|Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov|
Sakharov at a conference of the USSR Academy of Sciences on 1 March 1989
|Native name||Андрей Дмитриевич Сахаров|
May 21, 1921|
Moscow, Russian SFSR
|Died||December 14, 1989
Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
|Residence||Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union|
|Spouse||Klavdia Alekseyevna Vikhireva (1943–1969; her death)
Yelena Bonner (1972–1989; his death)
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Russian: Андре́й Дми́триевич Са́харов; 21 May 1921 – 14 December 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, Soviet dissident, an activist for disarmament, peace and human rights.
He became renowned as the designer of the Soviet Union's Third Idea, a codename for Soviet development of thermonuclear weapons. Sakharov later became an advocate of civil liberties and civil reforms in the Soviet Union, for which he faced state persecution; these efforts earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975. The Sakharov Prize, which is awarded annually by the European Parliament for people and organizations dedicated to human rights and freedoms, is named in his honour.
- 1 Biography
- 1.1 Education and career
- 1.2 Development of thermonuclear devices
- 1.3 Support for peaceful use of nuclear technology
- 1.4 Efforts to improve nuclear reactor technology
- 1.5 Research and physics
- 1.6 Turn to activism
- 1.7 Attacked by Soviet establishment, 1972 onwards
- 1.8 Nobel Peace Prize (1975)
- 1.9 Internal exile (1980–1986)
- 1.10 Political leader
- 1.11 Death
- 2 Influence
- 3 Legacy and remembrance
- 4 Quotations
- 5 Honours and awards
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 Further reading
- 10 Video
- 11 External links
Sakharov was born in Moscow on May 21, 1921. His father was Dmitri Ivanovich Sakharov, a private school physics teacher and an amateur pianist. His father later taught at the Second Moscow State University. Andrei's grandfather Ivan had been a prominent lawyer in the Russian Empire who had displayed respect for social awareness and humanitarian principles (including advocating the abolition of capital punishment) that would later influence his grandson. Sakharov's mother was Yekaterina Alekseyevna Sakharova, a great-granddaughter of the prominent military commander Alexey Semenovich Sofiano (who was of Greek ancestry). Sakharov's parents and paternal grandmother, Maria Petrovna, largely shaped his personality. Although Sakharov's paternal great-grandfather had been a priest in the Russian Orthodox Church, and his pious mother had him baptised, Sakharov was an atheist in later life. However, he did believe that a "guiding principle" governed the universe and human life.
Education and career
Sakharov entered Moscow State University in 1938. Following evacuation in 1941 during the Great Patriotic War (World War II), he graduated in Aşgabat, in today's Turkmenistan. He was then assigned to laboratory work in Ulyanovsk. In 1943, he married Klavdia Alekseyevna Vikhireva, with whom he raised two daughters and a son before she died in 1969. He returned to Moscow in 1945 to study at the Theoretical Department of FIAN (the Physical Institute of the Soviet Academy of Sciences). He received his Ph.D. in 1947.
Development of thermonuclear devices
After the end of World War II, he researched cosmic rays. In mid-1948 he participated in the Soviet atomic bomb project under Igor Kurchatov and Igor Tamm. Sakharov's study group at FIAN in 1948 came up with a second concept in August–September 1948. Adding a shell of natural, unenriched uranium around the deuterium would increase the deuterium concentration at the uranium-deuterium boundary and the overall yield of the device, because the natural uranium would capture neutrons and itself fission as part of the thermonuclear reaction. This idea of a layered fission-fusion-fission bomb led Sakharov to call it the sloika, or layered cake. The first Soviet atomic device was tested on August 29, 1949. After moving to Sarov in 1950, Sakharov played a key role in the development of the first megaton-range Soviet hydrogen bomb using a design known as Sakharov's Third Idea in Russia and the Teller-Ulam design in the United States. Before his Third Idea, Sakharov tried a "layer cake" of alternating layers of fission and fusion fuel. The results were disappointing, yielding no more than a typical fission bomb. However the design was seen to be worth pursuing because deuterium is abundant and uranium is scarce, and he had no idea how powerful the US design was. One of the Bikini atomic experiments changed that, because the magnitude of the explosion became public knowledge when there was a dispute between Japan and the US over the contamination of a large area of ocean. Sakharov was surprised by the size of the explosion and realized that the Americans had harnessed the power of a separate fission explosion to compress the fusion fuel. Sakharov realised that in order to cause the explosion of one side of the fuel to symmetrically compress the fusion fuel, a mirror could be used to reflect the radiation. The details had not been officially declassified in Russia when Sakharov was writing his memoirs, but in the Teller-Ulam design, soft X-rays emitted by the fission bomb were focused onto a cylinder of lithium deuteride to compress it symmetrically. This is called radiation implosion. The Teller-Ulam design also had a secondary fission device inside the fusion cylinder to assist with the compression of the fusion fuel and generate neutrons to convert some of the lithium to tritium, producing a mixture of deuterium and tritium. Sakarov's idea was first tested as RDS-37 in 1955. A larger variation of the same design which Sakharov worked on was the 50 Mt Tsar Bomba of October 1961, which was the most powerful nuclear device ever detonated.
Sakharov saw "striking parallels" between his fate and those of J. Robert Oppenheimer and Edward Teller in the USA. Sakharov believed that in this "tragic confrontation of two outstanding people", both deserved respect, because "each of them was certain he had right on his side and was morally obligated to go to the end in the name of truth." While Sakharov strongly disagreed with Teller over nuclear testing in the atmosphere and the Strategic Defense Initiative, he believed that American academics had been unfair to Teller's resolve to get the H-bomb for the United States since "all steps by the Americans of a temporary or permanent rejection of developing thermonuclear weapons would have been seen either as a clever feint, or as the manifestation of stupidity. In both cases, the reaction would have been the same – avoid the trap and immediately take advantage of the enemy's stupidity."
