Andalusians

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Andalusians
Andaluces
Total population
c. 11–12 million
Regions with significant populations
 Spain:

 Andalusia: 8,379,248 (2017)[1]
 Catalonia: 754,174 (2006)[2]
 Madrid: 285,164 (2006)[3]
 Valencia: 218,440 (2006)[3]
 Basque Country: 46,441 (1991)[4]
 Balearic Islands: 71,940 (1991)[5]
 Murcia: 36,278 (1991)[5]

Rest of Spain: 162,333 (1991)[5]
 Brazil: 923,775 (2006)[6]
 France: 31,516 (2006)[6]
 Cuba: 23,185 (2006)[6]
 Germany: 22,784 (2006)[6]
 Puerto Rico: 15,253 (2006)[6]
 Argentina: 20,385 (2006)[6]

Rest of the world: 50,000 (est)[7]
Languages
Modern vernacular:
Andalusian Spanish
Historical:
Iberian, Tartessian, Phoenician/Punic, Greek, Latin, Mozarabic, Andalusi Arabic, Berber, Visigoth
Religion
Modern:
Roman Catholicism (79%)[8]
Historical:
Sunni Islam
Sephardic Judaism

The Andalusians (Spanish: andaluces) are the citizens of Andalusia, an autonomous community in southern Spain. Andalusia's statute of autonomy defines Andalusians as the Spanish citizens who reside in any of the municipalities of Andalusia, as well as those Spaniards who reside abroad and had their last Spanish residence in Andalusia, and their descendants.[9] Since the 2007 reform, the statute also identifies the region as a "historic nationality" but this statement is in the preamble and thus has no legal value. The Spanish Language Academy recognizes Andalusian Spanish as a distinct dialect.

The genesis of modern Andalusian culture can be traced to the last phase of the Reconquista and the two centuries that followed (13th to 17th century) which brought about a greater adoption of Catholicism and, more specifically various Marian cults, as other religions which had been found in the region during the prior seven or eight centuries declined (notably Sunni Islam and Sephardic Judaism). It also coincides with the arrival of the Romani people in the mid 15th century, who also contributed to the culture of modern Andalusia. The degree to which the region's particularly long Islamic history is central to Andalusia's modern singularity is controversial and largely a matter of ideology, particularly considering Andalusia was heavily re-settled by Castilians, Leonese and others from central and northern regions of Spain.

Blas Infante, the creator of Andalusian regionalism and nationalism, drew heavily from Islamic, Latin and Jewish heritage as defining elements of the Andalusian identity. Nevertheless, local Catholic cults act as the primary vehicle of Andalusian cultural cohesion and identity. [10] Paradoxically, religious fervor in Andalusia seems not to clash with the region being among the most left-leaning and anti-clerical in the entire country, with below average levels of mass attendance and very little interest in orthodox Catholic doctrine.[11] The peculiar form and role of religion in Andalusia has been subject to significant ethnographic and anthropological study.

A cultural divide exists between what is known as "high Andalusia" (what used to be the Kingdom of Granada) and Low or Western Andalusia (the heavily populated Guadalquivir valley). Significant differences exist between the culture and the accents of all of eight provinces of Andalusia, but the widest difference is between these two regions. Some Andalusians of High Andalusia (notably Granada and Almería) complain that since the beginning of democracy and Andalusia's autonomy in 1981, Andalusian political power has been heavily centered around Seville and, as a result, Andalusian culture and identity has been built around this region, ignoring the unique culture and traditions of other parts of Andalusia. Calls for a separate Autonomy for eastern Andalusia have been made since the advent of democracy, yet have never attracted enough support to endanger Andalusia's integrity.[12]

The Andalusians have a rich culture which includes the Semana Santa (see Holy Week in Spain) and flamenco style of music and dance.

Geographical location and population[edit]

Andalusian people live mainly in Spain's eight southernmost provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga, and Sevilla, which all are part of the region and modern Autonomous Community of Andalucía. In January 2006 the total population of this region stood at 7,849,799; Andalucía is the most populous region of Spain.[13] In comparison with the rest of Spain, Andalusia population growth has been slower and it continues to be sparsely populated in some rural areas (averaging just 84 inh. per km²). Since 1960, the region's share of total population has declined, despite birth rates being about 40 percent higher than the Spanish average during past decades (currently it is only a 13% higher[3]). Between 1951 and 1975, over 1.7 million Andalusian people emigrated out of Andalusia to other areas of Spain.[14] This figure was approximately a 24% of the population of Andalusia as a whole, mostly hitting the countryside areas. The main recipients of this migration were Catalonia (989,256 people of Andalusian origin in 1975), Madrid (330,479) and Valencia (217,636), and to a lesser level, the Basque Country and Balearics.

