|Ancol Administrative Village|
Ancol Carnival Beach
|Province||Special Capital City District of Jakarta|
|• Total||5.77 km2 (2.23 sq mi)|
Ancol is a coastal lowland area located to the east of Kota Tua Jakarta in northern Jakarta, in Indonesia. The coastal lowland stretched from Kota Tua Jakarta to the west and Tanjung Priok to the east. Today, Ancol contains the main beach resort of Jakarta. Taman Impian Jaya Ancol, the largest integrated tourism area in South East Asia, is located in Ancol.
Following the independence of Indonesia, Ancol was made one of the administrative village (kelurahan) of Pademangan Subdistrict in North Jakarta. The administrative village Ancol is bounded by Jakarta Bay to the north, Sunda Kelapa harbor to the west, and Kali Japat canal to the east.
The Administrative Village of Ancol has a postal code of 14430.
The name Ancol refers to a river located around 3 km east of Sunda Kelapa harbor, and the area surrounding it. The mouth of Ancol river was located where the area of Putri Duyung Cottage now located. The area surrounding Ancol river was a coastal lowland, characterized with brackish bodies of water, mangrove forests and swamps.
The earliest mention of Ancol was in Koropak 406, a palm leaf manuscript written in the 16th century. It stated the attempt of the Sultanate of Banten, Cirebon, and Demak to siege Sunda Kelapa, and that the area of Ancol is considered one of the strategic place to attack the Sunda Kelapa harbor:
- …Disilihan inya ku prebu Surawisesa, iny nu surup ka padaren, kasuran, kadiran, kuwamen. Prangrang lima welas kali hanteu eleh, ngalakukeun bala sariwu. Prangrang ka Kalapa deung Aaria burah. Prangrang ka Tanjung. Prangrang ka Ancol kiyi….
Arrival of the Europeans
When the Portuguese arrived in the late 16th century, the Hindu kingdom of Pakuan Pajajaran welcomed their arrival and hoped that the Portuguese would protect them from the attack by the Islamic Sultanate of Banten, Demak, and Cirebon. Despite their alliance, the three sultanates, under the leadership of Fatahillah, managed to defeat both the kingdom of Pakuan Pajajaran and the Portuguese by attacking the port from the east area, through the coastal area of Ancol. Sunda Kelapa was renamed into Jayakarta.
Later in the 17th century, the ruler of Jayakarta was defeated by the Dutch. The town was completely eradicated and a new fortified city, Batavia, was developed on the east bank of the Ciliwung. To control the water of Batavia, a system of canals were constructed to connect the canals of Batavia with nearby river: the Angke and the Ancol. The canal which connects Batavia with Ancol was named Antjolschevaart (Dutch "Ancol Canal"), has been established by 1650. Several forts and batteries were established to protect these canals, such as the Sconce Zouteland (Dutch "saline water") guarding the point where Ancol Canal meet River Ancol, which would later be upgraded into Fort Ancol in the 18th-century. By the end of the 18th-century, two batteries guarded the mouth of River Ancol, Slingerland to the east, Zeelucht to the west. Resort houses, such as the house of Adriaan Valckenier, were built along the Ancol Canal as a beach resort. The coastal area to the east bank of Ancol River, named Slingerland or Sanggerlang (now Ancol residential area), was a popular destination for the elites. The Chinese temple Da Bo Gong, built in 1650, was among the first building constructed in Ancol.
During the course of the 19th century, the old Batavia was gradually abandoned in favor of the much healthier and cleaner Weltevreden. During the period, Ancol remained undeveloped.
With the construction of a new port in Tanjung Priok in late 19th-century, 200 years old Ancol Canal was extended to reach Tanjung Priok. A new railway line was established along the Ancol Canal, connecting Batavia N.I.S. station with Tanjung Priok station. Despite the introduction of these new infrastructure, the area of Ancol remained devoid of any urban development.
World War II
During the Japanese occupation, the swampy area of Ancol was used as places of execution and mass grave for those who opposed the Japanese troops, mainly the Dutch. These victims were later reburied in a new cemetery on the coast of Ancol, Ancol Cemetery, inaugurated on September 14, 1946. The cemetery, also known as the "cemetery of the executed", contains more than 2,000 victims of execution during the Japanese occupation, many of whom are unknown. Because of its close proximity to the coast, the cemetery is threatened by sea water flooding.
In 1960, Ancol remained an undeveloped, mosquito-infested swamps and fish ponds. President Sukarno, known for initiating many monumental projects in Jakarta, would propose the idea of reclaiming the swamps and converting them into Jakarta's largest recreation and entertainment center. This idea was finally initiated in 1965, an idea which opposed the first idea of developing Ancol into an industrial area.
The development was started during the governancy of Ali Sadikin, the governor of Jakarta in 1966. The entertainment complex was named Taman Impian Jaya Ancol. The first facility was the Bina Ria Ancol beach, best known for its drive-in theater especially during the 1970s. The Dunia Fantasi theme park was built in 1984. Today, the 552 hectare recreation area is known as the Ancol Jakarta Bay City, contains hotels, cottages, beaches, a theme park, traditional market places, an oceanarium, a golf field and marina.
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