André Andrejew

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André Andrejew (January 21, 1887 – March 13, 1967) was one of the most important art directors of the international cinema of the twentieth century. He had a distinctive, innovative style. His décors were both expressive and realistic. French writer Lucie Derain described Andrejew at the peak of his career as "an artist of the grand style, blessed with a vision of lyrical quality."[1] Edith C. Lee wrote recently: "Believing in creative freedom rather than academic reconstruction, André Andrejew fulfilled the 20th century's notion of the romantic, individualistic artist. The unusual titillated his imagination."

Early life[edit]

André Andrejew was born in a town of Schawli (Lithuanian: Šiauliai) in tsarist Russia, (today Lithuania), on January 21, 1887[2] as Andrej Andreyev (Russian: Андрей Андреев). He studied architecture at the Moscow Fine Arts Academy. At the time in Russia, architecture could be studied at technical universities and with the more artistic angle at art academies, where accent was on interior design and decor and students were trained as artists. After the studies, André Andrejew worked as a scene designer at the Konstantin Stanislavski's Moscow Art Theatre.

In Berlin[edit]

After the October revolution of 1917, Andrejew migrated to Germany, where he worked as stage designer in theater productions in Berlin and Vienna, working among others with Max Reinhardt. In 1921/1922, he designed stage decorations for the Jasha Jushny's Der Blaue Vogel (Blue Bird), a legendary Russian émigré cabaret at Goltzstrasse in Berlin.

In 1923, he designed his first cinema décor for Raskolnikow, directed by Robert Wiene, film based upon Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment. This expressionist work made him the foremost art director in Germany. Rudolf Kurtz in his Expressionismus und Film (1926) wrote: Andrejew is a typical Moscow mixture, distinction of the streaked folk art (his decors) dissolves the rhythm of images, creates gentle forms, establishes balance even when everything is broken and torn.

Germany produced at the time hundreds of feature movies each year, and as cinema was silent, they were often produced in a co-production with France and released in both countries with different language inter-titles. Andrejew designed décors for several major German and Franco-German productions directed by Pabst, Feyder, Duvivier, Christian-Jacque. The titles of this period include Dancing Vienna, Pandora's Box, The Threepenny Opera, Don Quixote, The Golem, Meyerling.

Especially interesting is today The Threepenny Opera (1930), directed by G.W. Pabst. Andrejew built for this film huge sets of the imaginary London. These decors artistically continue German Expressionism of the 1920s, but bring it to another level, creating the world far more realistic, intense and somber.

France, Great Britain, Czechoslovakia: 1933-1940[edit]

Immediately after Hitler took power in Germany in 1933, Andrejew as several other Russian artists living in Berlin left for Paris. At first he worked with the directors who also left Germany (Fedor Ozep, Alexis Granowsky, G. W. Pabst), but later with the most successful French filmmakers of the time, working on art direction of numerous film productions in France, England, and Czechoslovakia. In collaboration with Pimenoff, Andrejew art directed 'Les Yeux Noirs'. Following this came sumptuous sets for 'Les Nuits Moscovites' and 'Myerling'. His sets for Duvivier's 'Golem' made in Prague were remarkable, the camera reproducing the artist's original designs very faithfully. Toeplitz brought Andrejew to England in 1937 to make 'The Dictator', and he stayed on to make 'Whom the Gods Love' for Basil Dean. Both these films were set against lavish eighteenth century backgrounds on which he was so much at home(...)Until 1937 he was associated with many productions for London Films but returned to his chateau in France in 1938.[3] Just before the World War II, Andrejew was active in France making decors for two films with Pabst and several other films with L'Herbier, Ozep, Pottier, Lacombe and Mirande.

War years in France: 1940-1944[edit]

When Germany invaded France in May 1940 and the Vichy regime was established, German producer Alfred Greven[4] and his firm Continental Films continued to produce French films. These films were shown in cinemas in France and other occupied by Germany countries, where cinema had to be kept alive while it has been seen by the Nazi regime, as an important propaganda tool. Several directors left France escaping the Nazis as Luis Buñuel and Jean Renoir, but the directors who stayed in France like Marcel Carné, Jean Cocteau, Sacha Guitry continued to make films and André Andrejew continued to design and build film décors. These French films had nothing to do with the occupiers ideology. Their default was to pretend normality, while Europe suffered under the Nazi German occupation.

Le Corbeau controversy[edit]

In 1943, André Andrejew worked as a production designer on Le Corbeau, a thriller by Henri-Georges Clouzot. This anti-authoritarian film became very controversial during the occupation, when it was seen as indirectly attacking the Nazi system, and censored; yet after the liberation of France in August 1944, Le Corbeau was perceived as being made by collaborators, and it was rumored to have been released in Germany as Nazi anti-French propaganda, when in fact it was suppressed by the Germans.

