Ancient Aliens

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Ancient Aliens
Ancient Aliens logo.svg
GenrePseudoscience, Pseudohistory, Pseudoarchaeology
Narrated byRobert Clotworthy
Country of originUnited States
Original languageEnglish
No. of seasons18
No. of episodes220 (list of episodes)
Production
Executive producerKevin Burns
Camera setupMultiple
Running time
  • 90 minutes (season 1)
  • 60 minutes (season 2–present)
Production companyPrometheus Entertainment
DistributorA&E Networks
Release
Original networkHistory
Original releaseMarch 8, 2009 (2009-03-08) –
present

Ancient Aliens is an American television series that explores the ancient astronauts hypothesis, past human-extraterrestrial contact, UFOs, government conspiracies and related pseudoscientific topics in a non-critical, documentary format.[1][2] Episodes begin and end with rhetorical questions. The series has aired on History and other A&E Networks since 2010, and has been a target for criticism of History's channel drift, and criticism for promoting unorthodox or unproven hypotheses as fact.[3] Episodes are narrated by Robert Clotworthy. The series is produced by Prometheus Entertainment.

The series is inspired by the works of Erich von Däniken and Zecharia Sitchin, Graham Hancock, Robert Bauval, Brinsley Le Poer Trench, Charles Hapgood, and Edgar Cayce. Producer Giorgio Tsoukalos and writer David Childress are featured guests.

The series began as a two-hour documentary special broadcast by History in 2009, and continued for three seasons as a flagship.[4] Seasons 4 to 7 aired on H2, with frequent re-airings of episodes on History and other A&E services. In 2015, the series returned to History after H2 was relaunched as Vice on TV. Season 15 premiered in 2020.[5] Due to COVID-19 disrupting production only 10 episodes aired. The series continued with its sixteenth season in November 2020.[1][6] An eighteenth season aired in 2022.

The series was parodied in the 2011 South Park episode "A History Channel Thanksgiving". Action Bronson has reacted to the series in two seasons of Vice's Action Bronson Watches Ancient Aliens. William Shatner, who narrated the 1976 documentary Mysteries of the Gods, appeared in the Season 16 episode "William Shatner Meets Ancient Aliens ". He later told Inverse that he "was dubious about the whole thing", adding, "something's going on".[7] The series has been criticized by the Smithsonian, among others, for overwhelming the viewer with "fictions and distortions" by using a Gish gallop.[8] Brian Dunning debunked the series as "a slap in the face to the ingenuity of the human race".[9]

Production[edit]

Executive producer of the series was Kevin Burns from 2009 until 2020. Giorgio Tsoukalos serves as consulting producer, and is a featured guest, appearing in every episode.[10] UFO researcher C. Scott Littleton served as a producing consultant during the series development until his death in 2010.[11]

The series was launched as a two-hour documentary special for the History Channel. Originally broadcast March 8, 2009, the special was re-run several times and is now packaged with the series as its pilot episode. Ancient Aliens: The Series aired on History from 2010 to 2011, then moved to H2 where it was promoted as one of the network's flagship series until 2014. Frequent re-airings of episodes continued on the main channel, with highlights and selected episodes airing on A&E and Lifetime. A package of thirteen episodes were made available for syndication in the United States and Canada during the 2011–12 television season.[citation needed] The packaged several episodes focusing on the 2012 phenomenon. In some foreign markets, the series still carries the Ancient Aliens: The Series title card.

