Ancient Egyptian race controversy
The question of the race of ancient Egyptians was raised historically as a product of the scientific racism of the 18th and 19th centuries, and was linked to models of racial hierarchy primarily based on craniometry, anthropometry and genetics. A variety of views circulated about the racial identity of the Egyptians and the source of their culture. These were typically identified in terms of a distinction between the Caucasoid and Negroid racial categories. Some scholars argued that ancient Egyptian culture was influenced by other Afroasiatic-speaking populations in Northeast Africa or the Middle East, while others pointed to influences from various Nubian groups or populations in Europe.
Since the second half of the 20th century, many anthropologists have rejected the notion of race as having any validity in the study of human biology. Typological and hierarchical models of race have increasingly been rejected by scientists in favour of models of social development based on geographical origin.
The consensus of modern scholarship is that the civilization of Ancient Egypt was an indigenous development of the Nile Valley, and its composition was heterogeneous. The question of the phenotypical characteristics (skin color, facial features, hair texture) and genetic affiliations of the Egyptian population remains a point of study and debate.
- 1 History
- 2 Position of modern scholarship
- 3 Specific current-day controversies
- 4 Historical hypotheses
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Works cited
The earliest examples of disagreement regarding the race of the ancient Egyptians occurred in the work of Europeans and Americans early in the 19th century. One early example of such an attempt was an article published in The New-England Magazine of October 1833, where the authors dispute a claim that "Herodotus was given as authority for their being negroes." They point out with reference to tomb paintings: "It may be observed that the complexion of the men is invariably red, that of the women yellow; but neither of them can be said to have anything in their physiognomy at all resembling the Negro countenance."
In the 18th century, Constantin François de Chassebœuf, comte de Volney, wrote "The Copts are the proper representatives of the Ancient Egyptians" due to their "jaundiced and fumed skin, which is neither Greek, Negro nor Arab, their full faces, their puffy eyes, their crushed noses, and their thick lips ... the ancient Egyptians were true negroes of the same type as all native born Africans."
Just a few years later, in 1839, Jean-François Champollion stated in his work Egypte Ancienne that the Egyptians and Nubians are represented in the same manner in tomb paintings and reliefs, further suggesting that: "In the Copts of Egypt, we do not find any of the characteristic features of the Ancient Egyptian population. The Copts are the result of crossbreeding with all the nations that successfully dominated Egypt. It is wrong to seek in them the principal features of the old race." Also in 1839, Champollion's and Volney's claims were disputed by Jacques Joseph Champollion-Figeac, who blamed the ancients for spreading a false impression of a Negro Egypt, stating "The opinion that the ancient population of Egypt belonged to the Negro African race, is an error long accepted as the truth. [...] Volney's conclusion as to the Negro origin of the ancient Egyptian civilization is evidently forced and inadmissible."
The debate over the race of the Ancient Egyptians intensified during the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, as arguments relating to the justifications for slavery increasingly asserted the historical, mental and physical inferiority of black people. For example, in 1851, John Campbell directly challenged the claims by Champollion and others regarding the evidence for a black Egypt, asserting "There is one great difficulty, and to my mind an insurmountable one, which is that the advocates of the negro civilization of Egypt do not attempt to account for, how this civilization was lost.... Egypt progressed, and why, because it was Caucasian." The arguments regarding the race of the Egyptians became more explicitly tied to the debate over slavery in the United States as the United States escalated towards civil war. In 1854, Josiah C. Nott with George Glidden set out to prove: "that the Caucasian or white, and the Negro races were distinct at a very remote date, and that the Egyptians were Caucasians." Samuel George Morton, a physician and professor of anatomy, concluded that although "Negroes were numerous in Egypt, but their social position in ancient times was the same that it now is [in the United States], that of servants and slaves." In the early 20th century, Flinders Petrie, a Professor of Egyptology at the University of London, in turn spoke of a Nubian queen, Aohmes Nefertari, who was the "divine ancestress of the XVIIIth dynasty." He described her physically as having "had an aquiline nose, long and thin, and was of a type not in the least prognathous."
Position of modern scholarship
|The realistic Fayum mummy portraits show the diversity of Egyptians in the Roman period|
Modern scholars who have studied Ancient Egyptian culture and population history have responded to the controversy over the race of the Ancient Egyptians in different ways.
Since the second half of the 20th century, most anthropologists have rejected the notion of race as having any validity in the study of human biology. Stuart Tyson Smith writes in the 2001 Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, "Any characterization of race of the ancient Egyptians depends on modern cultural definitions, not on scientific study. Thus, by modern American standards it is reasonable to characterize the Egyptians as 'black', while acknowledging the scientific evidence for the physical diversity of Africans." Frank M. Snowden asserts "Egyptians, Greeks and Romans attached no special stigma to the colour of the skin and developed no hierarchical notions of race whereby highest and lowest positions in the social pyramid were based on colour." Additionally, typological and hierarchical models of race have increasingly been rejected by scientists in favour of models of geographical origin.
It is now largely agreed that Dynastic Egyptians were indigenous to the Nile area. About 5,000 years ago, the Sahara area dried out, and part of the indigenous Saharan population retreated east towards the Nile Valley. In addition, peoples from the Middle East entered the Nile Valley, bringing with them wheat, barley, sheep, goats, and possibly cattle. Dynastic Egyptians referred to their country as "The Two Lands". During the Predynastic period (about 4800 to 4300BC), the Merimde culture flourished in the northern part of Egypt (Lower Egypt). This culture, among others, has links to the Levant in the Middle East. The pottery of the later Buto Maadi culture, best known from the site at Maadi near Cairo, also shows connections to the southern Levant as well. In the southern part of Egypt (Upper Egypt), the predynastic Badarian culture was followed by the Naqada culture. These people seem to be more closely related to the Nubians than with northern Egyptians.