However, the film was disliked by all political parties in postwar France, and there was a strong consensus to treat this movie as a scapegoat for a national feeling of guilt for not putting up enough resistance against Nazi Germany. Clouzot was at first banned for life from directing films in France; his actors, who acted also in other movies, were sentenced to long prison terms.

Several important personalities in France, including artist Jean Cocteau and philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, went to the defense of Le Corbeau and Clouzot himself. Clouzot's ban was commuted to three years, counted from the release of Le Corbeau, which in fact meant two years' ban. Andrejew, as his close collaborator, was banned for nine months, forcing him to renew his English contacts.

The French ban on Le Corbeau was lifted only in 1969.

Final years — Hollywood productions[edit]

Andrejew continued to work as a production designer in England, France, and since 1948, he designed décors for several major international productions as Anna Karenina, Alexander the Great (shot in Spain), and Anastasia.

Anna Karenina produced by Alexander Korda and directed by Julien Duvivier, with the cinematography by Henri Alekan, costumes by Cecil Beaton and Vivien Leigh in the title part, stands out in Andrejew's work as probably one of his best films. 'Andre Andrejew has done something good that very few set designers for films set in czarist Russia are able to do: create the impression of sumptuous wealth without making the rooms look like nearly barbaric combination of harems and safaris. The seeming alien-ness of Russia, particularly before 1917, has influenced many set designers to make the place look strange and combine several bizarre cultures which have nothing to do with anything. This production of Anna Karenina takes into account something very important: Upper class Russians were, in effect, Europeans, and they tended to live in the same sort of surroundings as other Victorian-era Europeans did.´[5]

In Alexander the Great (1956), Andrejew successfully used existing elements of primitive Spanish architecture to create the richness and glory of ancient Greece and Persia in far more authentic way, than the plaster and plywood decorations in similar Hollywood films of the time. Andrejew's ideas were continued a decade later in the mythological films directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini, Edipo re (Oedipus Rex, 1967) with the production design by Luigi Scaccianoce, and Medea (1969) with the production design by Dante Ferretti.

Andrejew briefly returned to Berlin in 1952, to work on a Carol Reed's The Man Between. He made his last movies in the mid-1950s in Germany (then West Germany).

André Andrejew died of natural causes in Loudun, south of Paris on March 13, 1967.[6]

Influence of Andrejew on production design in film[edit]

Through his individual style of the art directing, the visual wealth and the artistic quality of his decors and the sheer number of films produced in different countries, Andrejew influenced for more than thirty years aesthetics of the art directing in Europe and America. Several production designers were following his style and today Andrejew is regarded as a classic. Edith C. Lee writes about him: As critics began to condemn any strongly stated art direction as distracting, Andrejew slightly toned down his style. Nonetheless, he maintained his belief in the importance of intrinsic meaning in design.[7]

Andrejew's production drawings are today in the collections in France and Great Britain, they also appear on art auctions and offering by the commercial galleries in France. Cinémathèque Française in Paris presented several of Andrejew's gouaches during the exhibition 'Le cinéma expressionniste allemand — Splendeurs d'une collection (French Expressionist Cinema — Splendors of the Collection) ´ - held in winter of 2007. They were collected by Lotte H. Eisner, German film historian living in France, who documented for the Cinémathèque works of the most important Filmarchitekte of the German expressionist cinema.

Filmography[edit]

This is a filmography of films made by André Andrejew as a production designer or an art director, as in Europe at the time there was no sharp distinction between these functions. This filmography lists a year of release (not of production), an original title of the film and the name of its director. Eventual Andrejew's collaborators are mentioned before the film director's name. Additionally, after some titles, some significant names of the cast or of the crew have been noted.

Germany: 1923 - 1933[edit]

Silent films:

1923 Raskolnikov, Directed by Robert Wiene

1923 Macht der Finsternis (Die), in collaboration with Heinrich Richter, Directed by Conrad Wiene

1925 Briefe, die ihn nicht erreichten, in collaboration with Gustav A. Knauer, Directed by Frederic Zelnik

1925 Geheimnis der alten Mamsell (Das), in collaboration with Gustav A. Knauer, Directed by Paul Merzbach

1925 The Dealer from Amsterdam, in collaboration with Gustav A. Knauer, Directed by Victor Janson

1925 Bankkrach Unter den Linden (Der), in collaboration with Gustav A. Knauer, Directed by Paul Merzbach

1926 The Bohemian Dancer, in collaboration with Gustav A. Knauer, Directed by Frederic Zelnik, Cast: Lya Mara (Försterchristl)