On April 10, 2015, the series returned to History after H2 was relaunched as Vice on TV. In response to complaints from disgruntled fans, Vice on TV created Action Bronson Watches Ancient Aliens.[12] History renewed Ancient Aliens for a fifteenth, and rumored final season, which premiered on January 24, 2020.[5] Due to COVID-19 disrupting production, the season ended after the twelve completed episodes were broadcast. Production was soon restarted, and a sixteenth season began on November 13, 2020.[1][6]

Premise, cosmology, and presentation style[edit]

The premise of the series is based upon and inspired by the pseudoscientific ancient astronauts hypothesis previously popularized in Chariots of the Gods? by Erich von Däniken, and The 12th Planet, by Zecharia Sitchin, which purports that extraterrestrial beings visited Earth in antiquity or prehistoric times and introduced civilization, architecture, and high technology to primitive humans. Many, if not all, of ancient man's achievements in language, mathematics, science, technology and stone construction, such as Egyptian pyramids, Pumapunku, Teotihuacan, and Stonehenge, are attributed to the influence of extraterrestrials. Remnants of extraterrestrial visitations are claimed to be found in religious texts, ancient myths and legendary histories, in addition to fragments found in the texts and practices of Hinduism, Ancient Egyptian religion, Gnostic Christianity, and Mormonism. The hypothesis also holds that ancient visitations left etymological remnants in many of the world's languages, such as the root words for "Dagon", "dragon", "dog", and "Danann", or the frequent occurrence of the prefix anu- meaning "friend" or "visitor."

Claims that anatomically modern humans are the result of genetic modification and or modern humans are somehow biologically descended from the ancient aliens—a hypothesis also popularized by von Däniken and Sitchin.[citation needed] Other claims linked to the ancient astronauts hypothesis, such as UFO conspiracy theories, alien abductions, the Roswell and Rendlesham Forest incidents, panspermia, and human space exploration, feature prominently in many episodes.

The series presents all claims made by guests in an uncritical format. The narration frequently frames claims made by guests or their responses as rhetorical questions which are answered with "ancient alien theorists say yes," or a variation thereof. After a particular claim is introduced, and explored in some detail, the narration cuts away with, "Perhaps more evidence can be found…" Another location, archeological find, or event, with a hypothetical connection to the previous claim is introduced. Chariots of the Gods? used a similar framing device. Smithsonian Magazine described this presentation style as a Gish gallop.[8] There is no indication made, either by the narration or on-screen, when comments made by guests in each episode are: the guests speculating on the rhetorical question made by the interviewer; or if they are repeating claims made by other researchers; or if they are speaking of their own work or expertise. Geologist Robert Schoch said portions of his own interviews for the series are sometimes inserted into the finished episodes in a manner which is out of context, or wholly disconnected from the questions asked of him on and off camera.[13]

There is little use of precise dates in many episodes. Guests use terms such as "the remote past", "prehistoric times", "ancient times", or "remote past", or they refer to "our ancient ancestors" in the abstract, when discussing hypothetical historical events. There is a frequent demarcation of pre-history from the modern era used by guests: "before or after 'The Ice Age'", or 12,000 years ago. Many guests featured on the series have claimed an advanced human civilization was destroyed at the end of the Ice Age.

Writer David Childress, who appears in every episode, frequently concludes his comments with the exclamation: "—probably extraterrestrials." Both Childress and Giorgio Tsoukalos repeatedly assert ancient peoples lacked the vocabulary to describe "technological" or "high-tech" devices, such as rockets or missiles, advanced weapons, aircraft, powered land vehicles, and medical instruments, the ancient people's supposedly witnessed. And thus referred to extra-terrestrial visitors using such technology as gods. Many of the guests who appear in the series support these claims in their own work creating a shared cosmology. Terms such as "ancient astronauts", "ancient aliens", "alien visitors", "extra-terrestrial beings", "ancient gods", and "otherworldly beings", are used interchangeably by guests and the narration. And guests frequently conflate the meaning of "theory" and "hypothesis", or they frequently obscure or ignore the difference between mythology, legendary history, and verifiable archaeology, anthropology, or documented history.

Frequent guests[edit]

Erich von Däniken is the featured guest in the pilot episode, in addition to being the focus of two biographical episodes: "The Von Däniken Legacy", in Season 5, and "The Alien Phenomena", in Season 13.

