerce flourished within the vast territory of the empire. The Persian empire was followed by the invasion of the Greeks under Alexander's army. Since Alexander was determined to reach the eastern-most limits of the Persian Empire he could not resist the temptation to conquer India (i.e. the Punjab region), which at this time was parcelled out into small chieftain-ships, who were feudatories of the Persian Empire. Alexander amalgamated the region into the expanding Hellenic empire. The Rigveda, in Sanskrit, goes back to about 1500 BC. The Indian literary tradition has an oral history reaching down into the Vedic period of the later 2nd millennium BC.
Ancient India is usually taken to refer to the "golden age" of classical Indian culture, as reflected in Sanskrit literature, beginning around 500 BC with the sixteen monarchies and 'republics' known as the Mahajanapadas, stretched across the Indo-Gangetic plains from modern-day Afghanistan to Bangladesh. The largest of these nations were Magadha, Kosala, Kuru and Gandhara. Notably, the great epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata are rooted in this classical period.
Amongst the sixteen Mahajanapadas, the kingdom of Magadha rose to prominence under a number of dynasties that peaked in power under the reign of Ashoka Maurya, one of India's most legendary and famous emperors. During the reign of Ashoka, the four dynasties of Chola, Chera, and Pandya were ruling in the South, while the King Devanampiya Tissa was controlling the Anuradhapura Kingdom (now Sri Lanka). These kingdoms, while not part of Ashoka's empire, were in friendly terms with the Maurya Empire. There was a strong alliance existed between Devanampiya Tissa (250–210 BC) and Ashoka of India, who sent Arahat Mahinda, four monks, and a novice being sent to Sri Lanka. They encountered Devanampiya Tissa at Mihintale. After this meeting, Devanampiya Tissa embraced Buddhism the order of monks was established in the country. Devanampiya Tissa, guided by Arahat Mahinda, took steps to firmly establish Buddhism in the country.
The Satavahanas started out as feudatories to the Mauryan Empire, and declared independence soon after the death of Ashoka (232 BC). Other notable ancient South Indian dynasties include the Kadambas of Banavasi, western Ganga dynasty, Badami Chalukyas, Western Chalukyas, Hoysalas, Kakatiya dynasty, Pallavas, Rashtrakutas of Manyaketha and Satavahanas.
The period between AD 320–550 is known as the Classical Age, when most of North India was reunited under the Gupta Empire (c. AD 320–550). This was a period of relative peace, law and order, and extensive achievements in religion, education, mathematics, arts, Sanskrit literature and drama. Grammar, composition, logic, metaphysics, mathematics, medicine, and astronomy became increasingly specialized and reached an advanced level. The Gupta Empire was weakened and ultimately ruined by the raids of Hunas (a branch of the Hephthalites emanating from Central Asia). Under Harsha (r. 606–47), North India was reunited briefly.
The educated speech at that time was Sanskrit, while the dialects of the general population of northern India were referred to as Prakrits. The South Indian Malabar Coast and the Tamil people of the Sangam age traded with the Graeco-Roman world. They were in contact with the Phoenicians, Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Syrians, Jews, and the Chinese.
The regions of South Asia, primarily present-day Pakistan and India, were estimated to have had the largest economy of the world between the 1st and 15th centuries AD, controlling between one third and one quarter of the world's wealth up to the time of the Mughals, from whence it rapidly declined during British rule.
Written records of China's past dates from the Shang Dynasty (商朝) in perhaps the 13th century BC, and takes the form of inscriptions of divination records on the bones or shells of animals—the so-called oracle bones (甲骨文). Archaeological findings providing evidence for the existence of the Shang Dynasty, c. 1600–1046 BC is divided into two sets. The first, from the earlier Shang period (c. 1600–1300) comes from sources at Erligang (二里崗), Zhengzhou (鄭州) and Shangcheng. The second set, from the later Shang or Yin (殷) period, consists of a large body of oracle bone writings. Anyang (安陽) in modern-day Henan has been confirmed as the last of the nine capitals of the Shang (c. 1300–1046 BC).
By the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the Zhou Dynasty (周朝) began to emerge in the Yellow River valley, overrunning the Shang. The Zhou appeared to have begun their rule under a semi-feudal system. The ruler of the Zhou, King Wu, with the assistance of his brother, the Duke of Zhou, as regent managed to defeat the Shang at the Battle of Muye. The king of Zhou at this time invoked the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize his rule, a concept that would be influential for almost every successive dynasty. The Zhou initially moved their capital west to an area near modern Xi'an, near the Yellow River, but they would preside over a series of expansions into the Yangtze River valley. This would be the first of many population migrations from north to south in Chinese history.
Spring and Autumn
In the 8th century BC, power became decentralized during the Spring and Autumn period (春秋時代), named after the influential Spring and Autumn Annals. In this period, local military leaders used by the Zhou began to assert their power and vie for hegemony. The situation was aggravated by the invasion of other peoples from the northwest, such as the Quanrong, forcing the Zhou to move their capital east to Luoyang. This marks the second large phase of the Zhou dynasty: the Eastern Zhou. In each of the hundreds of states that eventually arose, local strongmen held most of the political power and continued their subservience to the Zhou kings in name only. Local leaders for instance started using royal titles for themselves. The Hundred Schools of Thought (諸子百家) of Chinese philosophy blossomed during this period, and such influential intellectual movements as Confucianism (儒家), Taoism (道家), Legalism (法家) and Mohism (墨家) were founded, partly in response to the changing political world. The Spring and Autumn period is marked by a falling apart of the central Zhou power. China now consists of hundreds of states, some only as large as a village with a fort.
After further political consolidation, seven prominent states remained by the end of 5th century BC, and the years in which these few states battled each other is known as the Warring States period (戰國時代). Though there remained a nominal Zhou king until 256 BC, he was largely a figurehead and held little power. As neighboring territories of these warring states, including areas of modern Sichuan (四川) and Liaoning (遼寧), were annexed, they were governed under the new local administrative system of commandery and prefecture (郡縣). This system had been in use since the Spring and Autumn period and parts can still be seen in the modern system of Sheng & Xian (province and county, 省縣). The final expansion in this period began during the reign of Ying Zheng (嬴政), the king of Qin. His unification of the other six powers, and further annexations in the modern regions of Zhejiang (浙江), Fujian (福建), Guangdong (廣東) and Guangxi (廣西) in 214 BC enabled him to proclaim himself the First Emperor (Qin Shi Huangdi, 秦始皇帝).
