Andrea Arnold

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Andrea Arnold

Andrea Arnold (Cannes Film Festival 2012).jpg
Born (1961-04-05) 5 April 1961 (age 61)[1]
Dartford, Kent, England
EducationAFI Conservatory
Years active1982–present

Andrea Arnold, OBE (born 5 April 1961) is an English filmmaker and former actor. She won an Academy Award for her short film Wasp in 2005.[3] Her feature films include Red Road (2006), Fish Tank (2009), and American Honey (2016), all of which have won the Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival.[4][5][6] Arnold has also directed four episodes of the Amazon Prime Video series Transparent,[4] as well as all seven episodes of the second season of the HBO series Big Little Lies. Her documentary Cow premiered at the 2021 Cannes Film Festival and played at the 2021 Telluride Film Festival.

Early life[edit]

Arnold was born in Dartford, Kent, the eldest of four children. She was born when her mother was only 16 years old and her father was 17, and they separated when she was very young. Growing up on a council estate, she spent her youth days constantly exploring the "chalk pits, fields, woods and motorways" of Dartford.[7] Her mother had to bring up all four children alone, which is reminiscent of the narrative in Arnold's third short film, Wasp. When asked if the story is in any way autobiographical, Arnold replies "I grew up in a working class family, so I guess you could say I write from what I know."[8]

As a young girl, she was writing dark stories about human experience. In an interview, Arnold speaks about how when she was 10 years old, she wrote her first play that expressed her "horror" of the slave trade, and a few years later while studying for a dance GCSE, she made a performance piece; "I took quotes from The Diary of Anne Frank and read them aloud as I moved around the room. All the other kids would just bung on some pop music and dance. I remember the examiners sitting there looking at me, perplexed."[9] Arnold left school when she was 16, when she was drawn to becoming an actor.[8] When Arnold was 18 years old she began working as a host and actor for a children's TV show called No. 73. She worked in TV for the next 10 years while continually writing on the side. Arnold realized she could turn her stories into films so she studied at the American Film Institute of Los Angeles, where she gained experience in the film industry. In explaining why she moved from London to study film in the U.S. she states, "I felt my lack of education and accent always held me back in the eyes of the gatekeepers".[7] After finishing her studies and returning to Britain she had her daughter, Coral, and began making short films for TV.[10]


Early TV work[edit]

After leaving school in the late 1970s, Arnold got her first TV jobs as a dancer on shows that included Top of the Pops.[11] She first came to prominence as an actor and television presenter alongside Sandi Toksvig, Nick Staverson and Neil Buchanan in the 1980s children's television show No. 73. This Saturday morning show on ITV, in which she played Dawn Lodge, had a similar premise to that of The Kumars at No. 42 in the way that the show was part sitcom, part chat show and based at a domestic residence. In addition to these parts, the show had the usual mix of music, competitions and cartoons that was in keeping to the formula of British Saturday morning children's TV of the 1980s. After a couple of years of experience in front of the camera, Arnold realized, "Television was great fun and I went along for the ride, but I never felt that comfortable in front of the camera".[9]

In 1988 No. 73 had morphed into 7T3, with the set being moved from the Maidstone house (in fact in TVS studios in Kent) to that of a theme park. This revamp would only last the season, but Arnold would be seen for another two years in the same timeslot as part of the Motormouth presenting team. In 1990 she presented and wrote for the environmental awareness show for teens, A Beetle Called Derek. This also featured Benjamin Zephaniah and gave exposure to The Yes/No People of Stomp fame.


After retiring from her career as a television presenter, Arnold studied directing at the AFI Conservatory in Los Angeles and trained in screenwriting at the PAL Labs in Kent.[12][13][14] Her early short films included Milk (1998), which premiered at the International Critics' Week Cannes,[15] and Dog (2001). She won the Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film for Wasp, in 2004.[16]

She was named a Screen International Star of Tomorrow. Also in 2003, she directed an episode of the Channel 4 series Coming Up titled "Bed Bugs", though she is sometimes erroneously credited as "Andrew Arnold" for the work.[17][18]

Red Road is the first instalment of Advance Party, a planned set of three conceptually-related films by different first-time directors. Set on a housing estate in Glasgow, the revenge-themed story centres on a CCTV (security TV cameras) operator who develops an obsession with someone she observes, for reasons that become clear through the progress of the film. The picture has won the British director comparisons with established names such as Michael Haneke and Lars von Trier. Screen International critic Allan Hunter said the film was "likely to emerge as one of the discoveries of this year's Cannes Film Festival (2006)." It went on to win the Jury Prize at Cannes that year.[19]

She won the 2007 BAFTA Award for Outstanding Debut by a British Writer, Director or Producer for directing Red Road. In 2008, Arnold was reported to be directing an adaptation of Gillian Flynn's novel Sharp Objects for French production company Pathé, but the project never materialized.[20] In 2011, she was reported to be working on a television project with writer Danny Brocklehurst called Dirty, but this project also failed to materialize.[21]

Her 2009 film Fish Tank premiered at the 62nd Cannes Film Festival, where she once again won the Jury Prize. The film also went on to win the BAFTA Award for Outstanding British Film in 2010. In 2011, she completed shooting an adaptation of Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights, produced by London's Ecosse Films. The film was shown in competition at the 68th Venice International Film Festival in September[22] where it won the Golden Osella for Best Cinematography.