During 1962 to 1974, around 700,000 Andalusians —almost all of them male— moved abroad for economic reasons, mainly originating from the provinces of Granada, Jaén and Córdoba. Their preferred destination were France, West Germany and Switzerland, followed by the United Kingdom, Netherlands and Belgium. There are no official recorded figures for previous decades.[15]

In South America in the last twenty years of 19th century, over 150,000 Andalusians emigrated to the Americas as a result of crop failures caused by the Phylloxera plague.[16] Many Andalusian peasants moved to Brazil to work in the coffee plantations, mainly in rural areas of São Paulo State. Spanish immigrants to Hawai'i who were solicited to work in the sugar industry, arrived in October 1898, numbering 7,735 men, women and children by 1913. Most of them came from Andalusia, home of Don Marin. However, unlike other plantation immigrant groups, the Spanish moved on, and by 1930 only 1,219 remained, including a scant eight children born in Hawai'i. Most Spanish left for the promising fields of California to make higher wages and live among relatives and friends who had settled in greater numbers there.

Additionally, Andalusians formed the major component of Spanish colonial immigration to certain parts of Spain's American and Asian empire and the largest group to participate in the colonisation of the Canary Islands. Principally, Andalusians and their descendants predominate in the Canary Islands(Spain), the Caribbean islands (Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Cuba), and the circum-Caribbean area (Guatemala, Costa Rica, Panama, the Caribbean coast of Colombia, and in Venezuela). They were also predominant in the Rio de la Plata region of Argentina and Uruguay and in the coastal areas of Chile, Peru, and Ecuador. In Asia, Andalusians predominated in the Spanish population of the Philippines as evidenced by the strong Andalusian character of the former Spanish in the Philippines and Spanish-based creoles, despite the fact that the Philippines were under the colonial supervision of the Vice-royalty of New Spain (Mexico).

Rationale[edit]

Most descriptions of Andalusia begin with the landownership system, as the most powerful forces in the region have for centuries been the owners of the large estates, called latifundios. These wide expanses of land have their origins in landowning patterns that stretch back to Roman times; in grants of land made to the nobility, to the military orders, and to the church during the Reconquest (Reconquista); and in laws of the nineteenth century by which church and common lands were sold in large tracts to the urban upper middle class. The workers of this land, called jornaleros (peasants without land), were themselves landless.

This economic and cultural system produced a distinctive perspective, involving class consciousness and class conflicts as well as significant emigration. In contrast to the much smaller farm towns and villages of northern Spain, where the land was worked by its owners, class distinctions in the agro-towns of Andalusia stood out. The families of the landless farmers lived at, or near, the poverty level, and their relations with the landed gentry were marked by conflict, aggression, and hostility. The two main forces that kept Andalusia's rural society from flying apart were external. The first was the coercive power of the state, as exemplified by Spain's rural constabulary, the Civil Guard (Guardia Civil). The second was the opportunities to migrate to other parts of Spain, or to other countries in Western Europe. Some of this migration was seasonal; in 1972, for example, 80,000 farmers, mostly Andalusians, migrated to France for the wine harvest. Part of the migration consisted of entire families who intended to remain in their new home for longer periods, once the head of the family group had settled down.

Economic growth and social mobility, although dispersed and not homogeneous in the region, fundamentally start in the nineteen seventies, coincides with the arrival of the democracy, and are intensified by the development of agroindustrial, tourism, and services sectors. In 1981 the Statute of Autonomy is approved after the Andalusian movement of autonomy. Since 1990 Andalusia follows a dynamic convergence process and is moving closer in development to the most advanced regions in Europe; more and more it comes closer to overcome the average of European living standards.