Japan first appeared in written records in AD 57 with the following mention in China's Book of the Later Han: "Across the ocean from Luoyang are the people of Wa. Formed from more than one hundred tribes, they come and pay tribute frequently." According to the Kojiki, Emperor Jimmu, in 660 BC, unified the many peoples of the Japanese archipelago and established order. The Book of Wei, written in the 3rd century, noted the country was the unification of some 30 small tribes or states and ruled by a shaman queen named Himiko of Yamataikoku.
During the Han Dynasty and Wei Dynasty, Chinese travelers to Kyūshū recorded its inhabitants and claimed that they were the descendants of the Grand Count (Tàibó) of the Wu. The inhabitants also show traits of the pre-sinicized Wu people with tattooing, teeth-pulling and baby-carrying. The Book of Wei records the physical descriptions which are similar to ones on Haniwa statues, such men with braided hair, tattooing and women wearing large, single-piece clothing.
According to the Samguk Yusa and other Korean medieval-era Folklore collection, Gojoseon was the first Korean kingdom. Gojoseon was founded in 2333 BC by the legendary ruler Dangun, said to be descended from the Lord of Heaven. Then, Korea was governed for Jizi and the 40th generation descendant. According to Records of the Grand Historian, Korea was founded by Wiman from China in 197 BC. In 105 BC, Han Dynasty China ruined Korea and ruled for about 400 years.
The Three Kingdoms (Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla) conquered other successor states of Gojoseon and came to dominate the peninsula and much of Manchuria. The three kingdoms competed with each other both economically and militarily; Goguryeo and Baekje were the more powerful states for much of the three kingdoms era. At times more powerful than the neighboring Sui Dynasty, Goguryeo was a regional power that defeated massive Chinese invasions multiple times. As one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, Silla gradually extended across Korea and eventually became the first state since Gojoseon to cover most of Korean peninsula in 676. In 698, former Goguryeo general Dae Jo-yeong founded Balhae as the successor to Goguryeo.
Unified Silla itself fell apart in the late 9th century, giving way to the tumultuous Later Three Kingdoms period (892-936), which ended with the establishment of the Goryeo Dynasty. After the fall of Balhae in 926 to the Khitan, much of its people were absorbed into Goryeo Dynasty.
Around 3000 BC, the 15 different Lạc Việt ethnic tribes lived together in many areas with other inhabitants. Due to increasing needs to control floods, fights against invaders, and culture and trade exchanges, these tribes living near each other tended to gather together and integrate into a larger mixed group. Among these Lac Viet tribes was the Van Lang, which was the most powerful tribe. The leader of this tribe later joined all the tribes together to found the Hồng Bàng Dynasty in 2897 BC. He became the first in a line of earliest Vietnamese kings, collectively known as the Hùng kings (Hùng Vương). The Hùng kings called the country, which was then located on the Red River delta in present-day northern Vietnam, Văn Lang. The people of Văn Lang were referred to as the Lạc Việt. The next generations followed in their father's footsteps and kept this appellation. Based on historical documents, researchers correlatively delineated the location of Văn Lang Nation to the present day regions of North and north of Central Vietnam, as well as the south of present-day Kwangsi (China).
The Đông Sơn culture was a prehistoric Bronze Age culture that was centered at the Red River Valley of northern Vietnam. Its influence flourished to other parts of Southeast Asia, including the Indo-Malayan Archipelago from about 2000 BC to 200 AD. The theory based on the assumption that bronze casting in eastern Asia originated in northern China; however, this idea has been discredited by archaeological discoveries in north-eastern Thailand in the 1970s. In the words of one scholar, "Bronze casting began in Southeast Asia and was later borrowed by the Chinese, not vice versa as the Chinese scholars have always claimed. Evidence of early kingdoms of Vietnam other than the Đông Sơn culture in Northern Vietnam was found in Cổ Loa, the ancient city situated within present-day Hà Nội.
North-western Mongolia was Turkic while south-western Mongolia had come under Indo-European (Tocharian and Scythian) influence. In antiquity, the eastern portions of both Inner and Outer Mongolia were inhabited by Mongolic peoples descended from the Donghu people, including the Xianbei, Wuhuan, Rouran, Tuoba, Murong, Shiwei, Kumo Xi and Khitan. These were Tengriist horse-riding pastoralist kingdoms that had close contact with the Chinese. The Donghu are first mentioned by Sima Qian as already existing in Inner Mongolia north of the state of Yan in 699-632 BC. The Mongolic-speaking Xianbei (208 BC-234 AD) originally formed a part of the Donghu confederation, but existed even before that time, as evidenced by a mention in the Guoyu "晉語八" section which states that during the reign of King Cheng of Zhou (reigned 1042-1021 BC) the Xianbei came to participate at a meeting of Zhou subject-lords at Qiyang (岐阳) (now Qishan County) but were only allowed to perform the fire ceremony under the supervision of Chu (楚), since they were not vassals by covenant (诸侯). As a nomadic confederation composed of the Xianbei and Wuhuan, the Donghu were prosperous in the 4th century BC, forcing surrounding tribes to pay tribute and constantly harassing the State of Zhao (325 BC, during the early years of the reign of Wuling) and the State of Yan (in 304 BC General Qin Kai was given as a hostage to the Donghu).
In 208 BC Xiongnu emperor Modu Chanyu, in his first major military campaign, defeated the formerly superior Donghu, who split into the Xianbei and Wuhuan. The Xianbei fled east all the way to Liaodong. In 49 AD the Xianbei ruler Bianhe attacked the Xiongnu and killed 2000 people after having received generous gifts from Emperor Guangwu of Han. In 54 AD the Xianbei rulers Yuchoupen and Mantu presented themselves to the Han emperor and received the titles of wang and gou. Until 93 AD the Xianbei were quietly protecting the Chinese border from Wuhuan and Xiongnu attacks and received ample rewards. From 93 AD the Xianbei began to occupy the lands of the Xiongnu. 100,000 Xiongnu families changed their name to Xianbei. In 97 AD Feijuxian in Liaodong was attacked by the Xianbei, and the governor Qi Sen was dismissed for inaction. Other Xianbei rulers who were active before the rise of the Xianbei emperor Tanshihuai (141-181) were Yanzhiyang, Lianxu and Cizhiqian. The Xianbei gave rise to different Mongolic branches, for example the Rouran (330-555), Khitan (388-1218) and Shiwei (444-present day). The Khitans developed the Khitan scripts in 920-925 AD. The Rouran king Shelun was the first major leader of the steppes to adopt (in 402 AD) the title of Khagan (可汗) or Qiudoufa Khan (丘豆伐可汗) (which was originally a title used by Xianbei nobles).