Sakharov never felt that by creating nuclear weapons he had "known sin", in Oppenheimer's expression. He later wrote: "After more than forty years, we have had no third world war, and the balance of nuclear terror ... may have helped to prevent one. But I am not at all sure of this; back then, in those long-gone years, the question didn't even arise. What most troubles me now is the instability of the balance, the extreme peril of the current situation, the appalling waste of the arms race ... Each of us has a responsibility to think about this in global terms, with tolerance, trust, and candor, free from ideological dogmatism, parochial interests, or national egotism."
Support for peaceful use of nuclear technology
In 1950 he proposed an idea for a controlled nuclear fusion reactor, the tokamak, which is still the basis for the majority of work in the area. Sakharov, in association with Igor Tamm, proposed confining extremely hot ionized plasma by torus shaped magnetic fields for controlling thermonuclear fusion that led to the development of the tokamak device.
Efforts to improve nuclear reactor technology
In 1951 he invented and tested the first explosively pumped flux compression generators, compressing magnetic fields by explosives. He called these devices MC or MK (for magnetocumulative) generators. The radial MK-1 produced a pulsed magnetic field of 25 megagauss (2500 teslas). The resulting helical MK-2 generated 1000 million amperes in 1953.
Sakharov then tested a MK-driven "plasma cannon" where a small aluminum ring was vaporized by huge eddy currents into a stable, self-confined toroidal plasmoid and was accelerated to 100 km/s. Sakharov later suggested replacing the copper coil in MK generators with a large superconductor solenoid to magnetically compress and focus underground nuclear explosions into a shaped charge effect. He theorized this could focus 1023 protons per second on a 1 mm2 surface.
Research and physics
He tried to explain the baryon asymmetry of the universe, being the first scientist to introduce two universes called "sheets", linked by the Big Bang. Sakharov achieved there a complete CPT symmetry since the second sheet is enantiomorph (P-symmetry), has an opposite arrow of time (T-symmetry) and is mainly populated by antimatter (C-symmetry) because of an opposite CP-violation. In this model the two universes do not interact, except via local matter accumulation whose density and pressure become high enough to connect the two sheets through a bridge without spacetime between them, but with geodesics continuity beyond the radius limit allowing an exchange of matter. Sakharov called such singularities a collapse and an anticollapse, which are an alternative to the couple black hole and white hole in the wormhole theory. Sakharov also proposed the idea of induced gravity as an alternative theory of quantum gravity.
Turn to activism
Since the late 1950s Sakharov had become concerned about the moral and political implications of his work. Politically active during the 1960s, Sakharov was against nuclear proliferation. Pushing for the end of atmospheric tests, he played a role in the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty, signed in Moscow.
Sakharov was also involved in an event with political consequences in 1964, when the USSR Academy of Sciences nominated for full membership Nikolai Nuzhdin, a follower of Trofim Lysenko (initiator of the Stalin-supported anti-genetics campaign Lysenkoism). Contrary to normal practice Sakharov, a member of the Academy, publicly spoke out against full membership for Nuzhdin, holding him responsible for "for the defamation, firing, arrest, even death, of many genuine scientists.":109 In the end, Nuzhdin was not elected, but the episode prompted Sergei Khrushchev to order the KGB to gather compromising material on Sakharov.:109
The major turn in Sakharov's political evolution came in 1967, when anti-ballistic missile defense became a key issue in US–Soviet relations. In a secret detailed letter to the Soviet leadership of July 21, 1967, Sakharov explained the need to "take the Americans at their word" and accept their proposal for a "bilateral rejection by the USA and the Soviet Union of the development of antiballistic missile defense", because otherwise an arms race in this new technology would increase the likelihood of nuclear war. He also asked permission to publish his manuscript (which accompanied the letter) in a newspaper to explain the dangers posed by this kind of defense. The government ignored his letter and refused to let him initiate a public discussion of ABMs in the Soviet press.
In May 1968 Sakharov completed an essay entitled "Reflections on Progress, Peaceful Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom". In it, he described the anti-ballistic missile defense as a major threat of world nuclear war. After this essay was circulated in samizdat and then published outside the Soviet Union, Sakharov was banned from conducting any military-related research and returned to FIAN to study fundamental theoretical physics.
Over the next twelve years, until his exile to Gorky (Nizhny Novgorod) in January 1980, Andrei Sakharov assumed the role of a widely recognized and open dissident in Moscow.:21 He stood vigil outside of closed courtrooms, wrote appeals on behalf of more than two hundred individual prisoners, and continued to write essays about the need for democratization.:21
In 1970 Sakharov was among the three founding members of the Committee on Human Rights in the USSR along with Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov.:21 The Committee wrote appeals, collected signatures for petitions and succeeded in affiliating with several international human rights organizations. Its work was the subject of many KGB reports and brought Sakharov under increasing pressure from the government.
By 1973 Sakharov was meeting regularly with Western correspondents, holding press conferences in his apartment.:21 He appealed to the U.S. Congress to approve the 1974 Jackson-Vanik Amendment to a trade bill, which coupled trade tariffs to the Kremlin's willingness to allow freer emigration.:24
Attacked by Soviet establishment, 1972 onwards
In 1972 Sakharov became the target of sustained pressure and intimidation, from his fellow scientists in the USSR Academy of Sciences, the Soviet press and direct threats of physical assault. Dissident activists, including the writer Solzhenitsyn, sprang to his defence.
In 1973 and 1974, the Soviet media campaign continued, targeting both Sakharov and Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. While Sakharov disagreed with Solzhenitsyn's vision of Russian revival, he deeply respected him for his courage. Only a few individuals in the Soviet Union were willing to defend 'traitors' like Sakharov and Solzhenitsyn, and those who had dared were inevitably punished.
