The Andorra National Library was created on September 8, 1930 with the aim of providing book lending services to the people of the valleys of Andorra (los Valles de Andorra). It was initially housed in the hall of lost steps (la sala de los pasos perdidos) in the Casa de la Vall (the headquarters of the General Council of Andorra). Its creation resulted from an initiative of the Andorran Society of Barcelona Residents (Sociedat Andorrana de Residents a Barcelona) together with contributions from various private individuals, and followed in the wake of the founding of other socio-cultural entities such as the Association for the Protection of Catalan Education (Associació Protectora de l'Ensenyança Catalana).
The new library was established in 1974. The initial collection of around 2,500 volumes came mainly from the library of the Casa de la Vall, but also included donations from the Catalan Book Exposition, donations from various publishing houses, and works acquired by the General Council of Andorra.
In 1986, after being housed in various locations, the library moved to a building called Prada Casadet. Although this building housed both the National Library and the Public Library of the Government of Andorra at the time, a small room was dedicated exclusively to the national collection.
In 1996, with the collections having grown considerably, it was decided to restructure and separate the services. The National Library of Andorra was therefore relocated to a building called Casa Bauró whilst the rest of the collection remained at Prada Casadet.
In addition to its other roles, the Andorra National Library has acted as the national ISBN agency for Andorra since 1987.