And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks
First US edition
Jack Kerouac &|
William S. Burroughs
Grove Press (US)|
Penguin Classics (UK)
|November 1, 2008 (US)|
And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks is a novel by Jack Kerouac and William S. Burroughs. It was written in 1945, a full decade before the two authors became famous as leading figures of the Beat Generation, and remained unpublished until 2008.
The book consists of alternating chapters by each author writing as a different character. Burroughs (as William Lee, the pseudonym he would later use for his first published book, Junkie) writes the character "Will Dennison" while Kerouac (as "John Kerouac"), takes on the character of "Mike Ryko".
According to the book The Beat Generation in New York by Bill Morgan, the novel was based upon the killing of David Kammerer who was obsessed with Lucien Carr. Carr stabbed Kammerer to death in a drunken fight, in self-defense by some accounts, then dumped Kammerer's body into the Hudson River. Carr later confessed the crime, first to Burroughs, then to Kerouac, neither of whom reported it to the police. When Carr eventually turned himself in, Burroughs and Kerouac were arrested as accessories after the fact. Kerouac served some jail time because his father refused to bail him out but Burroughs was bailed out by his family. (Kerouac married Edie Parker while in jail, and she then paid his bail.)
The book's title allegedly comes from a news broadcast, heard by Burroughs, about a fire at a circus during which the announcer broke into hysterics on reading the line, possibly the Hartford Circus Fire, which took place on July 6, 1944.
That was [from] a radio broadcast that came over when we were writing the book. There had been a circus fire and I remember this phrase came through on the radio: 'And the hippos were boiled in their tanks!' So we used that as the title.
However, in his afterword to the 2008 publication, James Grauerholz indicated that the origin of the title is unconfirmed and may have been related to a zoo incident in Egypt, or possibly even a fire that occurred at a circus.
"Because of the objections of my early publishers I was not allowed to use the same person's name in each work."
|Real-life person||Character name|
|Jack Kerouac||Mike Ryko|
|William Burroughs||Will Dennison|
|Lucien Carr||Phillip Tourian|
|Dave Kammerer||Ramsay Allen, or Al|
|Celine Young||Barbara "Babs" Bennington|
|John Kingsland||James Cathcart|
|Russell Carr, father of Lucien Carr||Mr Tourian, or Mr Rogers|
|Marion Carr, mother of Lucien Carr||Mrs Tourian|
|Godfrey S. Rockefeller, uncle of Lucien Carr||The uncle of Phillip Tourian|
|Chandler Brossard||Chris Rivers|
|Neal Spollen||Hugh Maddox|
|Ruth Louise McMahon||Agnes O'Rourke|
|Patricia Goode Harrison||Jane Bole|
|Thomas F. Healy||Tom Sullivan|
|"Hoagy" Norman ou Norton||Danny Orman|
|Joe Gould||Joe Gould|
Publication and reception
In later years, Burroughs did not consider And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks worth retrieving from obscurity. In the 1986 documentary What Happened to Kerouac? he dismissed it as "not a distinguished work."
"It wasn't sensational enough to make it . . . nor was it well-written or interesting enough to make it [from] a purely literary point of view."
According to James Grauerholz, numerous attempts were made by Kerouac and others to get the book published, until Burroughs brought a lawsuit over the use of quotations from the manuscript that appeared in New York magazine in 1976; the suit, which was settled in the 1980s, established the ownership of the work. When Burroughs died in 1997, Grauerholz became the executor of his estate, with responsibility for the disposition of his unpublished works. He had befriended Lucien Carr and agreed not to publish the manuscript in Carr's lifetime, although an excerpt from the book was included in the 1997 Burroughs omnibus Word Virus, published by Grove after the writer's death (but approved by Burroughs before he died). Carr's death in 2005 made way for the complete book to be published at last.
Ian Pindar, writing for The Guardian, agreed with Burroughs' assessment about the book but claimed "Neither Burroughs nor Kerouac is at his best here, but Hippos has value as a testament to their latent talent."
The New York Times, in a review panning the novel, called the book "flimsy" "repetitious" and "flat-footed". The review claimed "The best thing about this collaboration between Jack Kerouac and William S. Burroughs is its gruesomely comic title".
Although not based upon the novel, the 2013 film release Kill Your Darlings re-creates the events leading up to the murder that inspired the book.
- Jack Kerouac; William S. Burroughs (2008). And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks. Grove Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8021-1876-9.
- Bill Morgan, The Beat Generation in New York, quoted on website Great Good Places, accessed 2008-11-09
- Jack Kerouac; William S. Burroughs (2008). And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks. Grove Press. pp. 196–198. ISBN 978-0-8021-1876-9.
- Sandison, David. Jack Kerouac: An Illustrated Biography. Chicago: Chicago Review Press. 1999
- "Who's Who: A Guide to Kerouac's Characters".
- Kerouac, Jack. Visions of Cody. London and New York: Penguin Books Ltd. 1993.
- Ian Pindar (2008-12-05). "Beat it: A ghoulish collaboration intrigues Ian Pindar". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- Jack Kerouac; William S. Burroughs (2008). And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks. Grove Press. pp. 206–207. ISBN 978-0-8021-1876-9.
- Jack Kerouac; William S. Burroughs (2008). And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks. Grove Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-8021-1876-9.
- And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks
- Michiko Kakutani (2008-11-10). "When a Real-Life Killing Sent Two Future Beats in Search of Their Voices". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- Peter Carty (2009-01-13). "And the hippos were boiled in their tanks, By William Burroughs & Jack Kerouac". The Independent. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- Website with quote from Beat Generation in New York describing the incident that inspired the novel.
- And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks, Penguin books, ISBN 978-1-84614-164-5
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