The Mongols of Genghis Khan were the Menggu sub-tribe of the Shiwei Xianbei. The first surviving Mongolian text is the Stele of Yisüngge, a report on sports in Mongolian script on stone, that is most often dated at the verge of 1224 and 1225. Other early sources are written in Mongolian, Phagspa (decrets), Chinese (the Secret history), Arabic (dictionaries) and a few other western scripts.
The Huns left practically no written records. There is no record of what happened between the time they left Mongolian Plateau and arrived in Europe 150 years later. The last mention of the northern Xiongnu was their defeat by the Chinese in 151 at the lake of Barkol, after which they fled to the western steppe at Kangju (centered on the city of Turkistan in Kazakhstan). Chinese records between the 3rd and 4th centuries suggest that a small tribe called Yueban, remnants of northern Xiongnu, was distributed about the steppe of Kazakhstan.
Mesoamerican ancient civilizations included the Olmecs and Mayans. Between 2000 and 300 BC, complex cultures began to form and many matured into advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the: Olmec, Izapa, Teotihuacan, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, Huastec, Purépecha, "Toltec" and Aztec, which flourished for nearly 4,000 years before the first contact with Europeans. These civilizations' progress included pyramid-temples, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and theology.
The Zapotec emerged around 1500 years BC. They left behind the great city Monte Alban. Their writing system had been thought to have influenced the Olmecs but, with recent evidence, the Olmec may have been the first civilization in the area to develop a true writing system independently. At the present time, there is some debate as to whether or not Olmec symbols, dated to 650 BC, are actually a form of writing preceding the oldest Zapotec writing dated to about 500 BC.
Olmec symbols found in 2002 and 2006 date to 650 BC and 900 BC respectively, preceding the oldest Zapotec writing. The Olmec symbols found in 2006, dating to 900 BC, are known as the Cascajal Block.
The history of the Etruscans can be traced relatively accurately, based on the examination of burial sites, artifacts, and writing. Etruscans culture that is identifiably and certainly Etruscan developed in Italy in earnest by 800 BC approximately over the range of the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture. The latter gave way in the 7th century to a culture that was influenced by Greek traders and Greek neighbors in Magna Graecia, the Hellenic civilization of southern Italy.
From the descendants of the Villanovan people in Etruria in central Italy, a separate Etruscan culture emerged in the beginning of the 7th century BC, evidenced by around 7,000 inscriptions in an alphabet similar to that of Euboean Greek, in the non-Indo-European Etruscan language. The burial tombs, some of which had been fabulously decorated, promotes the idea of an aristocratic city-state, with centralized power structures maintaining order and constructing public works, such as irrigation networks, roads, and town defenses.
Ancient Greece is the period in Greek history lasting for close to a millennium, until the rise of Christianity. It is considered by most historians to be the foundational culture of Western Civilization. Greek culture was a powerful influence in the Roman Empire, which carried a version of it to many parts of Europe.
The earliest known human settlements in Greece were on the island of Crete, more than 9,000 years ago, though there is evidence of tool use on the island going back over 100,000 years. The earliest evidence of a civilisation in ancient Greece is that of the Minoans on Crete, dating as far back as 3600 BC. On the mainland, the Mycenaean civilisation rose to prominence around 1600 BC, superseded the Minoan civilisation on Crete, and lasted until about 1100 BC, leading to a period known as the Greek Dark Ages
The Archaic Period in Greece is generally considered to have lasted from around the eighth century BC to the invasion by Xerxes in 480 BC. This period saw the expansion of the Greek world around the Mediterranean, with the founding of Greek city-states as far afield as Sicily in the West and the Black sea in the East. Politically, the Archaic period in Greece saw the collapse of the power of the old aristocracies, with democratic reforms in Athens and the development of Sparta's unique constitution. The end of the Archaic period also saw the rise of Athens, which would come to be a dominant power in the Classical period, after the reforms of Solon and the tyranny of Pisistratus.
The Classical Greek world was dominated throughout the fifth century BC by the major powers of Athens and Sparta. Through the Delian League, Athens was able to convert Pan-hellenist sentiment and fear of the Persian threat into a powerful empire, and this, along with the conflict between Sparta and Athens culminating in the Peloponnesian war, was the major political development of the first part of the Classical period.
The period in Greek history from the death of Alexander the Great until the rise of the Roman empire and its conquest of Egypt in 30 BC is known as the Hellenistic period. The name derives from the Greek word Hellenistes ("the Greek speaking ones"), and describes the spread of Greek culture into the non-Greek world following the conquests of Alexander and the rise of his successors.
Following the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC, Greece came under Roman rule, ruled from the province of Macedonia. In 27 BC, Augustus organised the Greek peninsula into the province of Achaea. Greece remained under Roman control until the break up of the Roman empire, in which it remained part of the Eastern Empire. Much of Greece remained under Byzantine control until the end of the Byzantine empire.
- For more details, see the articles in the category of Ancient Greek culture
Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew out of the city-state of Rome, originating as a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula in the 9th century BC. In its twelve centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to an oligarchic republic to an increasingly autocratic empire.
Roman civilization is often grouped into "classical antiquity" with ancient Greece, a civilization that inspired much of the culture of ancient Rome. Ancient Rome contributed greatly to the development of law, war, art, literature, architecture, and language in the Western world, and its history continues to have a major influence on the world today. The Roman civilization came to dominate Europe and the Mediterranean region through conquest and assimilation.
Throughout the territory under the control of ancient Rome, residential architecture ranged from very modest houses to country villas. A number of Roman founded cities had monumental structures. Many contained fountains with fresh drinking-water supplied by hundreds of miles of aqueducts, theatres, gymnasiums, bath complexes sometime with libraries and shops, marketplaces, and occasionally functional sewers.
However, a number of factors led to the eventual decline of the Roman Empire. The western half of the empire, including Hispania, Gaul, and Italy, eventually broke into independent kingdoms in the 5th century; the Eastern Roman Empire, governed from Constantinople, is referred to as the Byzantine Empire after AD 476, the traditional date for the "fall of Rome" and subsequent onset of the Middle Ages.
The Roman Empire underwent considerable social, cultural and organizational change starting with reign of Diocletian, who began the custom of splitting the Empire into Eastern and Western halves ruled by multiple emperors. Beginning with Constantine the Great the Empire was Christianized, and a new capital founded at Constantinople. Migrations of Germanic tribes disrupted Roman rule from the late 4th century onwards, culminating in the eventual collapse of the Empire in the West in 476, replaced by the so-called barbarian kingdoms. The resultant cultural fusion of Greco-Roman, Germanic and Christian traditions formed the cultural foundations of Europe.