Due to its geographical location at the crossroads of several major cultural areas, Egypt has experienced a number of foreign invasions during historical times, including by the Canaanites (Hyksos), the Ancient Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Persians, the Macedonian Greeks, the Romans (Byzantium in late antiquity/early Middle Ages), the Arabs, the Turks, and the British.
At the UNESCO "Symposium on the Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script" in Cairo in 1974, the Black Hypothesis met with "profound" disagreement. Most participants concluded that the Ancient Egyptian population was indigenous to the Nile Valley, and was made up of people from north and south of the Sahara who were differentiated by their color. The arguments for all sides are recorded in the UNESCO publication General History of Africa, with the "Origin of the Egyptians" chapter being written by Cheikh Anta Diop.
In 1975, the mummy of Ramesses II was taken to France for preservation. The mummy was also forensically tested by Professor Pierre-Fernand Ceccaldi, the chief forensic scientist at the Criminal Identification Laboratory of Paris, who wrote: "Hair, astonishingly preserved, showed some complementary data - especially about pigmentation: Ramses II was a Red haired cymnotriche leucoderma", that is a fair-skinned person with wavy red hair.
In 2008, S. O. Y. Keita wrote
"There is no scientific reason to believe that the primary ancestors of the Egyptian population emerged and evolved outside of northeast Africa.... The basic overall genetic profile of the modern population is consistent with the diversity of ancient populations that would have been indigenous to northeastern Africa and subject to the range of evolutionary influences over time, although researchers vary in the details of their explanations of those influences."
Specific current-day controversies
Since the 1970s, the issues regarding the race of the ancient Egyptians have been taboo subject for mainstream United States scientists. The debate has thus been led by the public, focusing on specific issues.
Several Afrocentric scholars, including Diop, have claimed that Tutankhamun was black, and have protested that attempted reconstructions of Tutankhamun's facial features (as depicted on the cover of National Geographic Magazine) have represented the king as "too white". Among these writers was Chancellor Williams, who argued that King Tutankhamun, his parents, and grandparents were black.
Forensic artists and physical anthropologists from Egypt, France, and the United States independently created busts of Tutankhamun, using a CT-scan of the skull. Biological anthropologist Susan Anton, the leader of the American team, said the race of the skull was "hard to call". She stated that the shape of the cranial cavity indicated an African, while the nose opening suggested narrow nostrils, which is usually considered to be a European characteristic. The skull was thus concluded to be that of a North African. Other experts have argued that neither skull shapes nor nasal openings are a reliable indication of race.
Although modern technology can reconstruct Tutankhamun's facial structure with a high degree of accuracy, based on CT data from his mummy, determining his skin tone and eye color is impossible. The clay model was therefore given a coloring, which, according to the artist, was based on an "average shade of modern Egyptians".
Terry Garcia, National Geographic's executive vice president for mission programs, said, in response to some of those protesting against the Tutankhamun reconstruction:
"The big variable is skin tone. North Africans, we know today, had a range of skin tones, from light to dark. In this case, we selected a medium skin tone, and we say, quite up front, 'This is midrange.' We will never know for sure what his exact skin tone was or the color of his eyes with 100% certainty.... Maybe in the future, people will come to a different conclusion."
In a November 2007 publication of Ancient Egypt Magazine, Hawass asserted that none of the facial reconstructions resemble Tut and that, in his opinion, the most accurate representation of the boy king is the mask from his tomb. The Discovery Channel commissioned a facial reconstruction of Tutankhamun, based on CT scans of a model of his skull, back in 2002.
The race and skin color of Cleopatra, the last pharaoh of the Greek Ptolomaic dynasty of Egypt, established in 323 BCE, has also caused frequent debate. For example, the article "Was Cleopatra Black?" was published in Ebony magazine in 2012, and an article about Afrocentrism from the St. Louis Post-Dispatch mentions the question, too. Scholars generally identify Cleopatra as of Greek and Persian ancestry, based on fact that her Greek Macedonian family had intermingled with the Persian aristocracy of the time. However, her mother's identity is uncertain, and that of her paternal grandmother is also not known for certain.
The question was the subject of a heated exchange between Mary Lefkowitz, who has referred in her articles to a debate she had with one of her students about the question of whether Cleopatra was black, and Molefi Kete Asante, Professor of African American Studies at Temple University. In response to Not Out of Africa by Lefkowitz, Asante wrote the article "Race in Antiquity: Truly Out of Africa", in which he emphasized that he "can say without a doubt that Afrocentrists do not spend time arguing that either Socrates or Cleopatra were black".
In 2009, a BBC documentary speculated that Arsinoe IV, the half-sister of Cleopatra VII, may have been part African and then further speculated that Cleopatra's mother, thus Cleopatra herself, might also have been part African. This was based largely on the claims of Hilke Thür of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, who in the 1990s had examined a headless skeleton of a female child in a 20 BC tomb in Ephesus (modern Turkey), together with the old notes and photographs of the now-missing skull. He identified the body as that of Arsinoe. Arsinoe and Cleopatra, shared the same father (Ptolemy XII Auletes) but had different mothers.
Great Sphinx of Giza
The identity of the model for the Great Sphinx of Giza is unknown. Virtually all Egyptologists and scholars[weasel words] currently believe that the face of the Sphinx represents the likeness of the Pharaoh Khafra, although a few Egyptologists and interested amateurs have proposed several different hypotheses.