Notable Andalusians[edit]

Leaders and politicians[edit]

Philosophers and theologians[edit]

Historians, philologists and writers[edit]

Military commanders[edit]

Poets, Novelists and playwrights[edit]

Catholic saints and martyrs[edit]

Explorers, navigators and missionaries[edit]

  • Khashkhash Ibn Saeed Ibn Aswad (9th century), explorer and navigator, presumed discoverer of America.
  • Pedro Tafur (1410–1487), explorer of the Mediterranean and Middle East.
  • Martín Alonso Pinzón (1441–1493), explorer, one of the discoverers of America with Columbus.
  • Pedro de Cordova (1460–1525), missionary of present-day Dominican Republic and Venezuela.
  • Vicente Yáñez Pinzón (1462–1514), explorer, one of the discoverers of America with Columbus.
  • Pedro Alonso Niño (1468–1505), explorer of the Caribbean with Columbus.
  • Rodrigo de Triana (1469 – after 1525), explorer with Columbus, first European since the Vikings to officially see the Americas.
  • Juan Díaz de Solís (1470–1515), explorer of Yucatán, Brazil, and present-day Argentina and Uruguay.
  • Sebastián de Belalcázar (1479–1551), conquistador, explorer of present Central America, Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador.
  • Cristóbal de Olid (1488–1524), conquistador, military commander in the conquest of Cuba, Mexico and Honduras.
  • Diego de Lopez (late 18th century), friar from Granada, Spain, Parish Priest of Pandacan, Manila, founder of Tolosa town in the Philippines, patriarch of the Lopez- Romualdez family, great grand father of Imelda Romualdez- Marcos, Philippine First Lady.
  • Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (1490–1557), conquistador, explorer of the Caribbean, present-day USA and Mexico.
  • Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada (1495–1579), conquistador and explorer of Colombia.
  • Pedro de Mendoza (1499–1537), conquistador, explorer of present-day Argentina and founder of Buenos Aires.
  • Diego de Nicuesa (died 1511), conquistador, explorer of present-day Panamá, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
  • Juan de Esquivel (died 1513), conquistador of Jamaica.
  • Ruy López de Villalobos (1500–1544), explorer of the Pacific Ocean and the Philippines.
  • Juan de Padilla (1500–1542), missionary, Christian martyr and explorer of present-day USA.
  • Alonzo de Barcena (1528–1598), missionary in Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay.
  • Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera (1538–1574), conquistador, founder of Córdoba, Argentina.
  • Judar Pasha (died 1605), military commander and explorer, conqueror of Niger.
  • Antonio de Ulloa (1716–1795), military commander, explorer and astronomer.
  • Juan de Ayala (1745–1797), naval officer and explorer of California.

Scientists and physicians[edit]

Classical composers and opera singers[edit]

Painters and sculptors[edit]

Artisans[edit]

Bullfighters[edit]

Actors, comedians and entertainers[edit]

Film directors[edit]

Journalists[edit]

Footballers and football coaches[edit]

Other athletes[edit]

Singers and musicians[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cataluña roza los 7,6 millones de habitantes y es segunda CCAA que más crece, La Vanguardia, 24 April 2018
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2006-10-13. Source: Consejería de Gobernación, Junta de Andalucía (Andalusian Autonomous Government)
  3. ^ a b c Ibid
  4. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-03-27. Retrieved 2006-10-13. Recaño Valverde, Joaquín (1998): "La emigración andaluza en España" in Boletín Económico de Andalucía, issue 24
  5. ^ a b c Recaño Valverde, Joaquín: Ibid
  6. ^ a b c d e f Consejería de Gobernación
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2006-10-13. Dirección General de Andaluces en el Exterior, Junta de Andalucía
  8. ^ Interactivo: Creencias y prácticas religiosas en España
  9. ^ Article 5 of the 2007 Statute of Autonomy (full text in [https://es.wikisource.org/wiki/Estatuto_de_Autonom%C3%ADa_de_Andaluc%C3%ADa_2007:_03 Wikisource])
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-04. Retrieved 2016-04-13.
  11. ^ http://www.lavanguardia.com/vangdata/20150402/54429637154/interactivo-creencias-y-practicas-religiosas-en-espana.html[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-04-22. Retrieved 2016-04-13.
  13. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2006-10-13. INSTITUTO DE ESTADÍSTICA DE ANDALUCÍA (2006): Andalucía. Datos básicos 2006. Consejería de Economía y Hacienda, Junta de Andalucía. Page 13
  14. ^ Recaño Valverde, Joaquín: Ibid
  15. ^ http://www.ahimsav.com/149-nov_archivos/page0006.htm[permanent dead link] "El boom migratorio exterior"
  16. ^ De Mateo Aviles, Elias (1993): La Emigración Andaluza a América (1850–1936). Editorial Arguval. Málaga, Spain
  17. ^ Albert, Manuel J. (11 July 2011). "El pintor amigo de Flash Gordon" [The painter friend of Flash Gordon]. El País. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
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