|State of India|
Flag of India
|-||1953-1956||Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi|
|-||Established||October 1 1953|
|-||States Reorganisation Act, 1956||November 1 1956|
Andhra State (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర Āndhra [IPA: [ˈɑːndʰrʌ]]) was a state in India created on October 1, 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State. This state is made up of two distinct cultural regions i.e Rayala-Seema , Coastal-Andhra. Media refers this combined region as Seemandhra or Seema-Andhra.
Later, on November 1, 1956 the Telangana region (Medak and Warangal divisions) of Hyderabad State was merged with it to form the united Telugu-speaking state of Andhra Pradesh. When present Andhra Pradesh state was created, some majority Telugu speaking areas (ex. parts of Kolar district and Bellary district) were included in Karnataka state and Gadwal & Alampur taluks were included in Mahbubnagar district of Hyderabad Telangana region in Andhra Pradesh. Historically Gadwal & Alampur taluks were not part of Telangana. Telangana gained these two taluqs being part of Andhra Pradesh at the loss of Rayalaseema its area to Karnataka. States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) recommended to create Telangana state before merging with Andhra state after taking public opinion in the scheduled elections in 1961. (complete text of the recommendations is available on Wikisource)
On 2 June 2014, Telangana state was carved out Andhra Pradesh. Now the residual Andhra Pradesh have more or less have the same borders of Andhra state as existed on October 31, 1956.
Creation of Andhra State
In an effort to protect the interests of the Telugu people of Madras state, Potti Sriramulu attempted to force the Madras state government to listen to public demands for the separation of Telugu speaking districts (Rayalaseema and Coastal Andhra) from Madras state to form the Andhra state. He went on a lengthy fast, and only stopped when Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru promised to form Andhra state. However, there was no movement on the issue for a long time. He started fasting again for attaining statehood for Andhra in Maharshi Bulusu Sambamurti's house in Madras on 19 October 1952. It started off without fanfare but steadily caught people's attention despite the disavowal of the fast by the Andhra Congress committee.
The government of the day however did not make a clear statement about the formation of a new state despite several strikes and demonstrations by Telugu people. On the midnight of 15 December (i.e. early 16 December 1952), Potti Sreeramulu died and laid down his life trying to achieve his objective.
In his death procession, people shouted slogans praising his sacrifice. When the procession reached Mount Road, thousands of people joined and raised slogans hailing Sriramulu. Later, they went into a frenzy and resorted to destruction of public property. The news spread like wildfire and created an uproar among the people in far off places like Chirala, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Rajahmundry, Eluru, Guntur, Tenali, Ongole and Nellore. Seven people were killed in police firing in Anakapalle and Vijayawada. The popular agitation continued for three to four days disrupting normal life in Madras and Andhra regions. On 19 December 1952, the Prime Minister of the country Jawaharlal Nehru made an announcement about formation of a separate state for Telugu speaking people Madras state. Central government appointed Wanchoo committee to look into issues related to formation of Andhra state. Parliament passed the Andhra state act in September 1953.
House No. 126, Royapethah High Road, Mylapore, Madras is the address of the house where Potti Sriramulu died and it has been preserved as a monument of importance by the state government of Andhra Pradesh.
On October 1, 1953, 11 districts in the Telugu-speaking portion of Madras State became the new state of Andhra State with Kurnool as the capital. Andhra Kesari Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu became first Chief Minister of thus formed Telugu State. Thus, Andhra State was a state created in India on October 1, 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras Presidency. It comprised Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema Regions.
Formation of this first linguistic State (Andhra State) paved way to creation of more linguistic states in India and provided an opportunity for these states to develop independently linguistically and economically, each of them having a state to support.
Districts of Andhra state
- Coastal Andhra Region
Vizianagaram district was created out of parts of Visakhapatnam District and Srikakulam District in 1979. Prakasam district was created out of parts of Guntur District, Nellore District and Kurnool District in 1970.
Bhadrachalam and Nuguru Venkatapuram Taluks of East Godavari district (part of coastal Andhra Pradesh), which are on the other side of the river Godavari were merged into Khammam district on grounds of geographical contiguity and administrative viability. Earlier Aswaraopeta was also part of West Godavari District and added to Khammam District in the year 1959. Similarly, Munagala mandal was added to Nalgonda district from Krishna district in 1959.