Migration of Germanic peoples to Britain from what is now northern Germany and southern Scandinavia is attested from the 5th century (e.g. Undley bracteate). Based on Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, the intruding population is traditionally divided into Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, but their composition was likely less clear-cut and may also have included ancient Frisians and Franks. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle contains text that may be the first recorded indications of the movement of these Germanic Tribes to Britain. The Angles and Saxons and Jutes were noted to be a confederation in the Greek Geographia written by Ptolemy in around AD 150.
Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the peoples living in the south and east of Great Britain from the early 5th century AD. Benedictine monk Bede identified them as the descendants of three Germanic tribes: the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes, from the Jutland peninsula and Lower Saxony (German: Niedersachsen, Germany). The Angles may have come from Angeln, and Bede wrote their nation came to Britain, leaving their land empty. They spoke closely related Germanic dialects. The Anglo-Saxons knew themselves as the "Englisc," from which the word "English" derives.
The Celts were a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age Europe. Proto-Celtic culture formed in the Early Iron Age in Central Europe (Hallstatt period, named for the site in present-day Austria). By the later Iron Age (La Tène period), Celts had expanded over wide range of lands: as far west as Ireland and the Iberian Peninsula, as far east as Galatia (central Anatolia), and as far north as Scotland. By the early centuries AD, following the expansion of the Roman Empire and the Great Migrations of Germanic peoples, Celtic culture had become restricted to the British Isles (Insular Celtic), with the Continental Celtic languages extinct by the mid-1st millennium AD.
Viking refers to a member of the Norse (Scandinavian) peoples, famous as explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates, who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe beginning in the late 8th. These Norsemen used their famed longships to travel. The Viking Age forms a major part of Scandinavian history, with a minor, yet significant part in European history.
Religion and philosophy
New philosophies and religions arose in both east and west, particularly about the 6th century BC. Over time, a great variety of religions developed around the world, with some of the earliest major ones being Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism in India, and Zoroastrianism in Persia. The Abrahamic religions trace their origin to Judaism, around 1800 BC.
The ancient Indian philosophy is a fusion of two ancient traditions: Sramana tradition and Vedic tradition. Indian philosophy begins with the Vedas where questions related to laws of nature, the origin of the universe and the place of man in it are asked. Jainism and Buddhism are continuation of the Sramana school of thought. The Sramanas cultivated a pessimistic world view of the samsara as full of suffering and advocated renunciation and austerities. They laid stress on philosophical concepts like Ahimsa, Karma, Jnana, Samsara and Moksa. While there are ancient relations between the Indian Vedas and the Iranian Avesta, the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view on the role of man in the universe.
In the east, three schools of thought were to dominate Chinese thinking until the modern day. These were Taoism, Legalism and Confucianism. The Confucian tradition, which would attain dominance, looked for political morality not to the force of law but to the power and example of tradition. Confucianism would later spread into the Korean peninsula and Goguryeo and toward Japan.
In the west, the Greek philosophical tradition, represented by Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, was diffused throughout Europe and the Middle East in the 4th century BC by the conquests of Alexander III of Macedon, more commonly known as Alexander the Great. After the Bronze and Iron Age religions formed, the rise and spread of Christianity through the Roman world marked the end of Hellenistic philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of Medieval philosophy.
Science and technology
In the history of technology and ancient science during the growth of the ancient civilizations, ancient technological advances were produced in engineering. These advances stimulated other societies to adopt new ways of living and governance.
The characteristics of Ancient Egyptian technology are indicated by a set of artifacts and customs that lasted for thousands of years. The Egyptians invented and used many basic machines, such as the ramp and the lever, to aid construction processes. The Egyptians also played an important role in developing Mediterranean maritime technology including ships and lighthouses.
The history of science and technology in India dates back to ancient times. The Indus Valley civilization yields evidence of hydrography, metrology and sewage collection and disposal being practiced by its inhabitants. Among the fields of science and technology pursued in India were Ayurveda, metallurgy, astronomy and mathematics. Some ancient inventions include plastic surgery, cataract surgery, Hindu-Arabic numeral system and Wootz steel.
The history of science and technology in China show significant advances in science, technology, mathematics, and astronomy. The first recorded observations of comets and supernovae were made in China. Traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture and herbal medicine were also practiced.
Ancient Greek technology developed at an unprecedented speed during the 5th century BC, continuing up to and including the Roman period, and beyond. Inventions that are credited to the ancient Greeks such as the gear, screw, bronze casting techniques, water clock, water organ, torsion catapult and the use of steam to operate some experimental machines and toys. Many of these inventions occurred late in the Greek period, often inspired by the need to improve weapons and tactics in war. Roman technology is the engineering practice which supported Roman civilization and made the expansion of Roman commerce and Roman military possible over nearly a thousand years. The Roman Empire had the most advanced set of technology of their time, some of which may have been lost during the turbulent eras of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Roman technological feats of many different areas, like civil engineering, construction materials, transport technology, and some inventions such as the mechanical reaper went unmatched until the 19th century.
The history of ancient navigation began in earnest when men took to the sea in planked boats and ships propelled by sails hung on masts, like the Ancient Egyptian Khufu ship from the mid-3rd millennium BC. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Necho II sent out an expedition of Phoenicians, which in three years sailed from the Red Sea around Africa to the mouth of the Nile. Many current historians tend to believe Herodotus on this point, even though Herodotus himself was in disbelief that the Phoenicians had accomplished the act.
Hannu was an ancient Egyptian explorer (around 2750 BC) and the first explorer of whom there is any knowledge. He made the first recorded exploring expedition, writing his account of his exploration in stone. Hannu travelled along the Red Sea to Punt, and sailed to what is now part of eastern Ethiopia and Somalia. He returned to Egypt with great treasures, including precious myrrh, metal and wood.
Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. In Europe, the end of antiquity is often equated with the fall of Rome in 476. In China, it can also be seen as ending in the 5th century, with the growing role of mounted warriors needed to counter the ever-growing threat from the north.
The difference between prehistoric warfare and ancient warfare is less one of technology than of organization. The development of first city-states, and then empires, allowed warfare to change dramatically. Beginning in Mesopotamia, states produced sufficient agricultural surplus that full-time ruling elites and military commanders could emerge. While the bulk of military forces were still farmers, the society could support having them campaigning rather than working the land for a portion of each year. Thus, organized armies developed for the first time.
These new armies could help states grow in size and became increasingly centralized, and the first empire, that of the Sumerians, formed in Mesopotamia. Early ancient armies continued to primarily use bows and spears, the same weapons that had been developed in prehistoric times for hunting. Early armies in Egypt and China followed a similar pattern of using massed infantry armed with bows and spears.