Sakharov later described that it took "years" for him to "understand how much substitution, deceit, and lack of correspondence with reality there was" in the Soviet ideals. "At first I thought, despite everything that I saw with my own eyes, that the Soviet State was a breakthrough into the future, a kind of prototype for all countries". Then he came, in his words, to "the theory of symmetry: all governments and regimes to a first approximation are bad, all peoples are oppressed, and all are threatened by common dangers."
After that he realized that there is not much "symmetry between a cancer cell and a normal one. Yet our state is similar to a cancer cell – with its messianism and expansionism, its totalitarian suppression of dissent, the authoritarian structure of power, with a total absence of public control in the most important decisions in domestic and foreign policy, a closed society that does not inform its citizens of anything substantial, closed to the outside world, without freedom of travel or the exchange of information." Sakharov's ideas on social development led him to put forward the principle of human rights as a new basis of all politics. In his works he declared that "the principle 'what is not prohibited is allowed' should be understood literally", defying the unwritten ideological rules imposed by the Communist ruling elite on the society in spite of the seemingly democratic (1936) USSR Constitution.
In no way did Sakharov consider himself a prophet or the like: "I am no volunteer priest of the idea, but simply a man with an unusual fate. I am against all kinds of self-immolation (for myself and for others, including the people closest to me)." In a letter written from exile, he cheered up a fellow physicist and human rights activist with the words: "Fortunately, the future is unpredictable and also – because of quantum effects – uncertain." For Sakharov the indeterminacy of the future supported his belief that he could, and should, take personal responsibility for it.
Nobel Peace Prize (1975)
Sakharov was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975. The Norwegian Nobel Committee called him "a spokesman for the conscience of mankind". In the words of the Nobel Committee's citation: "In a convincing manner Sakharov has emphasised that Man's inviolable rights provide the only safe foundation for genuine and enduring international cooperation."
Sakharov was not allowed to leave the Soviet Union to collect the prize. His wife Yelena Bonner read his speech at the ceremony in Oslo, Norway. On the day the prize was awarded, Sakharov was in Vilnius, where human rights activist Sergei Kovalev was being tried. In his Nobel lecture, titled "Peace, Progress, Human Rights", Sakharov called for an end to the arms race, greater respect for the environment, international cooperation, and universal respect for human rights. He included a list of prisoners of conscience and political prisoners in the USSR, stating that he shares the prize with them.
Internal exile (1980–1986)
Sakharov was arrested on January 22, 1980, following his public protests against the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in 1979, and was sent to internal exile in the city of Gorky, now Nizhny Novgorod, a city that was off limits to foreigners.
Between 1980 and 1986, Sakharov was kept under tight Soviet police surveillance. In his memoirs he mentions that their apartment in Gorky was repeatedly subjected to searches and heists. Sakharov was named the 1980 Humanist of the Year by the American Humanist Association.
In May 1984, Sakharov's wife, Yelena Bonner, was detained and Sakharov began a hunger strike, demanding permission for his wife to travel to the United States for heart surgery. He was forcibly hospitalized and force-fed. He was held in isolation for four months. In August 1984 Yelena Bonner was sentenced by a court to five years of exile in Gorky.
In April 1985, Sakharov started a new hunger strike for his wife to travel abroad for medical treatment. He again was taken to a hospital and force-fed. He remained in the hospital until October 1985 when his wife was allowed to travel to the United States. She had heart surgery in the United States and returned to Gorky in June 1986.
In 1988, Sakharov was given the International Humanist Award by the International Humanist and Ethical Union. He helped to initiate the first independent legal political organizations and became prominent in the Soviet Union's growing political opposition. In March 1989, Sakharov was elected to the new parliament, the All-Union Congress of People's Deputies and co-led the democratic opposition, the Inter-Regional Deputies Group.
Soon after 21:00 on December 14, 1989, Sakharov went to his study to take a nap before preparing an important speech he was to deliver the next day in the Congress. His wife went to wake him at 23:00 as he had requested but she found Sakharov dead on the floor. According to the notes of Yakov Rapoport, a senior pathologist present at the autopsy, it is most likely that Sakharov died of an arrhythmia consequent to dilated cardiomyopathy at the age of 68. He was interred in the Vostryakovskoye Cemetery in Moscow.
The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought was established in 1988 by the European Parliament in his honour, and is the highest tribute to human rights endeavours awarded by the European Union. It is awarded annually by the parliament to "those who carry the spirit of Soviet dissident Andrei Sakharov"; to "Laureates who, like Sakharov, dedicate their lives to peaceful struggle for human rights."
An Andrei Sakharov prize has also been awarded by the American Physical Society every second year since 2006 "to recognize outstanding leadership and/or achievements of scientists in upholding human rights".
In 2004, with the approval of Elena Bonner, an annual Sakharov Prize for journalism was established for reporters and commentators in Russia. Funded by former Soviet dissident Pyotr Vins, now a businessman in the USA, the prize is administered by the Glasnost Defence Foundation in Moscow. The prize "for journalism as an act of conscience" has been won over the years by famous journalists such as Anna Politkovskaya and young reporters and editors working far from Russia's media capital, Moscow. The 2015 winner was Yelena Kostyuchenko.
Andrei Sakharov Archives and Human Rights Center
The Andrei Sakharov Archives and Human Rights Center, established at Brandeis University in 1993, are now housed at Harvard University. The documents from that archive were published by the Yale University Press in 2005. These documents are available online. Most of documents of the archive are letters from the head of the KGB to the Central Committee about activities of Soviet dissidents and recommendations about the interpretation in newspapers. The letters cover the period from 1968 to 1991 (Brezhnev stagnation). The documents characterize not only Sakharov's activity, but that of other dissidents, as well as that of highest-position apparatchiks and the KGB. No Russian equivalent of the KGB archive is available.
Legacy and remembrance
- In Moscow, there is Academician Sakharov Avenue and Sakharov Center
- During the 1980s, the block of 16th Street NW between L and M streets, in front of the Russian ambassador's residence in Washington, D.C. was renamed "Andrei Sakharov Plaza" as a form of protest against his 1980 arrest and detention.