In the first season, credentialed scientists and professionals, such as Sara Seager and Michael Denning, respond to claims made by other guests, but their rebuttals were not rigorous. In subsequent episodes, scientists and professionals offer explanations of scientific phenomena or historical events without endorsing claims made by other guests, or they offer personal commentary. Psychologist Jonathan Young appears in 123 episodes, providing explanations of myths and legends, and legendary history. Boston University associate professor Robert M. Schoch presents his Sphinx water erosion hypothesis, as well as his hypothesis concerning the age and purpose of Göbekli Tepe, in several episodes.

Radio talk show host George Noory appears in over 80 episodes, including the pilot episode. Reverend Barry Downing, known for describing angels in the Bible as ancient astronauts, appears in the pilot episode, and his comments are repeated in several other episodes. Writers Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock appear in many episodes. They both express skepticism of the ancient aliens premise, and expand on their own theories of ancient civilizations; Hancock repeats the statement from his work that "There is a forgotten episode in human history." In the episode "The Alien Phenomena", Bauval states "I don't see why not", with regard to von Däniken's claims originally made in Chariots of the Gods? potentially being true.

Segments and highlights from all first season episodes, including the pilot, were edited into later episodes up to Season 12, so that guests who appeared in Season 1 ostensibly appear in later seasons, although footage of their interviews was re-used.

Evidence[edit]

Little empirical evidence is offered in many episodes to support the presented claims, instead many segments focus on out-of-place artifacts, such as: the London Hammer, Antikythera mechanism, or the Aiud object; or segments focus on alleged inconsistencies in the accepted historical record. Guests discuss evidence which supports their claims in general or abstract terms. Some guests have alleged professionals and government have suppressed evidence of ancient mysteries, such as the episode "The Prototypes" in which guests alleged the Smithsonian Institution suppressed findings of "giant humanoids" found alongside American Indian remains in the Kanawha Valley.

From Season 12 onward, episodes have included segments in which evidence that potentially supports the ancient astronauts hypothesis is subjected to testing by credentialed scientists and medical professionals on-camera. In the episode "The Science Wars" an elongated skull was subject to an MRI examination, and DNA was extracted and tested. In the episode "The Star Gods of Sirius" blue, porous, nitrogen-rich stones, were examined by geologists. However, none of the results produced—from the skull, the stones, or other objects examined in later episodes—proved conclusive.

Other claims[edit]

Guests have presented other unproven historical and pseudoscientific hypotheses related to, or dependent upon an understanding of: Atlantis and other lost civilizations, as described in works by Brinsley Le Poer Trench and Edgar Cayce, or ley lines as originally described by Alfred Watkins; cataclysmic pole shifts as promoted by Charles Hapgood; various forms of Christian and Hindu creationism, or pseudohistory promoted by various religious movements; mythical elements of the Kabbalah, Zohar, and Book of Enoch; and various new religious movements. These hypotheses and claims are discussed within the scope of ancient astronauts cosmology.

Other concepts explored include faith healing, remote viewing, and various psychic phenomena. Numerous guests discuss various forms of catastrophism, and refer to other featured guests or historical figures as catastrophists. In various episodes, guests have claimed prominent historical figures were either influenced by or were possibly "extra-terrestrial" or "otherworldly beings."

Guests have also discussed unrelated pseudoscientific claims, such as: dinosaurs coexisting with humans until a recent extinction event, crystal healing and crystal skulls, as well as Freemasonry, rosicrucianism, and the New World Order. Linda Moulton Howe appears in several episodes which explore alien abduction, animal mutilation, and conspiracies involving military installations on Antarctica. The 2013 Citizen Hearing on Disclosure features prominently in numerous episodes, such as Season 14's "The Nuclear Agenda".