Artwork and music
Ancient music is music that developed in literate cultures, replacing prehistoric music. Ancient music refers to the various musical systems that were developed across various geographical regions such as Persia, India, China, Greece, Rome, Egypt and Mesopotamia (see music of Mesopotamia, music of ancient Greece, music of ancient Rome, Music of Iran). Ancient music is designated by the characterization of the basic audible tones and scales. It may have been transmitted through oral or written systems. Arts of the ancient world refers to the many types of art that were in the cultures of ancient societies, such as those of ancient China, Egypt, Greece, India, Persia, Mesopotamia and Rome.
- Outline of ancient history
- List of ancient dishes and foods
- List of historians, inclusive of most major historians
- List of history journals#Classical
- Timeline of ancient history
Citations and notes
- WordNet Search - 3.0, "History"
- see Jemdet Nasr period, Kish tablet; see also The Origin and Development of the Cuneiform System of Writing, Samuel Noah Kramer, Thirty Nine Firsts In Recorded History, pp 381-383
- Clare, I. S. (1906). Library of universal history: containing a record of the human race from the earliest historical period to the present time; embracing a general survey of the progress of mankind in national and social life, civil government, religion, literature, science and art. New York: Union Book. Page 1519 (cf., Ancient history, as we have already seen, ended with the fall of the Western Roman Empire; [...])
- United Center for Research and Training in History. (1973). Bulgarian historical review. Sofia: Pub. House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences]. Page 43. (cf. ... in the history of Europe, which marks both the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages, is the fall of the Western Roman Empire.)
- Hadas, Moses (1950). A History of Greek Literature. Columbia University Press. p. 273. ISBN 0-231-01767-7.
- Robinson, C. A. (1951). Ancient history from prehistoric times to the death of Justinian. New York: Macmillan.
- Breasted, J. H. (1916). Ancient times, a history of the early world: an introduction to the study of ancient history and the career of early man. Boston: Ginn and Company.
- Myers, P. V. N. (1916). Ancient History. New York [etc.]: Ginn and company.
- Elphinstone, M. (1889). The History of India. London: Murray.
- Smith, V.A. (1904). The Early History of India from 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan Conquest, including the Invasion of Alexander the Great. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Hoernle, A. F. R., & Stark, H.A. (1906). A History of India. Cuttack: Orissa mission Press.
- Foster, S. (2007). Adventure Guide. China. Hunter travel guides. Edison, NJ: Hunter Publishing. p. 6-7 (cf., "Qin is perceived as 'China's first dynasty' and [... developed] writing.)
- Gernet, J. (1996). A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- "Primary, secondary and tertiary sources". Lib.umd.edu. 2008-05-23. Archived from the original on 30 December 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- "Primary, secondary and tertiary sources". Archived from the original on 2005-02-12.
- Oscar Handlin et al., Harvard Guide to American History (1954) p. 118-246
- Petrie, W. M. F. (1972). Methods & aims in archaeology. New York: B. Blom
- Gamble, C. (2000). Archaeology the basics. London: Routledge.
- Wheeler, J. R. (1908). Archaeology [a lecture delivered at Columbia University in the series on science, philosophy and art, January 8, 1908]. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Barton, G. A. (1900). Archaeology and the Bible. Green fund book, no. 17. Philadelphia: American Sunday-School Union 1816 Chestnut Street.
- Watkin, David (2005). A History of Western Architecture (4th ed.). Laurence King Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-85669-459-9."The Great Pyramid ... is still one of the largest structures ever raised by man, its plan twice the size of St. Peter's in Rome"
- Basham, A. L.Review of A Short History of Pakistan by A. H. Dani (with an introduction by I. H. Qureshi). Karachi: University of Karachi Press. 1967 Pacific Affairs 41(4): 641-643.
- S. R. Rao (1985). Lothal. Archaeological Survey of India, 30–31.
- Zarmati, Louise (2005). Heinemann ancient and medieval history: Pompeii and Herculaneum. Heinemann. ISBN 1-74081-195-X.
- Lobell, Jarrett (July/August 2002). "Etruscan Pompeii". Archaeological Institute of America 55 (4). Retrieved in September 2007.
- Jane Portal and Qingbo Duan, The First Emperor: China's Terracotta Arm, British Museum Press, 2007, p. 167
- Gardner, P. (1892). New chapters in Greek history, historical results of recent excavations in Greece and Asia Minor. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. Page 1+.
- Smith, M. S. (2002). The early history of God: Yahweh and the other deities in ancient Israel. The Biblical resource series. Grand Rapids, Mich: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Page xxii - xxiii
- Nadin, M. (1997). The civilization of illiteracy. Dresden: Dresden University Press.
- Cochrane, Charles Norris. Thucydides and the Science of History, Oxford University Press, 1929. p. 179.
- Harris, W. V. (1989). Ancient literacy. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. (cf. ... extent of literacy in the Roman Empire has been investigated, previous writers have generally concluded that a high degree of literacy ...)
- H. Liu, F. Prugnolle, A. Manica, F. Balloux, A Geographically Explicit Genetic Model of Worldwide Human-Settlement History. The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 79, Issue 2, Pages 230 - 237
- Diamond 1999, p. 218
- "Akkadian Empire". angelfire.com.
- Wells, H. G. (1921). The outline of history, being a plain history of life and mankind New York: Macmillan company. Page 137.
- Strauss, Barry S. (2006) The Trojan War: A New History. Simon & Schuster ISBN 0-7432-6441-X
- The Renaissance discovery of Classical Antiquity by Roberto Weiss
- The Book of the Ancient Romans By Dorothy Mills. Page 21.
- Zibelius-Chen, Karola (2006). "Zur Problematik der Lesung des Königsnamens Pi(anch)i.". Der Antike Sudan. 17: 127–133.
- Anspacher, A. S. (1912). Tiglath Pileser III: By Abraham S. Anspacher. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Shaughnessy, E. L., & Loewe, M. (1999). The Cambridge history of ancient China: From the origins of civilization to 221 B.C. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
- A history of China By Wolfram Eberhard
- The dam was constructed by Luqman, the Adite King of Sdba, in about 1750 BC, to irrigate the valley of Marib.
- E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 2 By Martijn Theodoor Houtsma
- Ocean highways: the geographical record, ed. by C.R. Markham.
