In 1990 Bausewein joined the SPD. From 1995 to 2004 he was state chairman of the party's youth organization, the Young Socialists, in Thuringia. Since 1994 he was a member of the board of the Thuringian SPD. From 1998 to 2008 and again since 2010, he is Deputy Chairman of the State party. From 2004 until 2006 Bausewein was a member of the Landtag of Thuringia.
In May 2006, Bausewein won Erfurt’s mayoral election runoff against Dietrich Hagemann (CDU) with 60.2% of the vote (30.9% voter turnout).
During the vote for a new SPD State Executive Committee on 7 June 2008 Bausewein was not re-elected. The main reason was that he in internal party struggle between the country's chairman Christoph Matschie and his predecessor Richard Dewes for the latter and its position, possibly even to form after the regional elections in 2009 a coalition with the Left Party, if the SPD should not ask the Prime Minister, party had seized. At the party convention on March 6, 2010, Bausewein was elected with 57 percent of votes in favor for the second time as one of the four vice-chairpersons of the provincial party bosses Matschie wherein Bausewein scored the worst result of the candidate for the deputy national chairman.
As mayor, he has worked among others for the later city council passed and controversial in Erfurt's population abort designated as a cultural monument Nordbad-entrance building.
- Helaba, Alternate Member of the Supervisory Board
- SWE Stadtwerke Erfurt, Ex-Officio Chairman of the Supervisory Board
From 1995 until 2018, Bausewein was married to his wife Sysann. They have three children.
- "Erfurt.de - Oberbürgermeister" (in German). Landeshauptstadt Erfurt. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved July 25, 2009.
- "SPD jagt CDU OB-Posten in Erfurt ab" (in German). Handelsblatt. May 25, 2006. Retrieved July 25, 2009.
- Supervisory Board Helaba.
- Supervisory Board SWE Stadtwerke Erfurt.
- Ehe-Aus für Erfurts Oberbürgermeister Bausewein Thüringer Allgemeine, September 15, 2019.
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