Prior to December 2012, several episodes explored facets of the 2012 Mayan doomsday prophecy. The episodes "The Maya Conspiracy" and "The Doomsday Prophecies", which aired in February 2012, explored the Maya calendar and its relation to the construction of Palenque, the god Kukulkan, in addition to links between the Maya civilization and the ancient astronaut hypothesis. Episodes focusing on Mesoamerica broadcast after 2012 make no mention of the 2012 phenomenon. In the episode "The God Particle", guests linked the Mayan long count to the discovery of the Higgs boson.[14]

Episodes[edit]

SeasonEpisodesOriginally aired
First airedLast aired
PilotMarch 8, 2009 (2009-03-08)
15April 20, 2010 (2010-04-20)May 25, 2010 (2010-05-25)
210October 28, 2010 (2010-10-28)December 30, 2010 (2010-12-30)
316July 28, 2011 (2011-07-28)November 23, 2011 (2011-11-23)
410February 17, 2012 (2012-02-17)May 4, 2012 (2012-05-04)
512December 21, 2012 (2012-12-21)April 19, 2013 (2013-04-19)
611September 30, 2013 (2013-09-30)December 13, 2013 (2013-12-13)
78January 24, 2014 (2014-01-24)March 14, 2014 (2014-03-14)
89June 13, 2014 (2014-06-13)August 22, 2014 (2014-08-22)
912October 31, 2014 (2014-10-31)May 1, 2015 (2015-05-01)
1010July 24, 2015 (2015-07-24)October 9, 2015 (2015-10-09)
1115May 6, 2016 (2016-05-06)September 2, 2016 (2016-09-02)
1216April 28, 2017 (2017-04-28)September 15, 2017 (2017-09-15)
1315April 27, 2018 (2018-04-27)January 7, 2019 (2019-01-07)
1422May 31, 2019 (2019-05-31)November 29, 2019 (2019-11-29)
1512January 24, 2020 (2020-01-24)April 18, 2020 (2020-04-18)
1610November 13, 2020 (2020-11-13)March 12, 2021 (2021-03-12)
177August 6, 2021 (2021-08-06)October 8, 2021 (2021-10-08)
1820January 7, 2022 (2022-01-07)September 16, 2022 (2022-09-16)

Reception[edit]

The program had 1.676 million viewers in late October 2010,[15] 2.034 million viewers in mid-December (for the "Unexplained Structures" episode),[16] and in late-January 2011 the series had 1.309 million viewers.[17][18]

Critical response[edit]

The series has been criticized by historians, cosmologists, archaeologists and other scientists for presenting and promoting pseudoscience, pseudohistory and pseudoarchaeology as fact. Episodes are frequently characterized as "far-fetched",[19] "hugely speculative",[20] and "expound[ing] wildly on theories suggesting that astronauts wandered the Earth freely in ancient times."[21] Many of the claims made by guests are not commonly accepted as fact by the scientific community.[22] In 2009, History professor Ronald H. Fritze observed that pseudoscience has a periodic popularity in the U.S.:[22][23]

In a pop culture with a short memory and a voracious appetite, aliens and pyramids and lost civilizations are recycled like fashions.

Brad Lockwood of Forbes characterized Ancient Aliens as an example of History's channel drift toward "programs devoted to monsters, aliens, and conspiracies". He added that, "Ancient Aliens defies all ability to suspend disbelief for the sake of entertainment."[3] Alex Knapp, also of Forbes, cited archaeologist Keith Fitzpatrick-Matthews' rebuke of History for treating "nonsense as though it were fact."[24]

In 2011, South Park parodied the series in the episode "A History Channel Thanksgiving". Ramsey Isler of IGN commented, "The aim is placed squarely on Ancient Aliens specifically".[25] South Park's animation style created "a perfect satire of all the ridiculousness of this series, including the black and white art with aliens photoshopped in, and interviews with people of dubious authority".