1926 The Mill at Sanssouci, in collaboration with Gustav A. Knauer, Directed by Siegfried Philippi and Frederic Zelnik

1926 Flucht in den Zirkus (Die) also known as Verurteilt nach Sibirien — Moskau 1912 (Die), in collaboration with Karl Görge and August Rinaldi, Directed by Mario Bonnard and Guido Parish

1926 The Violet Eater, in collaboration with Hermann Krehan, Directed by Frederic Zelnik

1926 Superfluous People, in collaboration with Stefan Lhotka, Directed by Alexander Rasumny

1926 Fadette, in collaboration with Alexander Ferenczy, Directed by Frederic Zelnik

1927 Zigeunerbaron (Der), in collaboration with Alexander Ferenczy, Directed by Frederic Zelnik

1927 The Weavers, Directed by Frederic Zelnik, Makeup designer: George Grosz

1927 Alpine Tragedy, Directed by Robert Land

1927 Der goldene Abgrund. Schiffbrüchige des Lebens(Der), Directed by Mario Bonnard

1927 Dancing Vienna, also known as An der schönen blauen Donau. 2. Teil, Directed by Frederic Zelnik

1927 Spielerin (Die), in collaboration with Alexander Ferenczy; Directed by Graham Cutts, based upon Dostoyevski's The Player

1927 Im Luxuszug, Directed by Erich Schönfelder

1928 Thérèse Raquin, Directed by Jacques Feyder

1928 Mariett Dances Today, in collaboration with Erich Zander, Directed by Frederic Zelnik

1928 Two Red Roses, Directed by Robert Land

1928 Marie Lou, Directed by Frederic Zelnik

1928 Ladenprinz (Der), Directed by Erich Schönfelder

1928 The Saint and Her Fool, Directed by Wilhelm Dieterle

1929 My Heart is a Jazz Band, Directed by Frederic Zelnik; Cast: Lya Mara, Carl Goetz, Iwan Kowal-Samborskij, Alfred Abel

1928 Rapa-nui, Directed by Mario Bonnard

1928 Volga Volga, Directed by Victor Tourjansky

1928 Der Herzensphotograph, Directed by Max Reichmann

1929 Diane, Directed by Erich Waschneck, Cast: Henry Victor (Oberst Guy de Lasalle), Kommandant von Tschamschewa, Olga Tschechowa (Diane), Pierre Blanchar (Leutnant Gaston Mévil)

1929 Büchse der Pandora (Die) or Loulou (French title), in collaboration with Gottlieb Hesch (Bohumil Heš); Directed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst, Cast: Louise Brooks (Loulou)

1929 Liebe der Brüder Rott. Irrlichter (Die), Directed by Erich Waschneck, Cast: Olga Chekhova aka Olga Tschechova (Theresa Donath) who also produced the film

1929 Narr Seiner Liebe (Der), Directed by Olga Chekhova aka Olga Tschechova

1929 Sprengbagger 1010, Directed by Carl Ludwig Achaz-Duisberg, Cast: Heinrich George (Direktor March) Viola Garden (Olga Lossen)

1930 Revolte im Erziehungshaus, Directed by Georg Asagaroff

sound films:

1930 The Last Company, Directed by Curtis Bernhardt (as Kurt Bernhardt)

1931 Dreigroschenoper (Die), Directed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst; Treatment by Bertolt Brecht based upon the musical by Bertolt Brecht with the music by Kurt Weill. Screenplay by Leo Lania, Ladislaus Vajda and Béla Balázs

1931 Raub der Mona Lisa (Der), in collaboration with Robert A. Dietrich; Directed by Geza von Bolvary

1931 His Highness Love, in collaboration with Erich Kettelhut; Directed by Robert Péguy and Erich Schmidt

1931 Liebeskommando, in collaboration with Robert A. Dietrich; directed by Geza von Bolvary

1932 Don Quixotte Directed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst; Cast: Feodor Chaliapin (Don Quixotte)

1932 Mirages de Paris in collaboration with Lucien Aguettand; Directed by Fédor Ozep - * Note: a film produced in Germany in a co-production with France

1933 Grosstadtnacht, Directed by Fédor Ozep - * Note: a film produced in Germany in a co-production with France

France, Great Britain, Czechoslovakia : 1933 - 1940[edit]

1933 Cette vieille canaille Directed by Anatole Litvak, Cast: Harry Baur (Professor Vautier), Alice Field (Helene), Kiki de Montparnasse aka Alice Prin (Kiki)

