Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts
The Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts is the oldest chartered military organization in North America and the third oldest chartered military organization in the world. Its charter was granted in March 1638 by the Great and General Court of Massachusetts Bay and signed by Governor John Winthrop as a volunteer militia company to train officers enrolled in the local militia companies across Massachusetts. With the professionalization of the US Military preceding World War I including the creation of the National Guard of the United States and the federalization of officer training, the Company's mission changed to a supportive role in preserving the historic and patriotic traditions of Boston, Massachusetts, and the Nation. Today the Company serves as Honor Guard to the Governor of Massachusetts who is also its Commander in Chief.
As the settlements which followed the landing at Plymouth increased and spread, there was no organized military force for protection - only local volunteer companies, which lacked the capacity for joint action or any centralized authority. Many of the settlers of Boston had been members in England of the Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) of London, and the military training they had received in that company led them to form a similar organization in the new country. In 1637 the company was formed as a citizen militia for instruction in military discipline and tactics. Robert Keayne and many of the original members of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company had been members of the original HAC of London.
Governor Winthrop granted a charter on March 13, 1638, and on the first Monday in June following, an election of officers was held on Boston Common. The original name of the Company was "The Military Company of Massachusetts". It began to be referred to as "The Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company" in the year 1737.
Among the charter members was Nicholas Upsall, who later forsook his membership to join the Quakers. Since that time, the company has continued to hold their annual elections on the Boston Common on the first Monday in June by casting their votes on a drum head. Company membership has long been considered a distinction among the New England gentry in a similar manner to which regimental membership conferred distinction on the sons of the English gentry. The Honourable Artillery Company of London and the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts acknowledge and celebrate their common historical roots.
Since 1746, the headquarters of the Company has been located in Faneuil Hall. In this armory, the company maintains a military museum and library containing relics from every war the United States has fought since its settlement. The armory is open to the public daily.
Prior to 1913, the Company served as the de facto officer school for the Massachusetts Militia. (Although not all officers in the Massachusetts Militia were selected from members of the Company.) In 1913, the Massachusetts Militia established the Training School for officer training. This school was later renamed the Massachusetts Military Academy and is today designated the 101st Regiment - Regional Training Institute (RTI).
Membership in the company has traditionally been selected from the upper middle and upper classes of Boston society. In recent decades membership has been expanded to include those from outside of Massachusetts. It is common for senior officers in the Massachusetts National Guard to be members of the Company. Although prior military service is not a requirement for membership, about one third of the current (2014) members of the Company have served in the Armed Forces of the United States, in most cases as commissioned officers.
Prior to the late 20th Century, the membership of the Company was almost exclusively white Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs). In recent decades, however, the Company has recruited a more diverse membership.
Most individuals who join the Company are elected as Regular Members. After serving in the Company for a prescribed period of time, Regular Members become Life Members.
Individuals who are descendants of members of the Company who joined prior to 1738 may join as members by right of descent. Members by right of descent have discounted membership fees but may not vote or hold office in the Company. In rare cases, honorary membership is extended to highly distinguished individuals.
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company members have served in King Philip's War, King William's War, Queen Anne's War, King George's War, the French and Indian War, the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, the Iraq War and Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.
The Company has had eight members who were awarded the Medal of Honor (two of which are still living), and has also had four members who served as President of the United States: Presidents James Monroe, Chester A. Arthur, Calvin Coolidge and John F. Kennedy. Honorary membership was also extended to Prince Albert, King Edward VII and King George V. Several Governors of Massachusetts have also been members of the Company.
In 2012, the organization voted to induct its first woman members. Lieutenant Colonel Catherine M. Corkery and Lieutenant Colonel Christine Hoffmann, both officers in the Massachusetts National Guard, were inducted into the organization on September 17, 2012.
The Company's official motto is "Acta Non Verba" - a Latin phrase meaning "Deeds Not Words".
Presidents of the United States
Medal of Honor recipients
- Colonel Francis S. Hasseltine
- 1st Lieutenant Gardner C. Hawkins
- Captain Thomas Hudner, USN
- Captain Thomas G. Kelley, USN
- Sergeant Charles MacGillivary
- Corporal Lowell M. Maxham
- Brevet Major George H. Maynard
- Captain George L. Street III, USN
Governors of Massachusetts
- Captain Samuel Turell Armstrong - Lieutenant Governor and Mayor of Boston
- Major General Nathaniel Banks - U.S. Representative
- George S. Boutwell
- Major General John Brooks - Revolutionary War veteran, general in the United States Army and Massachusetts Militia
- Major General Benjamin Butler - U.S. Representative
- James Michael Curley - Mayor of Boston and U.S. Representative
- Joseph Dudley
- William Dummer - Philanthropist and founder of Dummer Academy
- Edward Everett - U.S. Secretary of State and U.S. Senator
- Christian Herter - U.S. Secretary of State
- John Leverett - Major General in command of the Massachusetts Militia and captain of the Company.
- John D. Long (honorary member) - Secretary of the Navy
- Prince Albert (honorary member) - Consort of Queen Victoria
- William Aspinwall - Colonist
- Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Dawes - Assisted with Paul Revere's midnight ride
- Major General Henry A. S. Dearborn - U.S. Representative
- Major General Daniel Denison
- King Edward VII (honorary member)
- King George V (honorary member)
- Major General William Heath
- Major General John Hull
- Brigadier General William Hull - General in the War of 1812
- Captain Edward Hutchinson
- Captain Isaac Johnson - Killed at the Great Swamp Fight
- Captain Robert Keayne - First commander of the Company
- Colonel Samuel C. Lawrence - Mayor of Medford, Massachusetts and Masonic Grand Master of Masschusetts
- Major General John Leverett
- Lieutenant John Leverett the Younger - President of Harvard College
- Major General Benjamin Lincoln - Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
- Brigadier General Augustus Pearl Martin - Civil War colonel and Mayor of Boston
- Major General Ebenezer Mattoon - U.S. Representative
- Major General George B. McClellan - Civil War general
- Henry F. Naphen - U.S. Representative
- Captain John Nelson
- Samuel L. Powers - U.S. Representative
- Captain Josiah Quincy, Jr. - Mayor of Boston
- Colonel Richard Saltonstall - Superior Court Judge
- Major Thomas Savage - 5 time commander of the Company
- Major Samuel Sewall, 2nd - Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Superior Court of Judicature
- Captain William Tailer - Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
- Colonel Samuel Thaxter - An early commander of Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company and grandfather of Major General Benjamin Lincoln
- Brevet Brigadier General William S. Tilton
- George Washington Warren - Mayor of Charlestown, Massachusetts
- Brevet Brigadier General Stephen Minot Weld, Jr.
- Captain Thomas Weld
- Captain Edward Winslow
- Captain John Winslow
- Major General Wait Winthrop - Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Superior Court
- Massachusetts Naval Militia
- Massachusetts State Defense Force
- Massachusetts Wing Civil Air Patrol
- National Lancers
- "Boston Military Group Honors American Airlines for Its Long-Standing Support of U.S. Armed Forces". Retrieved 9 December 2009.
- "Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts: Museum, Library & Armory Boston, Massachusetts". Archived from the original on 1 December 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
- "National Defense Act of 1916" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-05-26.
- "HISTORY OF THE COMPANY (SUMMARY)". Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
- Martine Powers (2012-09-10). "Mass. corps votes in first female members". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2012-09-10.