She was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 2011 New Year Honours for services to the film industry.[23]

In 2015, it was announced that she would direct two episodes of the Amazon Studios series Transparent.[24]


Initially released in 2003, Wasp was a short (26 minutes) written and directed by Arnold. It stars Natalie Press as a struggling single mother determined not to let her four young children prove an obstacle in the pursuit of igniting a relationship with an old friend (Danny Dyer). Arnold's native Dartford is the setting. The film was commissioned by the UK Film Council and the Britain's Channel 4. It won the Sundance Short Film Prize in 2005, and won Arnold an Oscar for Best Live Action Short Film.[3]

Red Road[edit]

Red Road was a 2006 film that is a part of a creative series proposed by the Advance Party of Filmmakers to create three films using the same characters, all directed by different new directors. It tells the story of a CCTV security operator who observes through her monitors a man from her past. It is named after, and partly set at, the Red Road flats in Barmulloch, Glasgow, Scotland which were the tallest residential buildings in Europe at the time they were built.[25] It is shot largely in a Dogme 95 style, using handheld cameras and natural light.

One rule was that if any of the directors decide to incorporate a new main character, then all of the other films must incorporate that character as well. All three directors cast together so they could all see who they believed would fit their film as well as the others. Arnold mainly used first-time actors, stating that "I always want the world that I create to be its own universe. When you have really famous people, I find that it is very hard to transcend that awareness. I am always aware of who they are. When you see someone for the first time, that universe feels even more real. I like the idea of working with either unknowns or people that haven't even acted before."[26] Red Road cost $1 million to make and was shot digitally on a schedule of six weeks.[4] The film was accepted into competition for the Palme d'Or in Cannes and received the Jury Prize.[4]

Fish Tank[edit]

Fish Tank premiered in 2009 and was accepted into competition for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival and received the Jury Prize.[4] In its initial production, distributor Artificial Eye had acquired the UK theatrical rights, while ContentFilm International handled the worldwide sales. The film was backed by the Limelight Fund, BBC Films and the UK Film Council's New Cinema Fund.[27] The film was shot entirely on location in the UK.[28] Arnold was adamant about shooting the film in chronological order, so that the journey of the film would make sense to new coming actor Katie Jarvis. She would only give her a day's worth of script to study so that she could take it day by day.[29] The film originally premiered on around 45–50 screens in Britain, making them less accessible to the general public. In regards to this, Arnold said, "I definitely feel sorry more people don't get to see my films. They aren't inaccessible, and if people got the chance to see them, I know they'd like them. I wish cinema [owners] could be braver, or had more money to help them show films like mine." The film cost around $2 million to make, which is still a relatively low budget for a feature-length film.[4] Fish Tank won many awards including the best film award at the Evening Standard Film Awards.[30] Fish Tank was released on 11 September 2009.[8] The film and Arnold were honoured at the 20th Annual Women in Film and TV Awards in 2010.[31]

Wuthering Heights[edit]

Arnold's third film was based on Emily Brontë's 1847 novel and starred Kaya Scodelario and James Howson. This is the first film that Arnold has directed which she did not write herself, though she did co-write the screenplay. Originally, the film adaptation was set to be directed by Peter Webber, who directed Girl with a Pearl Earring, but Arnold was asked to take over and gladly accepted.[30] The film was made in 18 months, which is half the amount of time Arnold used to make Red Road and Fish Tank.[9] Oscilloscope Laboratories picked up the North American distribution rights to the adaptation, which won Best Cinematography at the Venice Film Festival in 2011, being praised for its visuals.[32]

American Honey[edit]

External audio
audio icon Filmmaker Andrea Arnold On 'American Honey' And Preserving Mystery In Film, 20:42, 29 September 2016, Fresh Air with Terry Gross[33]