Science writer Riley Black was critical of the series—particularly an episode that suggested "aliens exterminated dinosaurs to make way for our species"—which she characterized as "some of the most noxious sludge in television's bottomless chum bucket." Black accused the series of employing a Gish gallop technique to overwhelm the viewer with many "fictions and distortions."[8] Others have called attention to a paucity of opposing viewpoints, such as Kenneth Feder, Professor of Archaeology at Central Connecticut State University and author of Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology. He was approached by producers with requests to appear in several episodes: "My response was, I'd be happy to be on your show, but you should know that I think that the ancient astronaut hypothesis is execrable bullshit."[26] He added, "I haven't heard back from them, rather remarkably. So, I guess maybe they're not interested in the other point of view."[27] In 2016, Vice on TV producer Jordan Kinley said of Ancient Aliens claims:[12]

You feel kind of lost when someone questions the historical narrative you’ve been taught. I don’t believe much of what’s talked about … but I think it’s a good time for people to realize that some of our history is manufactured. Some of it is manufactured to be accurate, and some of it is manufactured to excuse horrible things that have happened.

In the 2019 issue of Public Archaeology, Franco D. Rossi of Johns Hopkins University published a retrospective of his experience at the 2018 Boston Alien Con. He characterized Ancient Aliens and its fans as a "science fiction fandom" which also trafficked in "misinformation" and "conspiracies."[28] He warned professionals in various history fields will have to reckon with ancient astronaut hypothesis and its adherents. In March 2020, podcaster Brian Dunning challenged and debunked many of the claims featured on Ancient Aliens. At the conclusion of the third episode, Dunning quoted Kenneth Feder's Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology:[29]

I realize that for some of you I'm being mean, snarky, and inflexible on this topic. And you'd be right. But in the face of a program and, at its core, a philosophy that is based on assumptions that degrade and diminish the inherent human capacity to invent, create, build, cooperate, and rise to the occasion to solve great technological challenges, both in the present and in the past [...]

Dunning emphasized Feder's conclusion: "I maintain that meanness and inflexibility are entirely appropriate responses."[29]

Critical response by guests[edit]

Many guests featured in episodes of the series have publicly expressed skepticism of the series' premise or of the ancient astronaut hypothesis. In the pilot episode, Sister Ilia Delio of the Washington Theological Union repeated comments made previously[where?] about the predilection for literalism common among supporters of the ancient astronaut hypothesis:[30]

Can we liken Ezekiel’s chariot to a UFO? The ancients used myth and metaphor and images to describe their experience of God. I think what we don’t want to fall to is a type of 'fundamental literalism'. The stories of the Old Testament emerge out of the people of that time, out of their own context, to make sense of their experience of God. We can gain insight by reading the Old Testament and reading about Ezekiel’s chariot, but its not to draw a strict analogy between his chariot and a UFO.

At a 2014 hearing of the House Committee on Science, Seth Shostak said, "The public is fascinated with the idea that we may be being visited now, or maybe in the past," but there is not any evidence which has convinced him "that we were visited in [historical] times."[31] Shostak has appeared in twelve episodes. In a 2018 episode of The Joe Rogan Experience, Robert Schoch said promoters of the ancient astronaut hypothesis "want everything to be 'ancient aliens'," which in his view was "sort of a cop-out". He added those same promoters are often motivated to sell books, DVDs, and conference tickets instead of presenting facts.[13] Belief in the ancient alien hypothesis and other ancient mysteries "fills a void" for some people, according to Schoch, but he "tries to fill that void with something real."[13]

William Shatner, who appeared in the Season 16 episode "William Shatner Meets Ancient Aliens ", told Inverse: "I had some spirited discussions with these experts who believe aliens were here, and like most people, I was dubious about the whole thing." He added, "they intrigued me enough to think something's going on."[7]

Related media[edit]

Ancient Aliens meme[edit]

Tsoukalos's appearances in Ancient Aliens inspired a meme highlighting his unusual hairstyle overlaid with the caption: "I'm not saying it was aliens … but …"[32] Variations of the meme were uploaded by users as early as November 2010.[32][33] According to Dictionary.com, the meme mimicked "the tone of conviction used by Tsoukalos to present unfounded far-fetched pseudo-logic as fact."[33]

Alien Con[edit]

From 2016 to 2018, A&E Networks co-produced several installments of Alien Con, a convention inspired by the series.[34][35] Footage from the 2016 and 2017 conventions appeared in several episodes which aired during Seasons 11 and 12. Highlights from the November 2018 convention in Baltimore were included in several episodes that aired in 2019, most prominently the episode "Project Hybrid".[36]

