André Glucksmann in January 2012
19 June 1937|
|Died||10 November 2015
Glucksmann began his career as a Marxist, but went on to reject communism in 1975 in the popular book La Cuisinière et le Mangeur d'Hommes and later became an outspoken critic of Russia. He had been a strong supporter of human rights and in recent years, opposed the claim that Islamic terrorism is the cause of the clash of civilizations between Islam and the West.
André Glucksmann was born in 1937, in Boulogne-Billancourt, the son of Ashkenazi Jewish parents from Austria-Hungary, the father from Bukovina, which later became part of Romania, the mother from Prague, which later became the capital of Czechoslovakia.
Glucksmann's mother and sister were active in the French Resistance during World War Two, and his father was killed. The family "narrowly escaped deportation to the camps" during the Holocaust, which influenced Glucksmann's developing ideas "of the state as the ultimate source of barbarism".
In 1975 he published the anti-Marxist book La Cuisinière et le Mangeur d'Hommes - subtitled Réflexions sur l'État, le marxisme et les camps de concentration, in which he argued that Marxism leads inevitably to totalitarianism, tracing parallels between the crimes of Nazism and Communism. In his next book Les maitres penseurs, published in 1977 and translated into English as Master Thinkers (Harper & Row, 1980), he traced the intellectual justification for totalitarianism back to the ideas articulated by various German philosophers such as Fichte, Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche. In the years of the Vietnam War, Glucksmann rose to national prominence after expressing his support of Vietnamese boat people. He began working with Bernard-Henri Lévy criticizing Communism. Both were well known Marxists, until they decided to criticize Marxism. Shortly afterwards they became New Philosophers.
1980s and 1990s
A supporter of Ronald Reagan, in 1985, Glucksmann signed a petition to President Reagan for his efforts to continue his support of the Nicaraguan Contras in Nicaragua. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, Glucksmann became an advocate in using nuclear power. In 1995 he supported the resumption of nuclear tests by Jacques Chirac. He supported the NATO intervention in Serbia in 1999. He also called for Chechnya to become independent.
Taking his cue from Dostoevsky, in whose works one finds the assertion that if God doesn't exist then everything is permitted, Glucksmann applies this critique of godless nihilism to 9/11 in his book, Dostoyevsky in Manhattan. His 2006 book Une rage d’enfant is an autobiography which talks about how his experiences as a young Jew in occupied France led to his interest in philosophy and his belief in the importance of intervention:
My style of thinking is to compare what happens on the TV, in the news and so on, and then extract what I can from books of philosophers to understand it. Philosophy for me is like subtitles. The problem comes from current events but the answer is supplied by philosophy.
Why do the 200,000 slaughtered Muslims of Darfur not arouse even half a quarter of the fury caused by 200-times fewer dead in Lebanon? Must we deduce that Muslims killed by other Muslims don’t count – whether in the eyes of Muslim authorities or viewed through the bad conscience of the West?
Glucksmann supported military action by the West in Afghanistan and Iraq, and was highly critical of Russian foreign policy, supporting for example Chechen independence. He, however, was against the Abkhazian and South Ossetian independence from Georgia, arguing that Georgia is essential to maintaining European Union "energy independence," vis-a-vis Russia, through access to oil and gas reserves in the former Soviet republics: "If Tbilisi falls, there will be no way to get around Gazprom and guarantee autonomous access to the gas and petroleum wealth of Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan".
As proof of Russia's plans to use energy blackmail, Glucksmann referenced a biting anti-Gazprom satirical song performed at the annual satirical award show "Silver Rubber Boot", which made jokes like: If the Eurovision Song Contest denies victory to Russia again, we are going to drive to their concert and block their gas with our bodies!. Glucksmann described this song as proof that the Russian people want to cut off gas to Ukraine and Europe. He wrote: Consider a popular song performed by a military choir in Moscow. Its chorus depicts the “radiant future” that Gazprom is preparing: “Europe has a problem with us? We will cut off its gas... The Russian public loves the song."
In August 2008 he co-signed an open letter with Václav Havel, Desmond Tutu, and Wei Jingsheng calling upon the Chinese authorities to respect human rights both during and after the Beijing Olympic Games.
He was a signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism.
In reaction to his death, President François Hollande said that Glucksmann always "listened to the suffering of peoples". Former president and opposition leader Nicolas Sarkozy commented on Glucksmann's death by saying: "[Glucksmann] turned a page in French thought from the second half of the 20th Century".
- Voltaire counter-attacks (Voltaire Contre-Attaque) (2014)
- A Child's Rage (Une rage d'enfant) (2006)
- The Discourse of Hate (Le Discours de la haine) (2004)
- West Versus West (Ouest contre Ouest) (2003)
- Dostoevsky in Manhattan (Dostoïevski à Manhattan) (2002)
- The Third Death of God (La Troisième Mort de Dieu) (2000)
- Silence, It Kills (Silence, on tue) (1986) (with Thierry Wolton)
- Stupidity (La Bêtise) (1985)
- Cynicism and Passion (Cynisme et passion) (1981/1999)
- The Force of Vertigo (La Force du vertige) (1983)
- The Master Thinkers (Les Maîtres penseurs) (1977)
- Note - Many of his works were translated into German by his long-term colleague Helmut Kohlenberger.
- Interview with Andre Glucksmann, 9 June 2010
- "French philosopher André Glucksmann dies at 78". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "French Jewish philosophers Andre Glucksmann dies at 78". Times of Israel.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "French philosopher Andre Glucksmann dies at 78". BBC News.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Anti-Americanism". Google Books. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Jacques Iraq aka Jacques Chirac". Diglander.it. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Murió el filósofo André Glucksmann, un crítico de los totalitarismos". Clarin.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Bin Laden, Dostoevsky and the reality principle: an interview with André Glucksmann". Open Democracy.net. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Meeting the Challenge Of 9/11: Blueprints for More Effective Government". Google Books. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "French Philosophers Andre Glucksmann Dies at 78". NDTV.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "André Glucksmann, former Leftist, Nouveau Philosophe, Sarkozy Backer, Dies.". Ten Dance Coatsey.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- A Hot Summer in Europe, André Glucksmann City Journal, 30 July 2009
- Pourquoi je choisis Nicolas Sarkozy, Le Monde, 29 January 2007 (French)
- "Olympic Watch: Human Rights". Olympic Watch.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Prague Declaration: Selected signatories". Institute for Information on the Crimes of Communism. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Outspoken French intellectual Andre Glucksmann dies at 78". The Washington Post.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Le testament philosophique d'André Glucksmann". Bibliobs.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Une rage d'enfant". France Culture.fr. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Le Discours de la haine". France Culture.fr. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Ouest contre Ouest". France Culture.fr. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Dostoïevski à Manhattan". Laffont.fr. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "LA TROISIÈME MORT DE DIEU". NIL editions.fr. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Silence, on tue". Grasset.fr. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "André Glucksmann, la ferveur et l'engagement". Lefigaro.fr. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Cynisme et passion". Grasset.fr. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "La Force du vertige". Babelio.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to André Glucksmann.|
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