- A history of engineering in classical and medieval times By Donald Routledge Hill
- Shabazi (2015). Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh; Stewart, Sarah, eds. Birth of the Persian Empire. I. B. Tauris. p. 118. ISBN 978-0857710925. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- The Historians' History of the World: Prolegomena; Egypt, Mesopotamia edited by Henry Smith Williams
- Hawes, S. (1869). Synchronology of the principal events in sacred and profane history: From the creation of man, to the present time. Boston: S. Hawes.
- Hansen, M. H. (2000). A comparative study of thirty city-state cultures: An investigation conducted by the Copenhagen Polis Centre. Copenhagen: Det Kongelike Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.
- Rajalakshmi, R. (1983). Tamil polity, c. A.D. 600-c. A.D. 1300. Madurai: Ennes Publications.
- A sketch of the dynasties of Southern India By Robert Sewell
- Epigraphy By Archaeological Survey of India. Southern Circle
- Lord Mahavir and Jain Religion by PK Shah. Ishani, 2009. indianfolklore.org
- Benares, the sacred city: sketches of Hindu life and religion By Ernest Binfield Havell. pg 56.
- L. S. Cousins (1996), "The dating of the historical Buddha: a review article", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (3)6(1): 57–63.
- Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Buddhism By Samir Nath
- Larned, J. N., In Smith, D. E., In Seymour, C., Shearer, A. H., & In Knowlton, D. C. (1922). The new Larned History for ready reference, reading and research: The actual words of the world's best historians, biographers and specialists; a complete system of history for all uses, extending to all countries and subjects and representing the better and newer literature of history. Springfield, Mass: C.A. Nichols Pub. Co. Page 1730
- Cyrus the Great By Jacob Abbott
- Johnson, R., Horne, C. F., & Rudd, J. (1904). The Great events by famous historians. London: The National Alumni. Page 376.
- S. Wise Bauer, The history of the ancient world: from the earliest accounts to the fall of Rome, p. 489
- Emil Reich, General history of western nations from 5000 B.C. to 1900 A.D.
- Ancient history By Hutton Webster
- The life of Cyrus By Cyrus (the great, king of Persia.)
- Cassell's illustrated universal history By Edmund Ollier
- Encyclopædia metropolitana; or, System of universal knowledge
- The great pyramid Jeezeh By Louis Phillipe McCarty
- A history of Persia, Volume 1 By Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes
- A pictorial history of ancient Rome: with a sketch of the history of modern Italy. For the use of schools By Samuel Griswold Goodrich. Huntington and Savage, 1849.
- A compendium of Italian history from the fall of the Roman empire, tr. and completed to the present time by J.D. Morell. Giovanni Bosco (st.). 1881.
- Larned, J. N., In Smith, D. E., In Seymour, C., Shearer, A. H., & In Knowlton, D. C. (1922). The new Larned History for ready reference, reading and research: The actual words of the world's best historians, biographers and specialists; a complete system of history for all uses, extending to all countries and subjects and representing the better and newer literature of history. Springfield, Mass: C.A. Nichols Pub. Co. Page593
- Holler, P. (1901). The student's manual of Indian-Vedic-Sanskrit-Prakrut-Pali literature: A system and review, with lists of commentaries, text-editions, and expositions of the books, a chronicle of Indian authors, and other useful appendices. Rajahmundry, India: Kalavati and V.V. presses.
- Journal of Indian philosophy, Volume 21 SpringerLink (Online service). D. Reidel., 1993.
- Computing science in ancient India By Thammavarapu R. N. Rao, Subhash Kak. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 2000.
- The world's great masterpieces By Harry Thurston Peck, Frank Richard Stockton, Julian Hawthorne, Nathan Haskell Dole, Caroline Ticknor. American literary society, 1901
- The fifteen decisive battles of the world, from Marathon to Waterloo By Edward Shepherd Creasy (sir.)
- Harding, S. B., & Harding, M. S. (1919). Old world background to American history: An elementary history for the grades or junior high school. Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Co
- China of the Chinese By Edward Theodore Chalmers Werner
- Socrates and the Socratic schools By Eduard Zeller
- Epitome of ancient, medieval, and modern history By Karl Ploetz
- Williams, H. S. (1908). The historians' history of the world: Greece to the Peloponnesian. London: The Times
- Greek buildings: represented by fragments in the British museum By William Richard Lethaby, British Museum
- A history of Greece, Volume 6 By George Grote
- The early history of India from 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan conquest: including the invasion of Alexander the Great By Vincent Arthur Smith. The Clarendon press, 1904.
- History of the Peloponnesian war done into English by Richard Crawley. J.M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., 1914.
- Characteristics of the Greek Philosophers: Socrates and Plato By John Philips Potter. J. W. Parker, 1845.
- Xenophon's Memorabilia of Socrates: with English notes, critical and explanatory, the Prolegomena of Kühner, Wiggers' Life of Socrates, etc. By Xenophon, Raphael Kühner, Gustav Friedrich Wiggers, Friedrich Schleiermacher. Harper & brothers, 1848.
- A life of Socrates By Gustav Friedrich Wiggers. Taylor and Walton, 1840.
- The New century book of facts. (1911). Wheeling: Continental. Pg 104
- A beginner's history of philosophy, Volume 1 By Herbert Ernest Cushman. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1910. Pg 219.
- The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts and sciences, literature, history, biography, geography, commerce, etc., of the world, Volume 2 By Frederick Converse Beach, George Edwin Rines. Scientific American compiling department, 1912. "Aristotle", Pg 30
- The Catholic encyclopedia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic Church, Volume 1 By Knights of Columbus. Catholic Truth Committee. Encyclopedia Press, 1907. "Aristotle",Pg 713.
- The history of Greece, Volume 9 By William Mitford. Cadell, 1821. "Battle of Gaugamela, commonly called of Arbela", Pg 408
- Alexander: a history of the origin and growth of the art of war from the earliest times to the battle of Ipsus, B. C. 301, Volume 2 By Theodore Ayrault Dodge. Houghton, Mifflin and company, 1899. Pg 553.
- A history of Greece to the death of Alexander the Great, Volume 1 By John Bagnell Bury. Macmillan, 1902.