Action Bronson Watches Ancient Aliens[edit]

In 2016, Vice on TV released Action Bronson Watches Ancient Aliens, which was followed by a ten-episode series, later retitled Traveling the Stars. Each episode features rapper Action Bronson and celebrity guests reacting to episodes of Ancient Aliens while intoxicated by cannabis. Bronson praised Ancient Aliens, saying it is "the best thing that was ever created by man."[37] According to producers Jordan Kinley and Hannah Gregg, Traveling the Stars was developed as a response to complaints by disgruntled viewers of H2 which Vice on TV's programming replaced.[12] Traveling the Stars was renewed for a second season in 2019.

Other History series and tie-ins[edit]

Many guests featured on Ancient Aliens appear in other History channel series, such as The Secret of Skinwalker Ranch, America's Book of Secrets, and The Curse of Oak Island. Segments from those series have appeared in Ancient Aliens.[citation needed] An illustrated companion to the series was published in November 2016 (ISBN 978-0-06-245541-3) which offered an overview of the ancient astronaut hypothesis, and introductions to a number of topics explored by the series up to Season 11. The audiobook adapted from the companion features the voices of Giorgio A. Tsoukalos, Angela Cartwright, Bill Mumy, Robert Clotworthy, and producer Kevin Burns.

William Shatner, who appears in two episodes of Ancient Aliens, presents The UnXplained which explores many of the topics featured in episodes Ancient Aliens. Shatner narrated the English-language version of Mystery of the Gods (1976) which was based on von Däniken's books published after Chariots of the Gods?.

Film adaptation[edit]