1933 Dans les rues Directed by Victor Trivas

1933 Volga en flammes Directed by Victor Tourjansky

1934 Nuits moscovites (Les) Directed by Alexis Granowsky; Music Bronisław Kaper aka Bronislau Kapper and Walter Jurmann

1934 Whom the gods destroy Directed by Walter Lang, Cast: Walter Connolly (John Forrester aka Eric Jann aka Peter Korotoff); * Note: a film produced in Great Britain

1935 Dictator (The) Le Dictateur Directed by Victor Saville; * Note: a film produced in Great Britain

1935 Tarass Boulba Directed by Alexis Granowsky

1936 Mayerling, Directed by Anatole Litvak, Written by: Marcel Achard, Claude Anet (novel), Joseph Kessel, Irma von Cube, Cast: Charles Boyer (Archduke Rudolph of Austria) and Danielle Darrieux (Marie Vetsera)

1936 Golem (Le) in collaboration with Štěpán Kopecký; Directed by Julien Duvivier, * Note: a film produced in France, shot in Czechoslovakia

1936 Beloved Vagabond (The) Directed by Curtis Bernhardt; * Note: film by a German director produced in Great Britain

1936 Gässchen zum Paradies Das) Directed by W.L. Bagier and Martin Fric, Written by: Hugo Haas and Otakar Vávra; * Please Note: a film produced in Czechoslovakia

1937 Dark Journey originally released as The Anxious Years, with the collaboration of Ferdinand Bellan; Directed by Victor Saville; Cast: Conrad Veidt (Baron Karl Von Marwitz), Vivien Leigh (Madeleine Goddard); * Please note: a film produced in Great Britain

1937 Citadelle du silence (La) Marcel L'Herbier

1938 Princess Tarakanova Directed by Fédor Ozep, Cast: Annie Vernay

1938 Drame de Shangaï (Le) Georg Wilhelm Pabst

1938 Lumières de Paris Directed by Richard Pottier

1939 Esclave blanche (L') Directed by Marc Sorkin; Supervised by Georg Wilhelm Pabst

1939 Jeunes filles en détresse Directed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst

1939 Musiciens du ciel (Les) Directed by Georges Lacombe

1939 Paris-New York Directed by Yves Mirande

France, war time: 1940 - 1944[edit]

1940 They Were Twelve Women Directed by Georges Lacombe

1941 Caprices Directed by Léo Joannon

1941 Dernier des six(Le) Directed by Georges Lacombe

1941 La Symphonie fantastique Directed by Christian-Jacque

1941 évadés de l´an 4000 (Les) in collaboration with André Chaillez, Directed by Marcel Carné

1942 assassin habite au 21 (L') Directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot

1942 Fausse maîtresse (La) Directed by André Cayatte

1942 Main du diable (La) Directed by Maurice Tourneur

1942 Picpus Directed by Richard Pottier

1942 Simplet Directed by Fernandel and Carlo Rim

1943 Au bonheur des dames Directed by André Cayatte

1943 Corbeau (Le) Directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot

1943 Ferme aux loups (La) Directed by Richard Pottier

1943 Mon amour est près de toi Directed by Richard Pottier

1943 Pierre et Jean Directed by André Cayatte

1944 dernier sou (Le) Directed by André Cayatte; *Note: the movie released in 1946

Great Britain: 1947 - 1952[edit]

1947 A Man About the House, Directed by Leslie Arliss

1948 Anna Karenina, Directed by Julien Duvivier, Produced by Alexander Korda, Screenplay by Julien Duvivier, Guy Moran and Jean Anouilh from Leo Tolstoy's novel, Photography by Henri Alekan, Costumes by Cecil Beaton, Cast: Vivien Leigh (Anna Karenina)

1948 The Winslow Boy, Directed by Anthony Asquith, cast: Robert Donat (Sir Robert Morton), Cedric Hardwicke (Arthur Winslow)

1949 That Dangerous Age also known in US as If This Be Sin, Directed by Gregory Ratoff, Cast: Myrna Loy (Lady Cathy Brooke)

1949 Britannia Mews Directed by Jean Negulesco, Cast: Dana Andrews (Gilbert Lauderdale/Henry Lambert)

1950 Angel with the Trumpet (The), Directed by Anthony Bushell

1950 My daughter Joy, Directed by Gregory Ratoff; Set Decoration by Dario Simoni; Cast: Edward G. Robinson (George Constantin)

1952 The Man between, Directed by Carol Reed, Cast: James Mason (Ivo Kern), Claire Bloom (Susanne Mallison)

Big Hollywood productions: 1953 - 1956[edit]

1953 Melba, Directed by Lewis Milestone, Cast: Patrice Munsel (Nellie Melba)

1954 Mambo, Directed by Robert Rossen, Produced by Dino De Laurentiis and Carlo Ponti, Cast: Silvana Mangano (Giovanna Masetti), Vittorio Gassman (Mario Rossi), Shelley Winters (Toni Salerno)

1955 Alexander the Great, Directed by Robert Rossen, Cast: Richard Burton (Alexander the Great); *Note: a film shot in Spain

1956 Anastasia, Directed by Anatole Litvak, Cast: Ingrid Bergman (Anastasia), Yul Brynner (General Sergei Pavlovich Bounine)

Germany (West): 1956 - 1957[edit]

1956 Bonjour Kathrin, Directed by Karl Anton, Cast: Caterina Valente (Kathrin)

1957 (released in January 1958) Madeleine und der Legionär, in collaboration with Helmut Neutwig and Fritz Lippman; Directed by Wolfgang Staudte

Further reading[edit]

About the German and French periods of Andrejew's work[edit]

  • Rudolf Kurtz, Expressionismus und Film, Verlag der Lichtbildbühne, Berlin, 1926 (Reprint: Hans Rohr, Zürich, 1965)
  • Jochen Meyer-Wendt, Zwischen Folklore und Abstraktion. Der Filmarchitekt Andrej Andrejew; a chapter in

Fantaisies russes. Russische Filmmacher in Berlin und Paris 1920-1930, Jörg Schöning (Editor), CineGraph Buch, München, 1995, 187 pages, for Andrejew see page 113, ISBN 3-88377-509-6;

  • Jean Loup Passek, Jacqueline Brisbois, Lotte H. Eisner, Vingt ans de cinéma allemand, 1913-1933: catalogue d'une exposition, 15. octobre-1. décembre 1978, Published by Centre National d'Art et de Culture Georges Pompidou, 1978
  • Jeanpaul Goergen, Künstlerische Avantgarde, visionäre Utopie. Die Regisseure Victor Trivas und Alexis Granowsky., a chapter in

Fantaisies russes. Russische Filmmacher in Berlin und Paris 1920-1930, Jörg Schöning (Editor), CineGraph Buch, München, 1995, ISBN 3-88377-509-6 (in German)

  • André Andrejew, Cinématographe n° 76, mars 1982 (in French)
  • Expressionistischer Dekor im deutschen Stummfilm, Gabriela Grunwald, Universität Köln, 1985, University Diploma Work (in German)
  • Mists of Regret: Culture and Sensibility in Classic French Film, Dudley Andrew, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA, 1995, ISBN 978-0-691-00883-7 (in English), pages 185-186
  • City of Darkness, City of Light. Émigré Filmmakers in Paris 1929-1939, Alastair Phillips, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam 2003, ISBN 978-90-5356-633-6 (in English)
  • The French Cinema Book, by Michael Temple, Michael Witt;. London: BFI Publishing, 2004; 300pp; ISBN 1-84457-012-6; read about André Andrejew on pages 103, 109 - 111.

About the British and Hollywood periods of Andrejew's work[edit]

  • Edward Carrick, Roger Manvell, Art and Design in the British film: a pictorial directory of British art directors and their work, comp. by Edward Carrick. With an introduction by Roger Manvell, Dobson, London 1948, re-edited by Arno Press, New York 1972, ISBN 0-405-03913-1
  • Larry Langman, Destination Hollywood, The Influence of Europeans on American Filmmaking, Jefferson, North Carolina and London, 2000

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1
  2. ^ 2
  3. ^ 3
  4. ^ 4
  5. ^ 5
  6. ^ 6
  7. ^ 8
  • [1] quoted after Pictorial directory of British art directors and their work, comp. by Edward Carrick.Dobson, London 1948
  • [2]. Often St. Petersburg is mistakenly given as a place of André Andrejew's birth.
  • [3] quoted from Pictorial directory of British art directors and their work, comp. by Edward Carrick.Dobson, London 1948
  • [4] See Alfred Greven at IMDB.
  • [5]A Beauty, a Breakdown, and a Russian Epic, Anna Karenina, A Review by Laurie Edwards
  • [6] French death certificate no. n° 28/1967 quoted at Les Gens du Cinema. Sometimes Leningrad(?)- a communist name for St. Petersburg, mistakenly and mysteriously (Andrejew lived in France and did not return to Russia) is reported as a place of Andrejew's death. Movie Database IMDb is one of the erroneous sources.

External links[edit]