- History of India, Volume 2 by Romesh Chunder Dutt, Vincent Arthur Smith, Stanley Lane-Poole, Sir Henry Miers Elliot, Sir William Wilson Hunter, Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall. The Grolier Society, 1906. Pg 103
- Ridpath library of universal literature. Volume 9 By John Clark Ridpath. The Globe publishing company, 1898. Pg 272
- Journal, Volumes 3-5 By Buddhist text and research society, Calcutta, 1895. Pg 26
- Lists of inscriptions, and sketch of the dynasties of southern India By Robert Sewell. Pg 141
- A beginner's history of philosophy, Volume 1 By Herbert Ernest Cushman. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1910. Pg 244
- Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. Volume 16. Printed at the Govt. Central Press, 1883. Pg 614
- The currency of the Farther East from the earliest times up to the present day, Volume 3 By Sir James Haldane Stewart Lockhart, G. B. Glover. Noronha & co., 1898. Pg 43
- Ridpath's History of the world, Volume 2 By John Clark Ridpath. Pg 377
- A history of Persia, Volume 1 By Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes. Pg 16
- The Sacred books and early literature of the East Edited by Charles Francis Horne. Pg 6
- The early history of India. 2nd ed By V.A. Smith. Pg 185
- The Wonders of nature and art: comprising nearly three hundred of the most remarkable curiosities and phenomena in the known world By W. Milner, 1839. Pg 150
- The great wall of China By William Edgar Geil
- The World's History: Oceania, Eastern Asia and the Indian Ocean By Viscount James Bryce Bryce. William Heinemann, 1904. Pg 76
- Andhra: history and coinage By Vincent Arthur Smith. Pg 653
- Babylonian & oriental record, Volume 3. D. Nutt, 1889. Pg 157
- The Great Wall: From Beginning to End. 2007. Pg 152
- Americanized Encyclopædia Britannica, revised and amended. The "Examiner", 1890. Pg 1546
- Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology, Volume 2 By Joseph Thomas. Pg 2155
- The outline of history: being a plain history of life and mankind By Herbert George Wells. Pg 409
- A skeleton outline of Roman history chronologically arranged By Percy Ewing Matheson. Pg 48
- The early history of India from 600 B.C. to the Muhammadan conquest By Vincent Arthur Smith. Pg 175
- Ancient History for Colleges and High Schools: A history of Rome By Philip Van Ness Myers. Pg 69
- Ancient History for Colleges and High Schools: A history of Rome By Philip Van Ness Myers. Pg 71
- Ancient History for Colleges and High Schools: A history of Rome By Philip Van Ness Myers. Pg 195
- Primitive civilizations By Edith Jemima Simcox. Pg 118
- The Academy, Volume 13. J. Murray, 1878. Pg 339
- The Rotarian Feb 1938. "Rediscovering the Silk Road", Pg12
- In the modern period, roughly the area called Canton and Cochin China
- Armenia and the Armenians from the earliest times until the great war (1914) By Kévork Aslan. Pg 23
- The Historians' History of the World: The Roman republic edited by Henry Smith William. Pg 40
- Crassus and his son were killed during the battle and almost all of Roman army were killed or captured. even the golden aquilae (legionary battle standards) was captured by Parthian's army (It was first and last time that aquilae was captured by Roman's enemy).
- Seven Roman Statesmen of the later republic By Charles Oman. Pg 199
- History of Julius Caesar By Jacob Abbott. Harper & Brothers, 1876.
- Mish, Frederick C., Editor in Chief. "Akkad." Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. 9th ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Inc., 1985. ISBN 0-87779-508-8, ISBN 0-87779-509-6 (indexed), and ISBN 0-87779-510-X (deluxe).
- Bertman, Stephen (2005). Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. New York: Oxford UP.
- "Mitanni." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 9 June 2008 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/385882/Mitanni>
- "During two seasons of excavation, Caldwell unearthed 7 different sections of the massive 7000 year old village. He also discovered the oldest known center for copper smelting and bread baking ovens in the world". Answers.com. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- http://cpprot.te.verweg.com/2005-June/000718.html, Iran recently sent an appeal to a Belgian court asking for the return of nine boxes of smuggled ancient artifacts and a 2800-year-old pin stolen from the exposition "7000 Years of Persian Art".
- "ICHTO Struggling to Save Susa Acropol". Archived from the original on 2004-12-16.
The Municipality of Shoush (Susa) accepted a proposal by the cityÕs Cultural Heritage Department for the transfer of an under-construction passenger terminal from the 7,000-year-old city, but conditioned destruction of the terminal to demolition of other constructions and residential units in the area.
- "Jiroft Iran - Jiroft archaeology museum - GLOBOsapiens.net". GLOBOsapiens.net<!. 2007-10-08. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- "Persia 7000 years of civilisation" by David Abbasi (Siyavash AWESTA), The discovery in Iran of a civilisation old of 7000 turns all the archaeological data’s ups and down.
- "The south-western part of Iran was part of the Fertile Crescent where most of humanity's first major crops were grown. 7000 year old jars of wine excavated in the Zagros Mountains and ruins of 7000 year old settlements such as Sialk are further testament to this". Solcomhouse.com. Archived from the original on 4 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- "Archaeologists believe that Jiroft was the origin of Elamite written language in which the writing system developed first and was then spread across the country and reached Susa. The discovered inscription of Jiroft is the most ancient written script found so far". Stonepages.com. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- Hourani, Albert (1991), A History of the Arab Peoples, London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-22664-7. Page 87.
- Bury, J. B. (1923), History Of The Later Roman Empire. p. 109.
- Will Durant, p. ??.
- "Transoxiana 04: Sasanians in Africa". Transoxiana.com.ar. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- "Iransaga: The art of Sassanians". Artarena.force9.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- ed. StBoT 18
- Time Almanac - Page 724 by Editors of Time Magazine
- The New Review - Page 208 edited by Archibald Grove, William Ernest Henley
- Crawford, Harriet E. W. (1998). Dilmun and its Gulf neighbours. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 5. ISBN 0-521-58348-9
- Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity, 1991.
- See, e.g., Bafaqih 1990.
- Stager in Coogan 1998, p. 91.
- Dever 2003, p. 206.
- McNutt 1999, pp. 35.
- Grabbe 2008, pp. 225–6
- Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press, 1991, pp.57.
- Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia, 2005.
- Periplus of the Erythreaean Sea, chs. 4, 5
- Ian Shaw & Paul Nicholson, The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, British Museum Press, London. 1995, p.231.
- Shaw & Nicholson, p.231.
- Breasted 1906-07, p. 161, vol. 1.
- Shaw, Thurstan, Nigeria: Its Archaeology and early history. Retrieved February 22, 2007.
- "artsmia.org : viewer". Artsmia.org. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
- As recounted by Timaeus, FrGrH 566, fr. 60. Archaeological attestation for so early a date is still wanting, though recent discoveries in situ may point nearly as far back in time.
- "Part of Persian Empire". Archived from the original on 2009-10-25.
- "Alexander's Invasion". Archived from the original on 2009-10-25.