In April 2021, Counterbalance Entertainment announced they had closed a deal with Legendary Entertainment to produce a film adaptation of Ancient Aliens. Josh Heald, creator of Cobra Kai, will direct a script written by Luke Ryan who will also executive produce.[38] In July 2022, Legendary announced Craig Titley would write the feature script with Josh Heald to direct in partnership with Counterbalance Entertainment.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Ancient Aliens Theory". History. December 25, 2010. Archived from the original on December 29, 2016. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  2. ^ "Evidence of Ancient Aliens?". History. December 25, 2010. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Lockwood, Brad (October 17, 2011). "High Ratings Aside, Where's the History on History?". Forbes. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved March 21, 2012.
  4. ^ "Ancient Aliens Episode Guide". History. December 25, 2010. Archived from the original on June 18, 2016. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  5. ^ a b "Ancient Aliens Season 15". History. Archived from the original on January 13, 2020. Retrieved January 13, 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Watch Ancient Aliens Season 16 Online – HISTORY". History. March 12, 2021. Archived from the original on February 7, 2021. Retrieved April 9, 2021.
  7. ^ a b Kleinman, Jake. "William Shatner reveals why he blocked me on Twitter in 2018". Inverse. Archived from the original on May 17, 2021. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
  8. ^ a b c Black, Riley (May 11, 2012). "The Idiocy, Fabrications and Lies of Ancient Aliens". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on May 17, 2021. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  9. ^ "Debunking Ancient Aliens, Part 3". Skeptoid. Archived from the original on January 18, 2021. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
  10. ^ "December 4, 2010, Giorgio Tsoukalos, "Ancient Aliens" & "Twilight of the Gods"". Barb Adams Live. December 4, 2010. Archived from the original on October 22, 2019. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  11. ^ "Obituary of C. Scott Littleton". Anthropology News. 52 (2): 31–32. February 17, 2011. doi:10.1111/j.1556-3502.2011.52231.x.
  12. ^ a b c Capossela, Francesca (August 3, 2016). "How Action Bronson Ended Up Getting High and Watching 'Ancient Aliens'". Vice. Archived from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  13. ^ a b c Joe Rogan (May 31, 2018). "#1124 – Robert Schoch". The Joe Rogan Experience (Podcast). Archived from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  14. ^ "The God Particle". Ancient Aliens. Season 8. Episode 7. August 8, 2014. 25:30 minutes in. History.
  15. ^ "TV Ratings for October 29, 2010". TV By the Numbers. Archived from the original on November 21, 2010.
  16. ^ "TV Ratings for December 17, 2010". TV By the Numbers. Archived from the original on December 19, 2010.
  17. ^ "TV Ratings for January 27, 2011". TV By the Numbers. Archived from the original on January 30, 2011.
  18. ^ "TV Ratings for January 28th, 2011". Inside TV Ratings. Archived from the original on September 20, 2011. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
  19. ^ SH (April 30, 2011). "Ancient Aliens". The Daily Telegraph (London). p. 38.
  20. ^ Clay, Joe (April 30, 2011). "Digital Choices". The Times (London). p. 35.
  21. ^ Ryan, Andrew (April 25, 2011). "Tonight on TV/Critical Picks". The Globe and Mail (Canada). p. R2.
  22. ^ a b Fritze, Ronald H. (November 2009). "On the Perils and Pleasures of Confronting Pseudohistory". Historically Speaking. 10 (5): 2–5. ISSN 1941-4188. Archived from the original on July 2, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2011.
  23. ^ Fritze, Ronald (July 8, 2009). "Ronald H. Fritze, On his book Invented Knowledge: False History, Fake Science and Pseudo-Religions, Cover Interview". Rorotoko.com. Archived from the original on December 28, 2019. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  24. ^ Knapp, Alex (September 19, 2011). "An Archaeologist Watches the History Channel and Questions the Part About the Aliens". Forbes. Archived from the original on August 26, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
  25. ^ Isler, Ramsey (November 10, 2011). "South Park: "A History Channel Thanksgiving" Review". IGN. Archived from the original on December 3, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  26. ^ Feder, K. (1990). Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology. New York, McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages. ISBN 978-0078116971.
  27. ^ Ancient Alien Astronauts: Interview with Ken Feder. Skeptic.com archive Archived August 31, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
  28. ^ Rossi, Franco D. (July 3, 2019). "Reckoning with the Popular Uptake of Alien Archaeology". Public Archaeology. 18 (3): 162–183. doi:10.1080/14655187.2021.1920795. ISSN 1465-5187. S2CID 237124510.
  29. ^ a b "Debunking Ancient Aliens, Part 1". Skeptoid. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
  30. ^ "Chariots, Gods & Beyond". Ancient Aliens. March 8, 2009. Event occurs at 28:12. History.
  31. ^ "Extraterrestrial Life". C-SPAN. May 21, 2014. Archived from the original on May 26, 2021. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  32. ^ a b "Ancient Aliens". Know Your Meme. Archived from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  33. ^ a b "ancient aliens". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on May 22, 2021. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
  34. ^ "A Close Encounter with Alien Con, Plus Q&A with the TV Star of History's 'Ancient Aliens'". SF Station | San Francisco's City Guide. Archived from the original on May 17, 2021. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
  35. ^ "History Channel Plans 'Ancient Aliens' Con". licenseglobal.com. May 6, 2016. Archived from the original on May 17, 2021. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
  36. ^ "Project Hybrid". Ancient Aliens. Season 14. Episode 10. August 9, 2019. Event occurs at 24:53. History.
  37. ^ Green, Patrick (July 21, 2016). "Action Bronson's New Show Is High-larious". CraveOnline. Archived from the original on September 24, 2016. Retrieved September 3, 2016.
  38. ^ Galuppo, Mia (April 7, 2021). "'Cobra Kai' Creators Tackling 'Ancient Aliens' Movie for Legendary". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 8, 2021. Retrieved April 8, 2021.
  39. ^ Kit, Borys (July 7, 2022). "'Agents of SHIELD' Writer Tackling 'Ancient Aliens' for Legendary, 'Cobra Kai' Creators (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 5, 2022.

External links[edit]