Ancient Tell: Fortifications

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Ancient Tell: Fortifications is located in Beirut, Lebanon.

Overview[edit]

A Phoenician stone-paved embankment (glacis) and remains of three Hellenistic towers were discovered during the mid-1990s excavations.

Construction[edit]

Between 1200 and 1000 B.C., Phoenician Beirut regained its role as a maritime center. Large quantities of crushed rock were piled against the fortifications of the old Canaanite city wall in order to create a stone-paved embankment (glacis). The eastern entrance has survived, along with its stairways leading up to a gate in the enclosure wall. Excavations have shown that many repairs were carried out during Phoenician and Persian periods. The remains of three Hellenistic towers, cut into the Phoenician glacis, reflect another heyday in Beirut’s history. During the Seleucid influence, a wall was built around the Tell.

History[edit]

Between 1200 and 1000 B.C., after a period of unrest throughout the region, Phoenician Beirut regained its role as a maritime center. New harbor works and the reinforcement of the port’s defenses put Biruta back on the map of Phoenician harbors. To create a stone-paved embankment (glacis), large quantities of crushed rock were first piled against the fortifications of the old Canaanite city wall. Stones meant for the paving of the glacis were subsequently quarried and fitted in a 33-degree slope. The eastern entrance has survived, along with its stairways leading up to a gate in the enclosure wall. Excavations have shown that many repairs were carried out during Phoenician and Persian periods. Retaining walls were built to hold the accumulated layers covering the original stone-paved glacis. The remains of three Hellenistic towers, cut into the Phoenician glacis, reflect another heyday in Beirut’s history. After the transition from Ptolemaic to Seleucid influence, Beirut became known as ‘Laodicea of Phoenicia.’ During this period, a wall was built around the Tell.

Timeline[edit]

1200 to 1000 B.C.: Phoenician Beirut regained its role as a maritime center.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Finkbeiner, Uwe and Sader, Helen (1997) “Bey 020 Preliminary Report on the Excavations 1995”, Bulletin d’Archéologie et d’Architecture Libanaises 2:114–166.
  • Karam, Naji (1997) «  Bey 013 rapport préliminaire », Bulletin d’Archéologie et d’Architecture Libanaises 2:95–113.