Formation of Andhra Pradesh
On November 1, 1956 Andhra State and Telangana region of Hyderabad State are merged to form a united Telugu-speaking state of Andhra Pradesh. Non-Telugu speaking parts of Hyderabad State are merged with Maharashtra and Karnataka.
SRC (Fazal Ali Commission)
Para 382 of States Reorganization Commission Report (SRC) dated 30 September 1955 said "opinion in Andhra is overwhelmingly in favour of the larger unit, public opinion in Telangana has still to crystallize itself. Important leaders of public opinion in Andhra themselves seem to appreciate that the unification of Telangana with Andhra, though desirable, should be based on a voluntary and willing association of the people and that it is primarily for the people of Telangana to take a decision about their future".
Para 386 While the Fazal Ali commission emphasizes on the necessity and benefits Visalandhra, the report only suggests that the process of merging may be done after 5 years. “ …for the present the Telangana area is to constitute into a separate State, which may be known as Hyderabad State with provision for its unification with Andhra after the general elections likely to be held in or about 1961, if by two thirds majority the legislature of the residency Hyderabad State expresses itself in favor of the such unification.”
Para 387. The advantage of this arrangement will be that while the objective of the unification of the Andhras will neither be blurred nor impeded during a period of five or six years, the two governments may have stabilized their administrative machinery and, if possible, also reviewed their land revenue systems etc., the object in view being the attainment of uniformity. The intervening period may incidentally provide an opportunity for allaying apprehensions and achieving the consensus of opinion necessary for a real union between the two States.
From the content of Para 387, Fazal Ali commission's main objective was to attain uniformity by achieving adequate administrative machinery and proper land review systems in recently formed Andhra state and new state Hyderabad being formed and this duration could also be incidentally utilised for gaining consensus opinion for merger of the two states. In line with SRC opinion, the elected leaders of both states decided for immediate merger by achieving consensus by two thirds majority strength in both assemblies of these states.
Hyderabad Chief minister is his letter to Congress President said Communist parties supported the merger for their political calculations. Hyderabad PCC chief said overwhelming majority from Congress party opposed the merger and Communists were elected in special circumstances in 1951 and Visalandhra was not a political issue in 1951 and Assembly does not reflect people's view on this issue. He also said 80% of Congress delegates who were elected in 1955 opposed merger. Government had to provide the additional security for Communist leaders who supported the Visalandhra.
In Hyderabad assembly out of 174 MLAs On 3 December 1955, 147 MLAs expressed their view. 103 MLA's (including Marathi and Kannada MLAs) supported the merger, 16 MLAs maintained neutral stand and 29 opposed merger. Among Telangana MLAs, 25 Telangana MLAs disagreed with the merger, 59 Telangana MLAs supported the merger. Out of 94 Telangana MLAs in the assembly, 36 were Communists(PDF), 40 were Congress, 11 were Socialist party(SP), 9 were independents. Voting did not take place on the resolution because Telangana proponents insisted on to including the phrase "As per the wishes of people" in the resolution.
To convince the leadership of Telangana to join the new state, an agreement was reached between the leaders of both sides. This came to be known as the Gentlemen's agreement. The agreement allowed the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh in 1956 itself, against the SRC's recommendations of waiting until 1961 to get the approval of 2/3 of Telangana state assembly after the 2 cycles of elections in Telangana state.
Main article: Jai Andhra movement
Jai Telangana Movement was started in 1969, demanding proper implementation of gentlemen agreement particularly mulki rules. When supreme court upheld the discriminatory mulki rules applicable among the people of a state, Jai Andhra Movement took place during 1972-73. Jai Andhra movement was a public agitation demanding separate Andhra state from Andhra Pradesh. The moment was called off after the central government repealed the mulki rules and introduced six point formula.
Creation of Telangana state
- "Map of Madras Presidency in 1909". Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "The Approach and Arrangements, States Reorganisation committee report, October 1955". Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- Ramachandra Guha. India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy Harper Perennial; Reprint edition (August 12, 2008) ISBN 0-06-095858-8 ISBN 978-0330505543
- "THE ANDHRA STATE ACT,1953". Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Indian Express October 2, 1953". Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "No belief in Safeguards: Hyderabad PCC chief. - Page 4 of Nov 21, 1955 Indian Express". News.google.com. 1955-11-21. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
- "Page 1 of the edition December 5, 1955". Andhra Prabha dated 5 December 1955. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "STATISTICAL REPORT ON GENERAL ELECTION, 1951 TO THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF HYDERABAD". Election Commission. Retrieved 15 August 2013.