Numerous scholars, such as DuBois, Diop, Asante, and Volney, have characterized the face of the Sphinx as Black, or "Negroid". Around 1785 Volney stated, "When I visited the sphinx ... on seeing that head, typically Negro in all its features, I remembered ... Herodotus says: "... the Egyptians ... are black with woolly hair...." Another early description of a "Negroid" Sphinx is recorded in the travel notes of a French scholar, who visited in Egypt between 1783 and 1785, Constantin-François Chassebœuf along with French novelist Gustave Flaubert.
|km biliteral||kmt (place)||kmt (people)|
Ancient Egyptians referred to their homeland as Kmt (conventionally pronounced as Kemet). According to Cheikh Anta Diop, the Egyptians referred to themselves as "Black" people or kmt, and km was the etymological root of other words, such as Kam or Ham, which refer to Black people in Hebrew tradition. A review of David Goldenberg's The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity and Islam states that Goldenberg "argues persuasively that the biblical name Ham bears no relationship at all to the notion of blackness and as of now is of unknown etymology". Diop, William Leo Hansberry, and Aboubacry Moussa Lam have argued that kmt was derived from the skin color of the Nile valley people, which Diop claimed was black. The claim that the Ancient Egyptians had black skin has become a cornerstone of Afrocentric historiography.
Mainstream scholars hold that kmt means "the black land" or "the black place", and that this is a reference to the fertile black soil that was washed down from Central Africa by the annual Nile inundation. By contrast the barren desert outside the narrow confines of the Nile watercourse was called dšrt (conventionally pronounced deshret) or "the red land". Raymond Faulkner's Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian translates kmt into "Egyptians", Gardiner translates it as "the Black Land, Egypt".
At the UNESCO Symposium in 1974, Sauneron, Obenga, and Diop concluded that KMT and KM meant black. However, Sauneron clarified that the adjective Kmtyw means "people of the black land" rather than "black people", and that the Egyptians never used the adjective Kmtyw to refer to the various black peoples they knew of, they only used it to refer to themselves.
Ancient Egyptian art
Ancient Egyptian tombs and temples contained thousands of paintings, sculptures, and written works, which reveal a great deal about the people of that time. However, their depictions of themselves in their surviving art and artifacts are rendered in sometimes symbolic, rather than realistic, pigments. As a result, ancient Egyptian artifacts provide sometimes conflicting and inconclusive evidence of the ethnicity of the people who lived in Egypt during dynastic times.
In 1839, Champollion states in his work Egypte Ancienne that the Egyptians and Nubians are represented in the same manner in tomb paintings and reliefs. University of Chicago scholars assert that Nubians are generally depicted with black paint, but the skin pigment used in Egyptian paintings to refer to Nubians can range "from dark red to brown to black". This can be observed in paintings from the tomb of the Egyptian Huy, as well as Ramses II's temple at Beit el-Wali. Also, Snowden indicates that Romans had accurate knowledge of "negroes of a red, copper-colored complexion ... among African tribes". Conversely, Najovits states "Egyptian art depicted Egyptians on the one hand and Nubians and other blacks on the other hand with distinctly different ethnic characteristics and depicted this abundantly and often aggressively. The Egyptians accurately, arrogantly and aggressively made national and ethnic distinctions from a very early date in their art and literature." He continues, "There is an extraordinary abundance of Egyptian works of art which clearly depicted sharply contrasted reddish-brown Egyptians and black Nubians."
However Manu Ampim, a professor at Merritt College specializing in African and African American history and culture, claims in the book Modern Fraud: The Forged Ancient Egyptian Statues of Ra-Hotep and Nofret, that many ancient Egyptian statues and artworks are modern frauds that have been created specifically to hide the "fact" that the ancient Egyptians were black, while authentic artworks that demonstrate black characteristics are systematically defaced or even "modified". Ampim repeatedly makes the accusation that the Egyptian authorities are systematically destroying evidence that "proves" that the ancient Egyptians were black, under the guise of renovating and conserving the applicable temples and structures. He further accuses "European" scholars of wittingly participating in and abetting this process.
Ampim has a specific concern about the painting of the "Table of Nations" in the Tomb of Ramses III (KV11). The "Table of Nations" is a standard painting that appears in a number of tombs, and they were usually provided for the guidance of the soul of the deceased. Among other things, it described the "four races of men" as follows: (translation by E.A. Wallis Budge: "The first are RETH, the second are AAMU, the third are NEHESU, and the fourth are THEMEHU. The RETH are Egyptians, the AAMU are dwellers in the deserts to the east and north-east of Egypt, the NEHESU are the black races, and the THEMEHU are the fair-skinned Libyans."
The archaeologist Richard Lepsius documented many ancient Egyptian tomb paintings in his work Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien. In 1913, after the death of Lepsius, an updated reprint of the work was produced, edited by Kurt Sethe. This printing included an additional section, called the "Ergänzungsband" in German, which incorporated many illustrations that did not appear in Lepsius's original work. One of them, plate 48, illustrated one example of each of the four "nations" as depicted in KV11, and shows the "Egyptian nation" and the "Nubian nation" as identical to each other in skin color and dress. Professor Ampim has declared that plate 48 is a true reflection of the original painting, and that it "proves" that the ancient Egyptians were identical in appearance to the Nubians, even though he admits no other examples of the "Table of Nations" show this similarity. He has further accused "Euro-American writers" of attempting to mislead the public on this issue.
The late Egyptologist, Frank Yurco, visited the tomb of Ramses III (KV11), and in a 1996 article on the Ramses III tomb reliefs he pointed out that the depiction of plate 48 in the Erganzungsband section is not a correct depiction of what is actually painted on the walls of the tomb. Yurco notes, instead, that plate 48 is a "pastiche" of samples of what is on the tomb walls, arranged from Lepsius's notes after his death, and that a picture of a Nubian person has erroneously been labeled in the pastiche as an Egyptian person. Yurco points also to the much-more-recent photographs of Dr. Erik Hornung as a correct depiction of the actual paintings. (Erik Hornung, The Valley of the Kings: Horizon of Eternity, 1990). Ampim nonetheless continues to claim that plate 48 shows accurately the images that stand on the walls of KV11, and he categorically accuses both Yurco and Hornung of perpetrating a deliberate deception for the purposes of misleading the public about the true race of the Ancient Egyptians.
Black Egyptian hypothesis
The Black Egyptian hypothesis is held by various authors that Ancient Egypt was a Black civilization. This includes a particular focus on links to Sub Saharan cultures and the questioning of the race of specific notable individuals from Dynastic times, including Tutankhamun and the king represented in the Great Sphinx of Giza, and Cleopatra. Since the second half of the 20th century, typological and hierarchical models of race have increasingly been rejected by scientists, and most scholars have held that applying modern notions of race to ancient Egypt is anachronistic.
Early advocates of the Black African model relied heavily on writings from Classical Greek historians, including Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, and Herodotus, wherein the Greeks referred to Egyptians as "melanchroes" with woolly hair. The translation of the Greek word “melanchroes” is disputed, being translated either as “black” or "dark skinned". Snowden claims that Diop is distorting his classical sources and is quoting them selectively. There is dispute about the historical accuracy of the works of Herodotus - some scholars support the reliability of Herodotus while other scholars regard his works as being unreliable as historical sources, particularly those relating to Egypt.
Other points used to support the Black Hypothesis included testing melanin levels in a small sample of mummies, arguing that the Ancient Egyptian language was related to Diop's native Wolof (Senegal), interpretations of the origin of the name Kmt, conventionally pronounced Kemet, used by the Ancient Egyptians to describe themselves or their land (depending on points of view), biblical traditions, and interpretations of the depictions of the Egyptians in numerous paintings and statues. Other points of the hypothesis include claimed cultural affiliations, such as circumcision, matriarchy, totemism, hair braiding, head binding, and kingship cults. Artifacts found at Qustul (near Abu Simbel - Modern Sudan) in 1960–64 were seen as showing that ancient Egypt and A-group Nubia shared the same culture and were part of the greater Nile Valley sub-stratum, but more recent finds in Egypt indicate that the Qustul rulers probably adopted/emulated the symbols of Egyptian pharaohs.
At the UNESCO "Symposium on the Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script" in Cairo in 1974, the Black Hypothesis met with "profound" disagreement. Most participants concluded that the Ancient Egyptian population was indigenous to the Nile Valley, and was made up of people from north and south of the Sahara who were differentiated by their color. The current position of modern scholarship is that the Egyptian civilization was an indigenous Nile Valley development (see population history of Egypt).
Asiatic Race Theory
The Asiatic Race Theory holds that the ancient Egyptians were the lineal descendants of the biblical Ham, through his son Mizraim. This theory was the most dominant view from the Early Middle Ages (c. 500 AD) all the way up to the early 19th century. The descendants of Ham were traditionally considered to be the darkest skinned branch of humanity, either because of their geographic allotment to Africa or because of the Curse of Ham. Thus, Diop cites Gaston Maspero "Moreover, the Bible states that Mesraim, son of Ham. brother of Chus (Kush) ... and of Canaan, came from Mesopotamia to settle with his children on the banks of the Nile."
By the 20th century, the Asiatic Race Theory and its various offshoots were abandoned but were superseded by two related theories: the eurocentric Hamitic Hypothesis, asserting that a Caucasian racial group moved into North and East Africa from early prehistory subsequently bringing with them all advanced agriculture, technology and civilization and also the Dynastic Race Theory, proposing that Mesopotamian invaders were responsible for the dynastic civilization of Egypt (c. 3000 BC). In sharp contrast to the Asiatic Race Theory neither of these theories propose that Caucasians were the indigenous inhabitants of Egypt.
Caucasian / Hamitic hypothesis
In 1844, Samuel George Morton wrote that the Nile valley "was originally peopled by a branch of the Caucasian race", and acknowledged that Negroes were present in ancient Egypt but claimed they were either captives or servants. George Gliddon (1844) wrote: "The Egyptians were white men, of no darker hue than a pure Arab, a Jew, or a Phoenician."
The similar Hamitic hypothesis, which developed directly from the Asiatic Race Theory, argued that the Ethiopid and Arabid populations of the Horn of Africa were the inventors of agriculture and had brought all civilization to Africa, and asserted that these people were Caucasians, not Negroid. It also rejected any Biblical basis despite using Hamitic as the theory's name. Charles Gabriel Seligman in his Some Aspects of the Hamitic Problem in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1913) and later works argued that the ancient Egyptians were among this group of Caucasian Hamites, having arrived in the Nile Valley during early prehistory and introduced technology and agriculture to primitive natives they found there.
The Italian anthropologist Giuseppe Sergi (1901) believed that ancient Egyptians were the Eastern African (Hamitic) branch of the Mediterranean race, which he called "Eurafrican". According to Sergi, the Mediterranean race or "Eurafrican" contains three varieties or sub-races: the African (Hamitic) branch, the Mediterranean "proper" branch and the Nordic (depigmentated) branch. Sergi maintained in summary that the Mediterranean race (excluding the depigmentated Nordic or 'white') is: "a brown human variety, neither white nor Negroid, but pure in its elements, that is to say not a product of the mixture of Whites with Negroes or Negroid peoples". Grafton Elliot Smith modified the theory in 1911, stating that the ancient Egyptians were a dark haired "brown race", most closely "linked by the closest bonds of racial affinity to the Early Neolithic populations of the North African littoral and South Europe", and not Negroid. Smith's "brown race" is not synonymous or equivalent with Sergi's Mediterranean race.
Turanid race hypothesis
The Egyptologist Samuel Sharpe (1846) proposed that the ancient Egyptians belonged to the Turanid race, linking them to the Tatars. He was inspired by some ancient Egyptian paintings, which depict Egyptians with sallow or yellowish skin. He said "From the colour given to the women in their paintings we learn that their skin was yellow, like that of the Mongul Tartars, who have given their name to the Mongolian variety of the human race.... The single lock of hair on the young nobles reminds us also of the Tartars."
Dynastic race theory
In the early 20th century, Flinders Petrie, one of the leading Egyptologists of his day, noted that the skeletal remains found at predynastic sites at Naqada in Upper Egypt showed marked differentiation. Together with cultural evidence such as architectural styles, pottery styles, cylinder seals, and numerous rock and tomb paintings, he deduced that a Mesopotamian force had invaded Egypt in predynastic times, imposed itself on the indigenous Badarian people, and become their rulers. This came to be called the "Dynastic Race Theory". The theory further argued that the Mesopotamian founded state or states then conquered both Upper and Lower Egypt and founded the First Dynasty of Egypt.
In the 1950s, the Dynastic Race Theory was widely accepted by mainstream scholarship. Scholars such as the Senegalese Egyptologist Cheikh Anta Diop, fought against the Dynastic Race Theory with their own "Black Egyptian" theory and claimed, among other things, that European scholars supported the Dynastic Race Theory "to avoid having to admit that Ancient Egyptians were black". Bernal proposed that the Dynastic Race theory was conceived by European scholars to deny Egypt its African roots.
- Fayum mummy portraits
- Demographics of modern Egypt
- Dynastic race theory
- Archaeogenetics of the Near East
- Biological anthropology
- History of anthropology
- Edith Sanders: The Hamitic hypothesis: its origin and functions in time perspective, The Journal of African History, Vol. 10, No. 4 (1969), pp. 521–532
- "American Anthropological Association Statement on Race", American Anthropologist Volume 100. Arlington County: AAA, 1998 (Occasionally re-included in other volumes afterwards.)
- "Biological Aspects of Race" American Journal of Physical Anthropology Volume 101. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996
- Jablonski 2012, p. 104–105.
- "Original Papers: Ancient Egyptians". The New-England Magazine. 0005 (4): 273–280. October 1833.
- Chassebœuf 1862, p. 131.
- Chassebœuf 1787, p. 74–77.
- Jacques Joseph 1839, p. 27.
- Bandia 2009, p. 215.
- Campbell 1851, p. 10–12.
- Baum 2006, p. 105–108.
- Baum 2006, p. 108.
- Baum 2006, p. 105.
- Petrie 1939, p. 105, 155.
- Stuart Tyson Smith,(2001) The Oxford encyclopedia of ancient Egypt, Volume 3. Donald Redford, Oxford University Press. p. 27–28
- Bard, in turn citing Bruce Trigger, "Nubian, Black, Nilotic?", in African in Antiquity, The Arts of Nubian and the Sudan, vol 1, 1978.
- Frank M. Snowden Jr., Bernal's 'Blacks' and the Afrocentrists, Black Athena Revisited, p. 122
- "Ancient Egyptian Origins". Ngm.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- Bogucki, Peter I. (1999). The origins of human society. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 355. ISBN 1-57718-112-3.
- "National Geographic Magazine - NGM.com". Ngm.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Josef Eiwanger: Merimde Beni-salame, In: Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Compiled and edited by Kathryn A. Bard. London/New York 1999, p. 501–505
- Jürgen Seeher. Ma'adi and Wadi Digla. in: Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Compiled and edited by Kathryn A. Bard. London/New York 1999, 455–458
- Zakrzewski, Sonia (2007). "Population continuity or population change: Formation of the ancient Egyptian state". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 132 (4): 501–9. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20569. PMID 17295300.
- "Interactive Dig Hierakonpolis - Nubian Pottery". Archaeology.org. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Muḥammad Jamāl al-Dīn Mukhtār. "Ancient Civilizations of Africa". Books.google.co.za. p. 10. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Muḥammad Jamāl al-Dīn Mukhtār. "Ancient Civilizations of Africa". Books.google.co.za. p. 10. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- UNESCO, Symposium on the Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script; Proceedings, (Paris: 1978), pp. 3–134
- Ceccaldi, Pierre (1987). "Research on the Mummy of Ramasses II". Bulletin de l'Academie de médecine. 171:1 (1): 119.
- "Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine". Gallica.
- Keita, S.O.Y. (September 16, 2008). "Ancient Egyptian Origins:Biology". National Geographic. Retrieved June 15, 2012.
- Ancient Egypt: anatomy of a civilization, by Barry J. Kemp, p. 47
- Williams, Chancellor (1987). The Destruction of Black Civilization. Chicago, Illinois: Third World Press. p. 110. ISBN 0-88378-030-5.
- "A New Look at King Tut". The Washington Post. 2005-05-11. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- "Skull Indices in a Population Collected From Computed Tomographic Scans of Patients with Head Trauma". Jcraniofacialsurgery.com. 2012-01-05. doi:10.1097/SCS.0b013e31819b9f6e. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- Discovery.com Archived February 20, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Science museum images". Sciencemuseum.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- "King Tut's New Face: Behind the Forensic Reconstruction". News.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- Henerson, Evan (June 15, 2005). "King Tut's skin colour a topic of controversy". U-Daily News — L.A. Life. Retrieved 2006-08-05.
- "Tutankhamun was not black: Egypt antiquities chief". AFP. 2007-09-25. Retrieved 2012-02-27.
- "Welcome to Ancient Egypt Magazine's Web Site". Ancientegyptmagazine.com\Accessdate=2016-06-02.
- "Photographic image : Wikimedia Commons" (JPG). Commons.wikimedia.org. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- "Tutankhamun: beneath the mask". Sciencemuseum.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- Hugh B. Price, "Was Cleopatra Black?". The Baltimore Sun. September 26, 1991. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
- Charles Whitaker, "Was Cleopatra Black?". Ebony. February 2002. Retrieved May 28, 2012. The author cites a few examples of the claim, one of which is a chapter titled "Black Warrior Queens", published in 1984 in Black Women in Antiquity, part of The Journal of African Civilization series. It draws heavily on the work of J.A. Rogers.
- Mona Charen, "Afrocentric View Distorts History and Achievement by Blacks". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. February 14, 1994. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
- Tyldesley, p. 30, suggests Cleopatra V as the most likely candidate.
- Tyldesley p. 32
- "Race in Antiquity: Truly Out of Africa | Dr. Molefi Kete Asante". Asante.net. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Foggo, Daniel (2009-03-15). "Found the sister Cleopatra killed". The Times. London. Retrieved 2010-04-15.
- "Also in the news | Cleopatra's mother 'was African'". BBC News. 2009-03-16. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- The Lives of Cleopatra and Octavia, By Sarah Fielding, Christopher D. Johnson, p. 154, Bucknell University Press, ISBN 0-8387-5257-8, ISBN 978-0-8387-5257-9
- Hassan, Selim (1949). The Sphinx: Its history in the light of recent excavations. Cairo: Government Press, 1949.
- Graham W. Irwin (1977-01-01). "Africans abroad: a documentary history of the Black Diaspora in Asia, Latin ...". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- W. E. B. Du Bois. "The Negro". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Black man of the Nile and his family, by Yosef Ben-Jochannan, pp. 109–110
- Asante, Molefi Kete (1996). European Racism Regarding Ancient Egypt: Egypt in Africa. Indianapolis, Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-936260-64-5.
- Diop, Cheikh Anta (1974). The African Origin of Civilization. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. pp. 27, 43. ISBN 978-1-55652-072-3.
- Diop, Cheikh Anta (1974). The African Origin of Civilization. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-55652-072-3.
- Constantin-François Chassebœuf saw the Sphinx as "typically negro in all its features"; Volney, Constantin-François de Chasseboeuf, Voyage en Egypte et en Syrie, Paris, 1825, page 65
- "... its head is grey, ears very large and protruding like a negro's ... the fact that the nose is missing increases the flat, negroid effect ... the lips are thick...." Flaubert, Gustave. Flaubert in Egypt, ed. Francis Steegmuller. (London: Penguin Classics, 1996). ISBN 978-0-14-043582-5.
- Schoch, Robert M. (1995). "Great Sphinx Controversy". robertschoch.net. Retrieved May 29, 2012.
- "Fortean Times" (79). P.O. Box 2409, London NW5 4NP. February 1995: 34, 39.
- Mokhtar, G. (1990). General History of Africa II: Ancient Civilizations of Africa. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-520-06697-9.
- Diop, Cheikh Anta (1974). The African Origin of Civilization. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. pp. 246–248. ISBN 1-55652-072-7.
- Levine, Molly Myerowitz (2004). "David M. Goldenberg, The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.". Bryn Mawr Classical Review. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- Shavit 2001: 148
- Aboubacry Moussa Lam, "L'Égypte ancienne et l'Afrique", in Maria R. Turano et Paul Vandepitte, Pour une histoire de l'Afrique, 2003, pp. 50 &51
- Mokhtar, G. (1990). General History of Africa. California, USA: University of California Press. pp. 21, 26. ISBN 0-520-06697-9.
- Kemp, Barry J. (2006). Ancient Egypt: Anatomy Of A Civilization. Routledge. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-415-06346-3.
- Raymond Faulkner, A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, 2002, p. 286.
- Gardiner, Alan (1957) . Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs (3 ed.). Griffith Institute, Oxford. ISBN 0-900416-35-1.
- Mokhtar, G. (1990). General History of Africa. California, USA: University of California Press. p. 40. ISBN 0-520-06697-9.
- Muḥammad Jamāl al-Dīn Mukhtār. "Ancient Civilizations of Africa". Books.google.co.za. p. 1. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2009.
- Charlotte Booth, The Ancient Egyptians for Dummies (2007) p. 217
- "Nubia Gallery". The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
- Emberling, Geoff (2011). Nubia: Ancient Kingdoms of Africa. New York, NY: The Institute for the Study of the Ancient World. pp. 22–23, 36–37. ISBN 978-0-615-48102-9.
- Snowden, Frank (1970). Blacks in Antiquity. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 3.
- Egypt, Trunk of the Tree, A Modern Survey of an Ancient Land, Vol. 2. by Simson Najovits p. 318
- "Ra-Hotep and Nofret: Modern Forgeries in the Cairo Museum?" pp. 207–212 in Egypt: Child of Africa (1994), edited by Ivan Van Sertima.
- "AFRICANA STUDIES". Manuampim.com. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- "The Book of Gates: The Book of Gates: Chapter VI. The Gate Of Teka-Hra. The Fifth Division of the Tuat". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- "Africana Studies. Tomb of Rameses III". Manuampim.com. Retrieved 2012-05-01.
- Frank Yurco, "Two Tomb-Wall Painted Reliefs of Ramesses III and Sety I and Ancient Nile Valley Population Diversity", in Egypt in Africa (1996), ed. by Theodore Celenko.
- "Tutankhamun was not black: Egypt antiquities chief". AFP. Google News. September 25, 2007. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
- "Black Athena Revisited". Books.google.co.za. p. 162. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- "Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt". Books.google.co.za. p. 329. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Stephen Howe. "Afrocentrism: Mythical Pasts and Imagined Homes". Books.google.co.za. p. 136. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Mokhtar, G. (1990). General History of Africa. California, USA: University of California Press. pp. 15–60. ISBN 0-520-06697-9.
- Herodotus (2003). The Histories. London, England: Penguin Books. pp. 134–135. ISBN 978-0-14-044908-2.
- Herodotus (2003). The Histories. London, England: Penguin Books. pp. 103, 119, 134–135, 640. ISBN 978-0-14-044908-2.
- Alan B. Lloyd. "Herodotus". Books.google.co.za. p. 22. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- "Black Athena Revisited". Books.google.co.za. p. 118. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Diop, Cheikh Anta (1974). The African Origin of Civilization. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. p. 2. ISBN 1-55652-072-7.
- Diop, Cheikh Anta (1981). Civilization or Barbarism. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. p. 1. ISBN 1-55652-048-4.
- Diop, Cheikh Anta (1974). The African Origin of Civilization. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. pp. 3–5. ISBN 1-55652-072-7.
- Welsby, Derek (1996). The Kingdom of Kush. London: British Museum Press. p. 40. ISBN 0-7141-0986-X.
- Heeren, A.H.L. (1838). Historical researches into the politics, intercourse, and trade of the Carthaginians, Ethiopians, and Egyptians. Michigan: University of Michigan Library. pp. 13, 379, 422–424. ASIN B003B3P1Y8.
- Aubin, Henry (2002). The Rescue of Jerusalem. New York, NY: Soho Press. pp. 94–96,100–102,118–121,141–144,328, 336. ISBN 1-56947-275-0.
- "Travel Fact and Travel Fiction: Studies on Fiction, Literary Tradition ...". Books.google.co.za. p. 1. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Kenton L. Sparks. "Ethnicity and Identity in Ancient Israel: Prolegomena to the Study of Ethnic ...". Books.google.co.za. p. 59. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- David Asheri; Alan Lloyd; Aldo Corcella. "A Commentary on Herodotus". Books.google.co.za. p. 74. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Jennifer T. Roberts (2011-06-23). "Herodotus: A Very Short Introduction". Books.google.co.za. p. 115. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Alan Cameron. "Greek Mythography in the Roman World". Books.google.co.za. p. 156. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- John Marincola (2001-12-13). "Greek Historians". Books.google.co.za. p. 34. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- "Multicultural Writers from Antiquity to 1945: A Bio-bibliographical Sourcebook". Books.google.co.za. p. 171. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- David G. Farley (2010-11-30). "Modernist Travel Writing: Intellectuals Abroad". Books.google.co.za. p. 21. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Alan B. Lloyd. "Herodotus". Books.google.co.za. p. 1. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Flemming A. J. Nielsen. "The Tragedy in History: Herodotus and the Deuteronomistic History". Books.google.co.za. p. 41. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- "Travel Fact and Travel Fiction: Studies on Fiction, Literary Tradition ...". Books.google.co.za. p. 1. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- "Herodotus: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide - Oxford University Press". Books.google.co.za. p. 21. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Diop, Cheikh Anta (1974). The African Origin of Civilization. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. pp. 236–243. ISBN 1-55652-072-7.
- Alain Ricard, Naomi Morgan, The Languages & Literatures of Africa: The Sands of Babel, James Currey, 2004, p. 14
- Mokhtar, G. (1990). General History of Africa. California, USA: University of California Press. pp. 27, 38, 40. ISBN 0-520-06697-9.
- Snowden, Frank (1983). Before Color Prejudice. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-674-06380-5.
- Mokhtar, G. (1990). General History of Africa. California, USA: University of California Press. pp. 27–28. ISBN 0-520-06697-9.
- Diop, Cheikh Anta (1974). The African Origin of Civilization. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. pp. 6–42. ISBN 1-55652-072-7.
- Diop, Cheikh Anta (1974). The African Origin of Civilization. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. pp. 112, 135–138. ISBN 1-55652-072-7.
- DeMello. Margo (2007). Encyclopedia of Body Adornment. p. 150.
The ancient Egyptians practiced head binding as early as 3000 BCE,... the Mangbetu of the Congo also practiced head binding.
- Williams, Bruce (2011). Before the Pyramids. Chicago, Illinois: Oriental Institute Museum Publications. pp. 89–90. ISBN 978-1-885923-82-0.
- "The Nubia Salvage Project | The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago". Oi.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- "Ancient Egyptian Kingship". Books.google.co.za. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Diop, Cheikh Anta (1991). Civilization or Barbarism. Chicago, Illinois, USA: Lawrence Hill Books. pp. 103–105. ISBN 1-55652-048-4.
- O'Connor, David (2011). Before the Pyramids. Chicago, Illinois: Oriental Institute Museum Publications. pp. 162–163. ISBN 978-1-885923-82-0.
- "The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt". Books.google.co.za. 2003-10-23. p. 446. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- D. Wengrow (2006-05-25). "The Archaeology of Early Egypt: Social Transformations in North-East Africa ...". Books.google.co.za. p. 167. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Peter Mitchell. "African Connections: An Archaeological Perspective on Africa and the Wider World". Books.google.co.za. p. 69. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved January 27, 2013.
- László Török. "Between Two Worlds: The Frontier Region Between Ancient Nubia and Egypt ...". Books.google.co.za. p. 577. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Robert Steven Bianchi. "Daily Life of the Nubians". Books.google.co.za. p. 38. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Early dynastic Egypt, by Toby A. H. Wilkinson, p. 15
- Prehistory and Protohsitory of Egypt, Emile Massoulard, 1949
- Frank Yurco, "An Egyptological Review" in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers, eds. Black Athena Revisited. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996. pp. 62–100
- Sonia R. Zakrzewski: Population continuity or population change: Formation of the ancient Egyptian state – Department of Archaeology, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton (2003)
- "The Hamitic Hypothesis; Its Origin and Functions in Time Perspective", Edith R. Sanders, The Journal of African History, Vol. 10, No. 4, 1969, pp. 521–532.
- The Origin of Egyptian Civilisation, Edouard Naville, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 37, 1907, p. 201.
- Sanders, 1969, pp. 521–523.
- Diop, Cheikh Anta (1974). The African Origin of Civilization. Chicago, Illinois: Lawrence Hill Books. pp. 5–9. ISBN 1-55652-072-7.
- Sanders, 1969, pp. 524–527ff.
- The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity By Bruce Baum, p. 108
- Morton, Samuel George (1844). "Egyptian Ethnography". Crania Ægyptiaca, Or, Observations on Egyptian Ethnography Derived from Anatomy, History and the Monuments.
- George Robins Gliddon Ancient Egypt: Her monuments, hieroglyphics, history and archaeology 1844, p. 46
- Sanders, 1969, pp. 525–532.
- C.G. Seligman, "Some Aspects of the Hamitic Problem in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan", The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 43 (July–December 1913), pp. 593–705.
- The Mediterranean Race: a Study of the Origins of European Peoples, 1901, pp. v–vi, "Preface", also p. 45.
- Sergi, 1901, p. 250.
- "Concepts of Race in the Historiography of Northeast Africa", Wyatt MacGaffey, The Journal of African History, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1966.
- The Ancient Egyptians and the origin of Civilization, 1911, p. 69.
- Smith, 1911, p. 25.
- As according to Smith the hair of the "Proto-Egyptian was precisely similar to that of the brunet South European" and "presented no resemblance whatever to the so-called 'wooly' appearance and peppercorn-like arrangement of the Negro's hair". - Smith, 1911, p. 58.
- "Neither in Sergi's nor in Elliot Smith's scheme are Brown and Mediterranean equivalent terms." – MacGaffey, 1966, p. 4.
- Sanders, 1969, pp. 531; MacGaffey, 1966, pp. 5–9.
- History of Egypt, 1846, Part I, p. 3 "The Asiatic Origin of the Race.
- Mary R. Lefkowitz; Guy MacLean Rogers. Black Athena Revisited. Books.google.com. p. 65. Retrieved 2016-06-02.
- Epic encounters: culture, media, and U.S. interests in the Middle East – 1945–2000 by Melani McAlister
- Black Athena Revisited, by Mary R. Lefkowitz, Guy MacLean Rogers
- Wilkinson, Toby A. H. (2001-08-10). Early Dynastic Egypt (Revised ed. edition ed.). London; New York: Routledge. p. 15. ISBN 9780415260114.
- Bruce R. Dain, 2002 A Hideous Monster Of The Mind: American race theory in the early republic, Harvard University Press
- Scott Tafton, 2004: Egypt Land: Race and Nineteenth-Century American Egyptomania, Duke University Press
- Debbie Challis, 2013: The Archaeology of Race: The Eugenic Ideas of Francis Galton and Flinders Petrie, Bloomsbury Academic
- Baum, Bruce (2006). The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity. NYU Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-9892-8.
- Campbell, John (1851). Negro-mania: Being an Examination of the Falsely Assumed Equality of the Various Races of Men. Campbell & Powers.
- Jacques Joseph, Champollion-Figeac (1839). Égypte ancienne. Firmin Didot frères.
- Chassebœuf, Constantin François de (1862). La loi naturelle ou Principes physiques de la morale déduits de l'organisation de l'homme et de l'univers. Davoine.
- Chassebœuf, Constantin François de (1787). Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte, pendant les années 1783, 1784 et 1785: avec deux cartes géographiques et deux planches gravées représentant les Ruines du Temple du Soleil à Balbek, et celles de la ville de Palmyre, dans le désert de Syrie. Desenne.
- Jablonski, Nina (2012). Living Color: The Biological and Social Meaning of Skin Color. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-95377-2.
- Milton, John; Bandia, Paul Fadio (2009). Agents of Translation. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 90-272-1690-8.
- Petrie, Flinders (1939). The Making of Egypt. Sheldon Press.
- Mary R. Lefkowitz: "Ancient History, Modern Myths", originally printed in The New Republic, 1992. Reprinted with revisions as part of the essay collection Black Athena Revisited, 1996.
- Kathryn A. Bard: "Ancient Egyptians and the issue of Race", Bostonia Magazine, 1992: later part of Black Athena Revisited, 1996.
- Frank M. Snowden, Jr.: "Bernal's "Blacks" and the Afrocentrists", Black Athena Revisited, 1996.
- Joyce Tyldesley: Cleopatra, Last Queen of Egypt, Profile Books Ltd, 2008.
- Alain Froment, 1994. "Race et Histoire: La recomposition ideologique de l'image des Egyptiens anciens". Journal des Africanistes 64:37–64. available online: Race et Histoire (French)
- Yaacov Shavit, 2001: History in Black. African-Americans in Search of an Ancient Past, Frank Cass Publishers
- Anthony Noguera, 1976. How African Was Egypt?: A Comparative Study of Ancient Egyptian and Black African Cultures. Illustrations by Joelle Noguera. New York: Vantage Press.
- Shomarka Keita: "The Geographical Origins and Population Relationships of Early Ancient Egyptians", Egypt in Africa, (1996), pp. 25–27