Arnold's fourth film, American Honey, revolves around a group of young adults traveling across the country selling magazine subscriptions. The meandering plot focuses on the journey of the mag-crew kids as they drink, smoke, dance, joke around, and have various conversations in their van.[7] The film had its world premiere and competed for Palme d'Or at the 2016 Cannes Film Festival.[5][34] It won Arnold her third Jury Prize.[6] The film features a mix of both professional and non-actors, with all the non-actors being found through construction sites, parking lots, and on beaches.[35][36] Out of the 15 youth actors cast, 11 had never acted before.[37] The lead Sasha Lane was spotted by Arnold on a beach during spring break.[38] Arnold shot the film in chronological sequence, not telling her actors where they were going next.[7] The film was released in the United States on 30 September 2016, and in the United Kingdom on 14 October 2016, by A24 and Focus Features respectively.[39][40][41]


Arnold's 2021 documentary Cow is a portrait of a dairy-farm cow's life span.[42]

Work with film festivals[edit]

Arnold has been very active in working with film festivals around the world. She has been described as a "film festival regular even between films."[43] In 2012 she was a member of the Jury for the Main Competition at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival.[44] In 2013 she was named as a member of the jury at the 70th Venice International Film Festival.[45] In 2014 Arnold was announced as the chair of the jury for International Critics' Week at the 2014 Cannes Film Festival.[46] In 2016, Arnold was chosen to take part in a public conversation about her career as part of the Tribeca Film Festival's "Tribeca Talks" programme.[47] Arnold was a jury member of the 2017 Sheffield Doc/Fest.[48]

In September 2013, Arnold was named the New York Film Festival's inaugural "Filmmaker in Residence." As the first "Filmmaker in Residence," Arnold was responsible for "creating a template for the programme."[49] The programme is designed to "further the goals of filmmakers at an earlier stage in the creative process." Through the programme, Arnold was given the "opportunity to focus on developing or refining new work, and participate in master classes, mentorships or cultural exchange and enrichment film programmes with the Film Society of Lincoln Center members, the film community and the public."[50]

Andrea Arnold was named to as Chair of the European Film Festival of Les Arcs, which ran from 16 to 23 December 2017.[51]

Styles and themes[edit]

Throughout all of her films, Arnold is known for giving her actors almost total control in creating their characters. Her directorial style provides support and reassurance to her actors in an effort to create their most pure reflections of themselves. Sasha Lane, star of American Honey, describes that "She constantly told me to be who I was. There wasn't really any teaching. More like, 'Sasha, you're fine.'"[7]

In general, Arnold's films are characterized by the themes of deprivation and impoverishment. For example, both Fish Tank and Wuthering Heights are dramas featuring teenagers living in the poverty-stricken English edge-lands.[7]

Personal life[edit]

Arnold lives in Greenwich, London, with her daughter.[52]

In 2012, Arnold embarked on an impulsive road-trip of the continental United States which she states partially inspired the premise of her 2016 feature American Honey.[53]



Year Film Role Notes
1998 Milk Director, writer Short film
2001 Dog Director, writer Short film
2003 Wasp Director, writer Short film
2006 Red Road Director, writer
2009 Fish Tank Director, writer
2011 Wuthering Heights Director, writer
2016 American Honey Director, writer
2021 Cow Director Documentary


Year Film Role Notes
2003 Coming Up Director Episode: "Bed Bugs"[17][18]
2015–2017 Transparent Director 4 episodes
2017 I Love Dick Director 4 episodes
2019 Big Little Lies Director 7 episodes

Selected awards and honors[edit]

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Real life in the fish tank" The Guardian (23 August 2009). Retrieved 25 May 2010.
  2. ^ "Andrea Arnold". The Film Programme. 15 January 2010. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  3. ^ a b "Arnold Congratulated on Oscar Win". BBC News. 28 February 2005. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Gritten, David (28 August 2009). "Andrea Arnold: 'I wish cinema could be braver'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  5. ^ a b "2016 Cannes Film Festival Announces Lineup". IndieWire. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  6. ^ a b Barraclough, Leo (7 June 2016). "Andrea Arnold's Cannes Jury Prize Winner 'American Honey' Sells Out". Variety. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Andrea Arnold's Immersive Cinema". The New Yorker. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  8. ^ a b c "Film: Andrea Arnold Interview". Scotsmans. 28 August 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  9. ^ a b c Secher, Benjamin (5 November 2011). "Dark depths of Andrea Arnold's Wuthering Heights". The Telegraph. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  10. ^ Winters, Laura (1 April 2007). "Director Leaps From Shorts to Longing". New York Times. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  11. ^ "I like darkness" The Guardian (18 October 2006). Retrieved 10 May 2010.
  12. ^ "AFI Conservatory Alumni". AFI Conservatory. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  13. ^ By, Uploaded. "The AFI Class of '92". Chicago Sun Times. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  14. ^ "PAL Screenwriters Lab". PAL Labs. Archived from the original on 28 March 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  15. ^ "Milk | La Semaine de la Critique of Festival de Cannes". Semaine de la Critique du Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  16. ^ Raphael, Amy (22 August 2009). "Real life in the Fish Tank". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  17. ^ a b Lund, Nicky (2012). "Jane Pugh". David Higham Agents. London, UK. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  18. ^ a b "Coming Up". Channel 4. London. 2013. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  19. ^ "Festival de Cannes: Red Road". Retrieved 13 December 2009.
  20. ^ "Forward, Slingshot start shooting UK school horror Tormented". Screen Daily. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  21. ^ Wallenstein, Andrew (1 June 2011). "HBO Getting Dirty with Danny Brocklehurst". Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  22. ^ "Venezia 68: International competition of feature films". Venice. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  23. ^ "No. 59647". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 2010. p. 9.
  24. ^ "Andrea Arnold To Direct Episodes Of 'Transparent' Season 2". Indiewire. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  25. ^ Red Road Flats, Glasgow Digital Library
  26. ^ GreenCineStaff. "Andrea Arnold: The Path to The Red Road". GreenCine. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  27. ^ Mitchell, Wendy (28 July 2008). "Andrea Arnold starts UK shoot for Fish Tank". Screen Daily. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  28. ^ "Andrea Arnold's Fish Tank Confirmed For Cannes Competition". 4RFV. 24 April 2009. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  29. ^ "Fish Tank wins the Outstanding British Film BAFTA". YOUTUBE. Archived from the original on 14 December 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  30. ^ a b Masters, Tim (11 February 2010). "Andrea Arnold on 'huge responsibility' of Bronte film". BBC News. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  31. ^ Kemp, Stuart (3 December 2012). "Carey Mulligan, Andrea Arnold, Jane Goldman Among Women in Film and TV Honorees". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  32. ^ Kit, Borys (14 September 2001). "Toronto 2011: Oscilloscope Acquires Andrea Arnold's 'Wuthering Heights'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  33. ^ "Filmmaker Andrea Arnold On 'American Honey' And Preserving Mystery In Film". Fresh Air. NPR. 29 September 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  34. ^ "Cannes 2016: Film Festival Unveils Official Selection Lineup". Variety. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  35. ^ Cohen, Finn (28 September 2016). "'American Honey': Open Highways, Free Spirits". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  36. ^ Fitzmaurice, Larry (28 September 2016). "'American Honey' Is a Brilliant Film About Society's 'Throwaways'". Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  37. ^ "andrea arnold: how we cast 'american honey'". I-d. 17 October 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  38. ^ "Stars Aligned: Sasha". Wonderland Magazine. 31 May 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  39. ^ Barraclough, Leo (14 May 2016). "Cannes: Focus Buys 'American Honey' for Key International Territories". Variety. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  40. ^ Hallan-Farah, Safy (21 June 2016). "WATCH SHIA LABEOUF GET INTO SOME SHENANIGANS IN AMERICAN HONEY TRAILER". Paper. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  41. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (28 June 2016). "A24 Sets Dates For 'Moonlight' & Cannes Jury Prize Winner 'American Honey'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  42. ^ Hunt, Elle (30 March 2022). "Cow review: A moving and uncomfortable cow's-eye-view of farming". Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  43. ^ "Andrea Arnold named NYFF's first Filmmaker-in-Residence". Hitflix. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  44. ^ "The Jury of the 65th Festival de Cannes". Cannes Film Festival. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  45. ^ "Juries and Awards of the 70th Venice Film Festival". labiennale. Archived from the original on 8 September 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  46. ^ "Andrea Arnold to chair the jury at the International Critics' Week". Cineuropa. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  47. ^ "JJ Abrams, Andrea Arnold in Tribeca Talks series". Screen Daily. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  48. ^ "'City Of Ghosts' wins top prize at Sheffield Doc/Fest 2017". Screen Daily. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  49. ^ "Andrea Arnold Talks Residence, Method Directing and New Project". Film Society Lincoln Center. 12 September 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  50. ^ "THE FILM SOCIETY OF LINCOLN CENTER names Director/Writer ANDREA ARNOLD as the 2013 FILMMAKER IN RESIDENCE during THE 51ST NEW YORK FILM FESTIVAL". Film Society Lincoln Center. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  51. ^ Andrea Arnold, présidente du jury du Festival de cinéma européen des Arcs Archived 8 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine, le Figaro, 6 November 2017
  52. ^ Elmhirst, Sophie (8 October 2016). "Andrea Arnold's immersive Cinema". New Yorker.
  53. ^ "Andrea Arnold: 'I always aim to get under the belly of a place'". the Guardian. 9 October 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  54. ^ "British film director Andrea Arnold is honoured by the University of Sussex". University of Sussex. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  55. ^ "Andrea Arnold- Masterclass". Falmouth University. Retrieved 19 March 2015.

External links[edit]