- In Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, Sakharov Square, located in the heart of the city, is named after him.
- The Sakharov Gardens (est. 1990) are located at the entrance to Jerusalem, Israel, off the Jerusalem–Tel Aviv Highway. There is also a street named after him in Haifa.
- In Nizhny Novgorod, there is a Sakharov Museum in the apartment on the first floor of the 12-storeyed house where the Sakharov family lived for seven years; in 2014 his monument was erected near the house.
- In St. Petersburg, his monument stands in Sakharov Square, and there is a Sakharov Park.
- In 1979, an asteroid – 1979 Sakharov – was named after him.
- A public square in Vilnius in front of the Press House is named after Sakharov. The square was named on March 16, 1991, as the Press House was still occupied by the Soviet Army.
- Andreja Saharova iela in the district of Pļavnieki in Rīga, Latvia is named after Sakharov.
- Andreij-Sacharow-Platz in downtown Nuremberg is named in honor of Sakharov.
- In Belarus International Sakharov Environmental University was named after him.
- Intersection of Ventura Blvd and Laurel Canyon Blvd in Studio City, Los Angeles is named Andrei Sakharov Square.
- In Arnhem, the bridge over the Nederrijn is called the Andrej Sacharovbrug.
- The Andrej Sacharovweg is a street in Assen, Netherlands. There are also streets named in his honor in Amsterdam, Amstelveen, The Hague, Hellevoetsluis, Leiden, Purmerend, Rotterdam and Utrecht.
- Quai Andreï Sakharov in Tournai, Belgium is named in honor of Sakharov.
- Andreï Sakharov Boulevard in the district of Mladost in Sofia, Bulgaria is named after him.
- In New York, a street sign at the southwest corner of Third Avenue and 67th Street reads Sakharov-Bonner Corner, in honor of Sakharov and his wife, Yelena Bonner. The corner is just down the block from the Russian (then Soviet) Mission to the United Nations and was the scene of repeated anti-Soviet demonstrations.
- In the 1984 made-for-TV film Sakharov starring Jason Robards.
- In the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation, one of the Enterprise-D's Shuttlecraft is named after Sakharov, and is featured prominently in several episodes. This follows the Star Trek tradition of naming Shuttlecraft after prominent scientists, and particularly in The Next Generation, physicists.
- The fictitious interplanetary spacecraft Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov from the novel 2010: Odyssey Two by Arthur C. Clarke is powered by a "Sakharov drive". The novel was published in 1982, when Sakharov was in exile in Nizhny Novgorod, and was dedicated both to Sakharov and to Alexey Leonov.
- Italian painter Vinzela has dedicated his artwork "Saharov" to the great personality of human right activist.
- In the PC games, S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: Shadow of Chernobyl and S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: Clear Sky, there is a scientist called Sakharov.
- Russian singer Alexander Gradsky wrote and performed the song "Памяти А. Д. Сахарова" ("In memory of Andrei Sakharov"), which features on his Live In "Russia" 2 (Живем в "России" 2) CD.
- in the TV series Seinfeld, a Russian cable TV installer who had been imprisoned in the Gulag is described as "the Sakharov of cable guys".
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Andrei Sakharov|
|“||In this pamphlet, advanced for discussion by its readers, the author has set himself the goal to present, with the greatest conviction and frankness, two theses that are supported by many people in the world. These are:
|— Andrei Sakharov, Reflections on Progress, Peaceful Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom, in The New York Times, July 22, 1968|
|“||I foresee a universal information system (UIS), which will give everyone access at any given moment to the contents of any book that has ever been published or any magazine or any fact. The UIS will have individual miniature-computer terminals, central control points for the flood of information, and communication channels incorporating thousands of artificial communications from satellites, cables, and laser lines. Even the partial realization of the UIS will profoundly affect every person, his leisure activities, and his intellectual and artistic development. ... But the true historic role of the UIS will be to break down the barriers to the exchange of information among countries and people.||”|
|— Andrei Sakharov, Saturday Review/World, August 24, 1974|
|“||Thousands of years ago, tribes of human beings suffered great privations in the struggle to survive. In this struggle it was important not only to be able to handle a club, but also to possess the ability to think reasonably, to take care of the knowledge and experience garnered by the tribe, and to develop the links that would provide cooperation with other tribes. Today the entire human race is faced with a similar test. In infinite space many civilizations are bound to exist, among them civilizations that are also wiser and more "successful" than ours. I support the cosmological hypothesis which states that the development of the universe is repeated in its basic features an infinite number of times. In accordance with this, other civilizations, including more "successful" ones, should exist an infinite number of times on the "preceding" and the "following" pages of the Book of the Universe. Yet this should not minimize our sacred endeavors in this world of ours, where, like faint glimmers of light in the dark, we have emerged for a moment from the nothingness of dark unconsciousness of material existence. We must make good the demands of reason and create a life worthy of ourselves and of the goals we only dimly perceive.||”|
|— Andrei Sakharov, Last paragraph of Sakharov's Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1975)|
Honours and awards
- Hero of Socialist Labour (three times: August 12, 1953; June 20, 1956; March 7, 1962).
- Four Orders of Lenin.
- Lenin Prize (1956).
- Stalin Prize (1953).
In 1980, Sakharov was stripped of all Soviet awards for "anti-Soviet activities". Later, during glasnost, he declined the return of his awards and, consequently, Mikhail Gorbachev did not sign the necessary decree.
- Prix mondial Cino Del Duca (1974).
- Nobel Peace Prize (1975).
- Laurea Honoris Causa of the Sapienza University of Rome (1980).
- Grand Cross of Order of the Cross of Vytis (posthumously on January 8, 2003).
- Yelena Bonner, his wife
- Sakharov conditions
- Sakharov Prize
- Sergei Kovalev
- Natan Sharansky
- Edward Teller
- Stanislaw Ulam
- Omid Kokabee, Mordechai Vanunu
- "Sakharov Human Rights Prize 25th anniversary marked in US". Voice of America. 15 January 2014.
- Biography, by American Institute of Physics
- Autobiography, The Nobel Foundation 1975
- Sidney David Drell, Sergeǐ Petrovich Kapitsa, Sakharov Remembered: a tribute by friends and colleagues (1991), p. 4
- Bonner, Yelena. Об А.Д. Сахарове (in Russian). Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved November 2, 2009.
- Греки в Красноярском крае (Материалы из книги И.Джухи "Греческая операция НКВД") (in Russian). Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved November 2, 2009.
- Gorelik, Gennady; Antonina W. Bouis (2005). The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom. Oxford University Press. p. 356. ISBN 978-0-19-515620-1.
Apparently Sakharov did not need to delve any deeper into it for a long time, remaining a totally nonmilitant atheist with an open heart.
- Gorelik, Gennadiĭ Efimovich; Antonina W. Bouis (2005). The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom. Oxford University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-19-515620-1. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
Sakharov was not invited to this seminar. Like most of the physicists of his generation, he was an atheist.
- Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford, ed. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Violence, Homicide, and War. Oxford University Press. p. 465. ISBN 978-0-19-973840-3.
The Soviet dissident most responsible for defeating communism, Andrei Sakharov, was an atheist.
- Drell, Sidney; Kapitsa, Sergei (eds.) (1991). Sakharov remembered. New York: Springer. pp. 3, 92. ISBN 088318852X.
- Zaloga, Steve (17 February 2002). The Kremlin's Nuclear Sword: The Rise and Fall of Russia's Strategic Nuclear Forces 1945-2000. Smithsonian Books. ISBN 1588340074.
- Sakharov, Andrei (1992). Memoirs. Vintage. ISBN 067973595X.
- Gorelik, Gennady; Bouis, Antonina (2005). The world of Andrei Sakharov: a Russian physicist's path to freedom. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019515620X.
- Sakharov, Andrei
- Biography, by American Institute of Physics
- A.D. Sakharov: "Magnetoimplosive generators", UFN 88:4, 725–734 (1966); Sov. Phys. Uspekhi 9: 294–299 (1966).
- A.D. Sakharov: "Expanding Universe and the Appearance of a Nonuniform Distribution of Matter", ZhETF 49: 345–358 (1965); translation in JETP Lett. 22: 241–249 (1966)
- A.D. Sakharov: Violation of CP Symmetry, C-Asymmetry and Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe, Pisma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 5: 32–35 (1967); translation in JETP Lett. 5: 24–27 (1967)
- A.D. Sakharov: Quark-Muonic Currents and Violation of CP Invariance, Pisma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 5: 36–39 (1967); translation in JETP Lett. 5: 27–30 (1967)
- A.D. Sakharov: "Antiquarks in the Universe" in "Problems in theoretical physics", dedicated to the 30th anniversary of N.N. Bogolyubov, Nauka, Moscou, pp. 35–44, 1969
- A.D. Sakharov and I.D. Novikov: "A multisheet Cosmological model" Preprint Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow, 1970
- A.D. Sakharov: "Topological structure of elementary particles and CPT asymmetry" in "Problems in theoretical physics", dedicated to the memory of I.E. Tamm, Nauka, Moscow, pp. 243–247, 1972
- A.D. Sakharov: "Baryonic asymmetry of the Universe", ZhETF 76: 1172–1181 (1979); translation in JETP Lett. 49: 594–599 (1979)
- A.D. Sakharov: "Cosmological model of the Universe with a time vector inversion". ZhETF 79: 689–693 (1980); translation in JETP Lett. 52: 349–351 (1980)
- Crump, Thomas (2013). Brezhnev and the Decline of the Soviet Union. Routledge Studies in the History of Russia and Eastern Europe. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-66922-6.
- Gennady Gorelik. The Metamorphosis of Andrei Sakharov. Scientific American, 1999, March.
- Web exhibit "Andrei SAKHAROV: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons, and Human Rights" at American Institute of Physics 
- Initially on July 6, 1968, in the Dutch newspaper Het Parool through intermediary of the Dutch academic and writer Karel van het Reve, followed by The New York Times: "Outspoken Soviet Scientist; Andrei Dmitriyevich Sakharov". New York Times.
- The KGB File of Andrei Sakharov. Joshua Rubenstein, Alexander Gribanov (eds.), Ella Shmulevich, Efrem Yankelevich, Alla Zeide (trans.). New Haven, CN. 2005. ISBN 0-300-12937-8.
- Подрабинек, Александр (2014). Диссиденты [Dissidents] (in Russian). Moscow: АСТ. ISBN 978-5-17-082401-4.
- A Chronicle of Current Events, No 30, 31 December 1972 — 30.12 "Materials about Sakharov".
- Y.B. Sakharov: Acceptance Speech, Nobel Peace Prize, Oslo, Norway, December 10, 1975.
- Y.B. Sakharov: Peace, Progress, Human Rights, Sakharov's Nobel Lecture, Nobel Peace Prize, Oslo, Norway, December 11, 1975.
- Gorelik, Gennady (2005). The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist’s Path to Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-534374-8.
- Y.B. Sakharov: Peace, Progress, Human Rights, Sakharov's Nobel Lecture, Nobel Peace Prize, Oslo, Norway, December 11, 1975.
- "Humanist of the Year". Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- Michael MccGwire (1991). Perestroïka and Soviet national security. Brookings Institution Press. p. 275. ISBN 0-8157-5553-8.
- Coleman, Fred (1997). The Decline and Fall of the Soviet Empire: Forty Years That Shook the World, from Stalin to Yeltsin. New York: St. Martin's. p. 116.
- "Sakharov Prize Network". European Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- "For Writer's Civic Courage", Literaturnaya Gazeta, October 31, 1990
- A Chronicle of Current Events, No 49, 14 May 1978 — 49.4 "The trial of Pyotr Vins (Kiev)".
- Glasnost Defence Foundation, Weekly digest, 7 December 2015 (No 737).
- Harvard University. KGB file of Sakharov Archived May 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
- The KGB File of Andrei Sakharov. (edited by Joshua Rubenstein and Alexander Gribanov), New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005; ISBN 978-0-300-10681-7
- The KGB File of Andrei Sakharov, online version with original texts and the English translations in English and in Russian (text version in Windows-1251 character encoding and the pictures of the original pages).
- Washington's Sakharov Plaza: A Message to Russia, Toledo Blade, 27 Aug 1984. Retrieved May 2013
- (Russian). Photo exhibition "Sakharov Gardens" (sakharov-center.ru)
- Aaron Curtiss (November 22, 1991). "Sakharov Junction". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles). Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- Anderson, Susan; Bird, David (10 August 1984). "New York day by day; human rights reminder posted near Soviet mission". The New York Times.
- "Alexander Gradsky official website" (in Russian). Retrieved 3 February 2013.
- The opening paragraphs of Sakharov's Reflections on Progress, Peaceful Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom
- The human rights movement, 1969–1979.
- Sakharov, Andrei (1974). Sakharov speaks. Collins: Harvill Press. ISBN 0-00-262755-8.
- Sakharov, Andrei (1975). My country and the world. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-40226-X.
- Sakharov, Andrei (1978). Alarm and hope. The world-renowned Nobel laureate and political dissident speaks out on human rights, disarmament, and détente. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50369-4.
- Sakharov, Andrei (1982). Collected scientific works. Marcel Dekker Inc. ISBN 978-0-8247-1714-8.
- Sakharov, Andrei (1991). Moscow and beyond: 1986 to 1989. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-394-58797-4.
- Sakharov, Andrei (1992). Memoirs. Vintage. ISBN 067973595X.
- Сахаров, Андрей (1996). Воспоминания. В 2 томах [Memoirs. In 2 volumes] (in Russian). Vol. 1. Moscow: Права человека. ISBN 5-7712-0011-5.
- Сахаров, Андрей (1996). Воспоминания. В 2 томах [Memoirs. In 2 volumes] (in Russian). Vol. 2. Moscow: Права человека. ISBN 5-7712-0026-3.
Articles and interviews
- Sakharov, Andrei (1968). Thoughts on progress, peaceful coexistence and intellectual freedom. Foreign Affairs Publishing Company. ISBN 0-900380-03-9.
- Sakharov; Andrei (22 July 1968). "Thoughts on progress, peaceful coexistence and intellectual freedom" (PDF). The New York Times. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 January 2013.
- Sakharov, Andrei (Spring 1969). "Here and there: the threat of nuclear war". American Scientist 57 (1): 167–171. JSTOR 27828445.
- Sakharov, Andrei (1974). О письме Александра Солженицына "Вождям Советского Союза" [On Alexander Solzhenitsyn's "A Letter to the Soviet Leaders"] (in Russian). New York: Khronika. OCLC 2326203.
- Sakharov, Andrei; Tverdokhlebov, Andrei; Albrecht, Vladimir (28 May 1974). "USSR. The chronicle of current events". Index on Censorship 3 (3): 87. doi:10.1080/03064227408532355.
- Sakharov, Andrei (November 1975). "The need for an open world: Andrei Sakharov calls on scientists to intensify the campaign for a nuclear weapons ban and full disarmament". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists: 8–9.
- Sakharov, Andrei; Turchin, Valentin; Medvedev, Roy (6 June 1970). "The need for democratization". The Saturday Review: 26–27.
- Sakharov, Andrei; Turchin, Valentin; Medvedev, Roy (Summer 1970). "An open letter". Survey: 160–170.
- Sakharov, Andrei (Summer 1972). "Memorandum". Survey: 223–233.
- Sakharov, Andrei (Spring 1973). "Statement by the Human Rights Committee". Survey: 271–273.
- Sakharov, Andrei (December 1973). "Interview with Swedish RTV". Index on Censorship 2 (4): 13–17. doi:10.1080/03064227308532263.
- Sakharov, Andrei (December 1973). "The Deputy Prosecutor‐General and I". Index on Censorship 2 (4): 19–23. doi:10.1080/03064227308532264.
- Sakharov, Andrei (December 1973). "Press conference". Index on Censorship 2 (4): 25–29. doi:10.1080/03064227308532265.
- Sakharov, Andrei (December 1973). "Reply to critics". Index on Censorship 2 (4): 29–30. doi:10.1080/03064227308532266.
- Sakharov, Andrei (January–March 1974). "Reply to oppression". Rivista di Studi Politici Internazionali 41 (1): 47–54. JSTOR 42733796.
- Sakharov, Andrei (21 March 1974). "How I came to dissent". The New York Review of Books.
- Sakharov, Andrei (13 June 1974). "In answer to Solzhenitsyn". The New York Review of Books.
- Sakharov, Andrei (March 1975). "Sakharov's statement on Jackson amendment". Index on Censorship 4 (1): 73–74. doi:10.1080/03064227508532405.
- Sakharov, Andrei (June 1976). "Peace, progress and human rights". Index on Censorship 5 (2): 3–9. doi:10.1080/03064227608532514.
- Sakharov, Andrei (9 February 1978). "The death penalty". The New York Review of Books.
- Sakharov, Andrei (February 1978). "Letter from Sakharov and Meiman". Nature 271 (5645): 499. Bibcode:1978Natur.271..499S. doi:10.1038/271499c0.
- Sakharov, Andrei (Fall 1978). "The human rights movement in the USSR and Eastern Europe: its goals, significance, and difficulties". Trialogue (19): 4–7, 26–27.
- Sakharov, Andrei (December 1980). "USSR: Sakharov's plea for poets". Index on Censorship 9 (6): 64. doi:10.1080/03064228008533146.
- Sakharov, Andrei (May 1981). "The responsibility of scientists". Nature 291 (5812): 184–185. Bibcode:1981Natur.291..184S. doi:10.1038/291184a0.
- Sakharov, Andrei (June 1981). "The social responsibility of scientists". Physics Today 34 (6): 25–30. Bibcode:1981PhT....34f..25S. doi:10.1063/1.2914603. ISSN 0031-9228.
- Sakharov, Andrei (October 1981). "The responsibility of scientists". Quadrant 25 (10): 18–21. ISSN 0033-5002.
- Sakharov, Andrei (Fall 1981). "An autobiographical note". The Partisan Review: 511–513.
- Sakharov, Andrei (21 January 1982). "Letter to my foreign colleagues". The New York Review of Books.
- Sakharov, Andrei; Meiman, Naum (March–April 1982). "The plight of Yuri Orlov". Harvard International Review 4 (6): 50. JSTOR 42762207.
- Sakharov, Andrei (Summer 1982). "An appeal". The Partisan Review: 480–482.
- Sakharov, Andrei (June 1983). "A message from Gorky". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 39 (6): 2–3. doi:10.1080/00963402.1983.11458999.
- Sakharov, Andrei (Summer 1983). "The danger of thermonuclear war. An open letter to Dr. Sidney Drell" (PDF). Foreign Affairs 61 (5): 1001–1016. doi:10.2307/20041632. JSTOR 20041632. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 March 2016.
- Sakharov, Andrei (21 July 1983). "A reply to slander". The New York Review of Books.
- Sakharov, Andrei (1 March 1984). "A letter to my scientific colleagues". The New York Review of Books.
- Sakharov, Andrei (16 March 1987). "Of arms and reforms". Time.
- Sakharov, Andrei (13 August 1987). "On accepting a prize". The New York Review of Books.
- Sakharov, Andrei (25 February 1988). "A man of universal interests". Nature 331 (6158): 671–672. Bibcode:1988Natur.331..671S. doi:10.1038/331671a0.
- Sakharov, Andrei (22 December 1988). "On Gorbachev: a talk with Andrei Sakharov". The New York Review of Books.
- Sajarov, Andrei; Bonner, Elena (1989). "Al simposio de Madrid sobre las relaciones comerciales y económicas Este-Oeste" [Madrid symposium on East-West trade relations and economics]. Política Exterior (in Spanish) 3 (12): 45–47. JSTOR 20642878.
- Sakharov, Andrei (17 August 1989). "A speech to the People's Congress". The New York Review of Books 36 (13): 25–26.
- Sakharov, Andrei (1990). "We cannot do without nuclear power plants, but ...". World Marxist Review 33: 21–22. ISSN 0043-8642.
- Sakharov, Andrei (21 May 1990). "Sakharov: Sakharov and Solzhenitsyn: a difference in principle". Time.
- Sakharov, Andrei (21 May 1990). "Sakharov: years in exile". Time.
- Sakharov, Andrei (July 1999). "Lecture in Lyons: science and freedom". Physics Today 52 (7): 22–24. Bibcode:1999PhT....52g..22S. doi:10.1063/1.882746. ISSN 0031-9228.
- "100,000 honour Andrei Sakharov". The Glasgow Herald. 18 December 1989. p. 4.
- "An honourable dissident". New Scientist 90 (1251): 266. 30 April 1981.
- "Andrei Sakharov addresses grads". The Lewiston Daily Sun. 15 June 1987. p. 14.
- "Andrei Sakharov ends lone hunger strike". Eugene Register-Guard. 7 August 1984. p. 4A.
- Developments concerning Dr. Andrei Sakharov: joint hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Representatives, Ninety-ninth Congress, second session, March 18, 1986. Vol. 4. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1986.
- "Exile of Andrei Sakharov is deplored". The Telegraph. 23 January 1980. p. 2.
- "How Sakharov won exit visa for his wife". Chicago Tribune. 24 February 1986.
- "President honors Andrei Sakharov". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. 19 May 1983. p. 7A.
- "Russia orders end of internal exile for Andrei Sakharov, noted dissident". The Tuscaloosa News. 19 December 1986.
- Sakharov, Andrei. Facets of a Life. Frontieres. 1991. ISBN 978-2-86332-096-9.
- "Sakharov case spotlights Soviet efforts against dissidents". The Hour. 26 May 1984.
- "Sakharov in a plea on prisoners". The New York Times. 4 September 1986.
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- "Sakharov letter describes torment". Chicago Tribune. 16 February 1986.
- "Sakharov speaks out on repression, detente (Sakharov's letter to Anatoly P. Aleksandrov, president of the Soviet Academy of Sciences)". The Ukrainian Weekly. LXXXVII (31). 28 December 1980.
- "Scientists meet in New York to honour Sakharov". New Scientist 90 (1252): 332. 7 May 1981.
- Soviet detention of Andrei Sakharov: Markup before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-sixth Congress, Second Session, 4 February 1980. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1980.
- "Soviet opposition left leaderless by passing of Andrei Sakharov". Eugene Register-Guard. 17 December 1989. p. 18A.
- "Soviet Union: Sakharov's defense". Time. 24 September 1973.
- "Soviet Union: a warning for Sakharov". Time. 5 November 1973.
- "Soviet Union: a travel permit for Sakharov". Time. 31 October 1988.
- "The blessed curse of Andrei Sakharov". Chicago Tribune. 17 November 1988.
- "The undefeated Sakharovs". Chicago Tribune. 28 December 1986.
- "Trying to help Andrei Sakharov". The Hour. 1 March 1980. p. 23.
- Altshuler, Boris (February 2012). "Andrei Sakharov today: lasting impact on science and society". Physics-Uspekhi 55 (2): 176. Bibcode:2012PhyU...55..176A. doi:10.3367/UFNe.0182.201202h.0188.
- Applebaum, Anne (20 October 2005). "Hero". The New York Review of Books.
- Babyonyshev, Alexander (1982). On Sakharov. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-71004-4.
- Bailey, George (1989). The making of Andrei Sakharov. Allen Lane. ISBN 0713990333.
- Belotserkovsky, Vadim (1975). "Soviet dissenters: Solzhenitsyn, Sakharov, Medvedev". Partisan Review 42 (1): 35–68.
- Bergman, Jay (2009). Meeting the Demands of Reason: The Life and Thought of Andrei Sakharov. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4731-0.
- Bohlen, Celestine (11 January 1987). "Sakharov describes loneliness of life in Gorki". The Washington Post.
- Bonner, Yelena (16 May 1986). "Yelena Bonner tells of medical abuse of her husband". Science 232 (4752): 821. Bibcode:1986Sci...232..821H. doi:10.1126/science.3704629.
- Bonner, Elena (1988) . Alone together (3 ed.). New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0394755383.
- Bonner, Elena (December 2005). "Sakharov is Tokamak's originator". Physics Today 58 (12): 15. Bibcode:2005PhT....58Q..15B. doi:10.1063/1.2169425.
- Capuzza, Jamie; Golden, James (1988). The images and impact of Andrei Sakharov: a study of dissident rhetoric in the Soviet human rights movement. Ohio State University. OCLC 19583828.
- Carroll, Nicholas (25 February 1981). "The loneliness of Andrei Sakharov". The Montreal Gazette. p. 23.
- Clemens, Walter Jr. (1971). "Sakharov: a man for our times". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 27 (10): 4–56. doi:10.1080/00963402.1971.11455417.
- Clementi, Marco (2002). Il diritto al dissenso: il progetto costituzionale di Andrej Sacharov [The right to dissent: Andrei Sakharov's constitutional project] (in Italian). Rome: Odradek Edizioni. ISBN 8886973446.
- Dornan, Peter (1975). "Andrei Sakharov: the conscience of a liberal scientist". In Tökés, Rudolf. Dissent in the USSR: politics, ideology, and people. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 354–417. ISBN 0-8018-1661-0.
- Drell, Sidney (May 2000). "Andrei Sakharov and the nuclear danger". Physics Today 53 (5): 37. Bibcode:2000PhT....53e..37D. doi:10.1063/1.883099.
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- Drell, Sidney; Kapitsa, Sergei (eds.) (1991). Sahkarov Remembered. Springer. ISBN 978-0-88318-852-1.
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- Drummond, Roscoe (7 March 1977). "What kind of man is Andrei Sakharov?". Observer–Reporter. p. A4.
- Eaton, William (20 July 1985). "Sakharov: Soviet aides defend internal exile: Soviets, challenged on rights, defend treatment of Sakharov". Los Angeles Times.
- Eaton, William (8 December 1985). "Tass says Sakharov is only afflicted by 'aging'". Los Angeles Times.
- Ferullo, Joe; Moore, Suzanne (30 January 1979). "Talking to Tanya: Sakharov’s daughter speaks in Massachusetts". Columbia Daily Spectator CIII (61): 3.
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- Fireside, Harvey (Winter 1989). "Dissident visions of the USSR: Medvedev, Sakharov & Solzhenitsyn". Polity 22 (2): 213–229. doi:10.2307/3234832.
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- Glazov, Yuri (1985). "Pasternak, Solzhenitsyn, and Sakharov". The Russian mind since Stalin’s death. D. Reidel Publishing Company. pp. 158–179. ISBN 9027718288.
- Gorelik, Gennady, Bouis, Antonina (2005). The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515620-1.
- Gorelik, Gennady (July 2002). "The metamorphosis of Andrei Sakharov: the inventor of the Soviet hydrogen bomb became an advocate of peace and human rights. What led him to his fateful decision?" (PDF). Scientific American: 27–30. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 April 2016.
- Gottfried, Kurt; Orlov, Yuri (19 December 1989). "A man who would not be silenced: Sakharov: he saw scientific, political and moral realities as one equation, and he died still warning about 'tomorrow'". The Los Angeles Times.
- Harasowska, Marta; Olhovych, Orest (1977). The international Sakharov hearing. Smoloskyp Publishers. ISBN 0914834118.
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- Andrei Sakharov profile on the Sakharov Prize Network Website.
- Andrei Sakharov //New dictionary of scientific biography / Noretta Koertge, ed. Detroit : Charles Scribner's Sons/Thomson Gale, 2008.
- The Andrei Sakharov Archives at the Houghton Library.
- "Faces of Resistance in the USSR, The Andrei Sakharov Archives Homepage (archived webpage)". Brandeis University. Archived from the original on January 20, 2003. Retrieved April 17, 2006.
- Gewertz, Ken. "Bonner points to still-powerful KGB Former Soviet dissidents say that present-day Russia shows little improvement over dark days of old regime". Harvard News Office. Commemoration of the Sakharov Archives transfer to Harvard.
- Andrei Sakharov: Soviet Physics, Nuclear Weapons, and Human Rights. Web exhibit at the American Institute of Physics.
- Andrei Sakharov: Photo-chronology
- "Andrey Dmitriyevich Sakharov". Timeline of Nobel Winners.
- David Holloway on: Andrei Sakharov.
- Andrei Sakharov Museum in Moscow Virtual Tour.
- Annotated bibliography of Andrei Sakharov from the Alsos Digital Library.
- Sakharov and SETI.
- (Russian) Sakharov Archive
- (Russian) Sakharov Museum and Public Center: Peace, Progress and Human Rights
- The Andrei Sakharov Russian Free Academy, Germany (de/en/fr/ru)
- Gaina Alex:Purged Science ГОСТИННАЯ: форум:АЛЕКАСНДР АЛЕКСАНДРОВ"Сборник рассказов":Gaina Alex: Репрессированная наука (Purged Science)