1990 Bausewein joined the SPD. From 1995 to 2004 he was state chairman of the Young Socialists Thuringia. Since 1994 he was a member of the board of the Thuringian SPD. From 1998 to 2008 and again since 2010, he is Deputy Chairman of the State party. 2004-2006 Bausewein was a deputy of the Thuringian state parliament.
In May 2006, Bausewein sat in the mayor elections in the runoff with 30.9% voter turnout with 60.2% of the vote against Dietrich Hagemann (CDU) through.
When a new SPD Land Executive Committee 7 June 2008 Bausewein was not re-elected. The main reason was that he in internal party struggle between the country's chairman Christoph Matschie and his predecessor Richard Dewes for the latter and its position, possibly even to form after the regional elections in 2009 a coalition with the Left Party, if the SPD should not ask the Prime Minister, party had seized. When National Congress on March 6, 2010 Bausewein but was elected with 57 percent of votes in favor for the second time as one of the four vice-chairpersons of the provincial party bosses Matschie wherein Bausewein scored the worst result of the candidate for the deputy national chairman. 
As mayor, he has worked among others for the later city council passed and controversial in Erfurt's population abort designated as a cultural monument Nordbad-entrance building.
- "Erfurt.de - Oberbürgermeister" (in German). Landeshauptstadt Erfurt. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved July 25, 2009.
- "SPD jagt CDU OB-Posten in Erfurt ab" (in German). Handelsblatt. May 25, 2006. Retrieved July 25, 2009.
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