- Mendis (1999), p. 11
- Wijesooriya (2006), p. 34
- Wijesooriya (2006), p. 38
- (Bjorn Landstrom, 1964; Miller, J. Innes. 1969; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; & Koder S. 1973; Leslie Brown, 1956
- Angus Maddison (2001). The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, OECD, Paris
- 後漢書, 會稽海外有東鯷人 分爲二十餘國
- See also Jewang Ungi, Dongguk Tonggam, Sejong Sillok, and Chronicle of Korean Rulers, 제왕연대력 帝王年代曆 Jewang yeondaeryeok, Choe Chiwon (최치원) (857 - ?)
- Records of the Grand Historian, vol. 38
- Records of the Grand Historian Vol.55 Korea 史記 朝鮮列伝第五十五 "朝鮮王満者、故燕人也"
- "Korea's History (Ko-Choson, Three Kingdoms, Parhae Kingdom, Unified Shilla, Koryo Dynasty, Colonial Period, Independence Struggle, Provisional Government of Korea, Independence Army, Republic of Korea,)". Asianinfo.org. Archived from the original on 28 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- Wang Geon changed the name of dynasty to Goryeo.
- e.g. Γarudi 2002: 7
- Rybatzki 2003: 58
- The Encyclopedia of world history By Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer. Page 21. "Ancient and Classical Periods; 3500 BCE - 500 BCE."
- Script Delivery: New World writing takes disputed turn Science News December 7th, 2002; Vol.162 #23
- Pohl, Mary; Pope, Kevin O.; von Nagy, Christopher (2002). "Olmec Origins of Mesoamerican Writing". Science. 298: 1984–1987. doi:10.1126/science.1078474. PMID 12471256.
- "Writing May Be Oldest in Western Hemisphere.". New York Times. 2006-09-15. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
A stone slab bearing 3,000-year-old writing previously unknown to scholars has been found in the Mexican state of Veracruz, and archaeologists say it is an example of the oldest script ever discovered in the Americas.
- "'Oldest' New World writing found". BBC. 2006-09-14. Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
Ancient civilisations in Mexico developed a writing system as early as 900 BC, new evidence suggests.
- "Oldest Writing in the New World". Science. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
A block with a hitherto unknown system of writing has been found in the Olmec heartland of Veracruz, Mexico. Stylistic and other dating of the block places it in the early 1st millennium before the common era, the oldest writing in the New World, with features that firmly assign this pivotal development to the Olmec civilization of Mesoamerica.
- Science (subscription required)
- "Symbols on the Wall Push Maya Writing Back by Years". The New York Times. 2006-01-10. Retrieved 2010-03-30.
- Boardman, John; Hammond, N.G.L (eds.). "Preface". The Cambridge Ancient History Volume III, Part 3: The Expansion of the Greek World, Eighth to Sixth Centuries B.C. p. xiii. ISBN 0-521-23447-6.
- Boardman, John; Hammond, N.G.L (eds.). "Preface". The Cambridge Ancient History Volume III, Part 3: The Expansion of the Greek World, Eighth to Sixth Centuries B.C. p. xv. ISBN 0-521-23447-6.
- Lewis, D.M.; Boardman, John; Davies, J.K.; et al. (eds.). "preface". The Cambridge Ancient History Volume V: The Fifth Century B.C. pp. xiii–xiv. ISBN 978-0-521-23347-7.
- "Ancient Britain Had Apartheid-Like Society, Study Suggests". News.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- Parker Library on the Web, The Parker Library. (cf., "One of the most important collections of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts – for centuries kept at Corpus Christi College – has been entirely digitised, making it the first research library to have every page of its collection captured.".)
- "History - Anglo-Saxons". BBC. 2009-11-30. Archived from the original on 19 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- "English and Welsh are races apart". BBC News. 2002-06-30. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- Britannica (Turkey) People and Culture
- Roesdahl, Else. The Vikings. Penguin, 1998. ISBN 0-14-025282-7 p. 9-22.
- "::: 자랑스런 성균관 꽃피우는 유교문화 올바른 인성교육 성균관 예절교실 :::". Skkok.com. Retrieved 2010-01-09.
- Andrew Wilson: "Hydraulic Engineering and Water Supply", in: John Peter Oleson: Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008 (editor), ISBN 978-0-19-973485-6, p.291f.
- Alcock, Susan E.; Terence N., D'Altroy; Terence N., Morrison; et al., eds. (201). Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 546. ISBN 978-0-521-77020-0.
- Carr, E. H. (Edward Hallett). What is History?. Thorndike 1923, Becker 1931, MacMullen 1966, MacMullen 1990, Thomas & Wick 1993, Loftus 1996.
- Collingwood, R. G. (1946). The Idea of History. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Diamond, Jared (1999). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton.
- Dodds, E. R. (1964). The Greeks and the Irrational. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.
- Hodges, Henry; Judith Newcomer (1992). Technology in the Ancient World. Barnes & Noble. ISBN 978-0-88029-893-3.
- Kinzl, Konrad H. (1998). Directory of Ancient Historians in the USA, 2nd ed. Claremont, Calif.: Regina Books. ISBN 0-941690-87-3. Web edition is constantly updated.
- Kristiansen, Kristian; Larsson, Thomas B. (2005). The Rise of Bronze Age Society. Cambridge University Press.
- Libourel, Jan (1973). "A Battle of Uncertain Outcome in the Second Samnite War". American Journal of Philology (– Scholar search). The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 94, No. 1. 94 (1): 71–78. doi:10.2307/294039. JSTOR 294039.
- "Livius. Articles on Ancient History".
- Lobell, Jarrett (July–August 2002). "Etruscan Pompeii". Archaeological Institute of America. 55 (4). Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved September 2007. Check date values in:
- Loftus, Elizbeth (1996). Eyewitness Testimony. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-28777-0.
- MacMullen, Ramsay (1966). Enemies of the Roman Order: Treason, Unrest and Alienation in the Empire. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
- MacMullen, Ramsay (1993). Changes in the Roman Empire: Essays in the Ordinary. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03601-2.
- Schwarz, Georg (2010). Kulturexperimente im Altertum, Berlin.
- Toffteen, Olaf Alfred (1907). Ancient Chronology. University of Chicago Press.
- Thomas, Carol G.; D.P. Wick (1994). Decoding Ancient History: A Toolkit for the Historian as Detective. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-200205-1.
- Thorndike, Lynn (1923–58). History of Magic and Experimental Science. New York: Macmillan. Eight volumes.
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Wikijunior:Ancient Civilizations|
- Ancient History Encyclopedia
- Ancient Civilizations—British Museum's website on various topics of ancient civilization
- Ancient history sourcebook
- The Perseus digital library
- Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman world