Outline of ancient India
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient India:
- 1 Geography
- 2 Government and politics
- 3 General history
- 4 Culture
- 5 Science and technology
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Sources
Government and politics
Further information: Timeline of Indian history
Periodisation of Indian history
An elaborate periodisation may be as follows:
- Pre-history and Indus Valley Civilsation (until c. 1750 BCE);
- Vedic period (c. 1750-500 BCE);
- "Second Urbanisation" (c. 500-200 BCE);
- Classical period (c. 200 BCE-1100 CE);[note 1]
- Pre-classical period (c. 200 BCE-300 CE);
- "Golden Age" (Gupta Empire) (c. 320-650 CE);
- Late-Classical period (c. 650-1100 CE);
- Medieval period (c. 1100-1500 CE);
- Early Modern (c. 1500-1850);
- Modern period (British Raj and independence) (from c. 1850).
- Neolithic Age India Mehrgarh culture (c. 7000 – 3300 BCE)
- Bronze Age India
- Indus valley civilization (c. 3300 – 1300 BCE)
Iron Age (c. 1200 – 272 BCE)
- Iron Age India (c. 1200 – 272 BCE)
- Nanda Empire (424–321 BCE)
- Maurya Empire (321–184 BCE)
- Sangam Period (c. 300 BCE – 300 CE)
- Pallava Kingdom (250 BCE – 800 CE)
- Maha-Megha-Vahana Empire (250s BCE – 5th century CE)
- Satavahana Empire (230 BCE – 220 CE)
- Indo-Scythian Kingdom (200 BCE – 400 CE)
- Kuninda Kingdom (3rd century BCE – 4th century CE)
- Shunga Empire (185–73 BCE)
- Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BCE – 10 CE)
- Kanva empire (75–26 BCE)
- Kushan Empire (30–375 CE)
- (Middle kingdoms of India)
- Gurjara-Pratihara Empire
- Vakataka Empire
- Chola Empire
- Pala Empire
- Kadamba dynasty (345–1000 CE)
Middle Ages (c. 500 – 1500)
- Badami Chalukyas (547–742)
- Rashtrakuta Empire (742–982)
- Eastern Chalukyas
- Western Chalukyas (983–1185)
- Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri
- Hoysala Empire (1114–1342)
- Vijayanagara Empire (1342–1565)
- History of Hinduism
- History of Buddhism
Science and technology
- Science and technology in ancient India
- Indian martial arts
- Ancient Indian medicine
- Indian in Sanskrit epics
- Media related to Ancient India at Wikimedia Commons
- Different periods are designated as "classical Hinduism":
- Smart calls the period between 1000 BCE and 100 CE "pre-classical". It is the formative period for the Upanishads and Brahmanism[subnote 1] Jainism and Buddhism. For Smart, the "classical period" lasts from 100 to 1000 CE, and coincides with the flowering of "classical Hinduism" and the flowering and deterioration of Mahayana-buddhism in India.
- For Michaels, the period between 500 BCE and 200 BCE is a time of "Ascetic reformism", whereas the period between 200 BCE and 1100 CE is the time of "classical Hinduism", since there is "a turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions".
- Muesse discerns a longer period of change, namely between 800 BCE and 200 BCE, which he calls the "Classical Period". According to Muesse, some of the fundamental concepts of Hinduism, namely karma, reincarnation and "personal enlightenment and transformation", which did not exist in the Vedic religion, developed in this time.
- Smart distinguishes "Brahmanism" from the Vedic religion, connecting "Brahmanism" with the Upanishads.
- Stein 2010, p. 38.
- Michaels 2004.
- Smart 2003, p. 52, 83-86.
- Smart 2003, p. 52.
- Michaels 2004, p. 36.
- Michaels 2004, p. 38.
- Muesse 2003, p. 14.
- Georg, Feuerstein (2002). The Yoga Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 600. ISBN 3-935001-06-1.
- Clarke, Peter Bernard (2006). New Religions in Global Perspective. Routledge. p. 209. ISBN 0-7007-1185-6.
- Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press
- Khanna, Meenakshi (2007), Cultural History Of Medieval India, Berghahn Books
- Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004), A History of India, Routledge
- Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press
- Misra, Amalendu (2004), Identity and Religion: Foundations of Anti-Islamism in India, SAGE
- Muesse, Mark William (2003), Great World Religions: Hinduism
- Muesse, Mark W. (2011), The Hindu Traditions: A Concise Introduction, Fortress Press
- Smart, Ninian (2003), Godsdiensten van de wereld (The World's religions), Kampen: Uitgeverij Kok
- Stein, Burton (2010), A History of India, John Wiley & Sons
- Thapar, Romila (1978), Ancient Indian Social History: Some Interpretations (PDF), Orient Blackswan